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Yukon Sun and Klondike Pioneer, special edition, September 1900.

Author:Yukon SunPublished:1900Type:Yukon Newspapers (Special Editions)MARC Record:PAC MARC RecordDownload PDF:Yukon Sun & Klondike Pioneer, Sept.pdf (18669 KB)
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Frc-- INTRODUCTORY. T HE outside world knows little of the Dawson of today. By their Eastern friends much sympathy is wasted upon our favored citizens, who are, by some, supposed to be by the nature of their surround­ ings deprived of all that makes life worth living. To the unsuccessful Dawsonites, inclined to he considered martyrs, this fact may bring comfort, but to the vast majority of our fellow citizens who are enjoying greater prosperity, better health and almost as much comfort as was ever theirs on the “ outside,” ^ie undesired sympathy is not appreciated Dawson is a city in the Far North, and it has a climate peculiar to this section, but that same climate » as advantages that offset all its disadvantages. We are blessed with a summer unequaled in any other uarter of the globe, in which we raise our own vegetables and even fruits. While railroad and steamboat connection with the outside world is not what we would like it to be, it is daily improving, and even today iB more than could reasonably be expected in the time taken for improvement. While our open season may Jp e short, we move faster than our southern neighbors, and the Dawson of today is possessed of double the advantages that could be claimed for the Dawson of last year. We possess the electric light, water system, streets, schools, churches, societies, and government of outside cities of greater population than Dawson, and they h\ve been obtained in a tenth of the time it took those outside cities to obtain them. To such as those who form^tike. population of Dawson, whai are climatic conditions ? We live and move more rapidly than the balance of the world, and into the short seasons we crowd years of life and experience in a manner that would be a revelation to our slower moving fellow mortals. As so many pnisrepreeentationB of our country and the conditions that surround it creep into the outside papers, 60 it will appear to outside readers that all that iB published in Dawson may not be the unvarnished truth. With this knowledge in our possession, T h e S un has left to photography the greater share of repre sentation in this number. The camera tells the story of things as it sees them, and half-tone illustrations are but photographs of photographs. The Dawson of today you may read of in the wordless language of the photographer. The sentiment of the reading matter contained herein every citizen of Dawson will subscribe to. THE YUKON SUN. S E M I-W E E K L Y A N D SOUTH A 1 1 Royalty res, and P it Once. An tatlon 'cn Hundrc Still F U F or th mg—Document Four DAW SON HARDVVA M c l e n n a n , m c f e e l ' OTEL FLANNEI Dawson's M etro^ *- T H OM AS W. O ’B R IE N , O W N E R " S U N . ” 2. W . F. THOM PSON, M A N A G ER “ S U N .” 3. J . B. E M E R SO N . 4. BERT E . CO LLY ER. A D V E R T ISIN G SOLICITOR. 5. W. C. YOUNG, R E P O R T E R . 6. YUKON SUN O F FIC E. 3 . K L O N D IK E NUGGET O F F I C E . N E W S O F F IC E . THE YUKON SUN. SEPTEMBER, 1900. ■ THE DAWSON OF TODAY. BY FAITH FENTON BROWN. H lS Excellency the Ëarl of Minto, Governor Gen­ eral of Canada, in - his recent visit to Dawson was asked what His impressions concerning the town were: “I am simply astonished,” he said. “I had no idea that Dawson was so large or so advanced.” His Excellency merely expressed the sentiments of almost every new arrival in DaWson. After travelling hearly six hundred miles by rail and river, through a possessed even six months ago. The past summer has given us more buildings and an extensive increase in commerce; the boats have brought more people, es­ pecially women and children; there are more homes today in Dawson than ever before, and in consequence, social and religious interests, those chief factors in civilization, are advancing by leaps and bounds. Dawson is most happily situated, from a scenic point of view. It lies close beside the mighty Yukon DAWSON, T H E YUKON AN D K L O N D IK E R IV E R S . magnificently primitive mountain land, unbroken save by small mining settlements, to come suddenly upon this bright young city is a surprise indeed. The miles of dockage lined with splendid storehouses extending „ along the riverfront; the electric lights; the well-paved i Eitteets and avenues; the fine modern stores; the throngs of well-dressed people, both men and women; the visible air of commercial activity and social gayety,—all combine to form a picture of busy, heal­ thy, prosperous life hardly to be expected in a settle­ ment so young and so fy removed from the great centres of civilization. Dawson is only three years old, but today it stands a city of between six and eight thousand inhabitants, with nearly double the number of buildings that it river in the valley, while all about it are the foot-hills, from whose- summits we view innumerable far-off snow-crowned mountains. The level ground, or flat, beside the river, is just large enough for the business part of the city. The residences—which are still chiefly log cabins—climb the hillside behind it like warm brown burrs. Close beside the town the far- famed Klondike empties through its shallow delta- mouth into the swift-flowing Yukon. Looking up the Klondike valley we see the equally famed Bonanza, and trace its valley line far into the hills. Mountains and still higher mountains are everywhere, and over them all rest the soft delicate lights and shadows peculiar to this Far North. The coloring in the Yukon is a thing to dream about. Delicate violets and pearly A GROVP OF DAW80N LADIE8-1. MRdame Duga!. 2. Mrs. Inspector McDonnell . 8. Mr8. ('. E . Carbonneau. 4. M\,~. R.,La.,g.Dlng. 5. IIn. Thp,~ . W.O'Brleo , 6. Mrs. Tlehmey. 7. M\'~. Egerton . 8. Mr~. HilI. 9 Mrll. Hernn. 10. Mr~ . Or. Thomp8on . 11. Mr •. fi.!. Ward Smith . t2. "r'II. w. H. Par8on8. 14. Mr~,Capt. Sttlrne~ , Jr.. Mr~ . F . e. Wlllie 1/\. Mr~. T, DufferlD Ptlttullo . 17. MI~~ Normtln. THE DAWSON OF TODAY. greys, velvety browns, translucent sapphires,—na­ ture lays no strong colors upon her palette to paint the Yukon hills. A new color world awaits the artist in the superb lights of the Yukon. But apart from its scenic grandeur, life in the Yukon is incidentally picturèsque in many of its essentials. This is especially so during the winter, which is pre­ eminently the season of the Yukon. Daylight comes ill mid-winter about nine o’clock. At ten or eleven the mountain tops are tipped with a lovely sunlight, although the valley and town lie in shadow. Through November and December the valley residents have only this nodding acquaintance with the sun, or rather his reflection, as he casts his yellow lights for a few brief mid-day hours on the hill-tops far above. Then early in January his golden majesty lifts his yellow rim above the horizon of peaks for a few brief minutes, mothers who have come to make homes for husbands and sons. The presence of good women means homes, and each home forms a social centre. Brilliant balls, dances, dinners, card parties and afternoon teas; sled­ ding and skating parties, visits to the mines,—these are some of the larger functions; while the cabin string is ever on the latch for the evening caller in Dawson. Dawson society is especially fortunate in having at its head women of more than ordinary culture and standing:—wives of the N. W. M. P. officers, of the Territorial judges and the Government officials, of several able and high-ranked Canadian lawyers, of mining capitalists, and of the great trading companies, Many of these are women of travel and taste who form a little social world quite equal in brilliance and in­ telligence to any of the monde in bigger cities. Their complement may be found in the large number of ST R E E T S C E N E . DAWSON, JUD Y 4, I900. which increase each day, until March bathes the town in floods of yellow ligllt again. Daylight at nine; darkness at three; and between, six hours of the same soft gray light that a cloudy day brings in the east, during which Dawson residents, well wrapped in furs, rush about transacting business that must be done bv daylight, or take their pleasure in the low sleighs drawn by dogs, that form the winter carriage of the Yukon. It is as possible to call, to shop, to drive, ski and play hockey, in Dawson as in Winnipeg, St.Petersburg or any other northern city, for the still, windless weather prevents a realization of the low temperature, while an especial degree of exhil­ aration accompanies the intensity of frost. For the long winter nights there are many gayeties. In the summer of ’97 Dawson could count onlv forty women. The summer of 1900 sees at least one thous­ and. and the large majority of these are wives and men of the world, in mining capitalists who come and go, surveyors, engineers, commercial magnates—men who build up new countries. These are supplemented by the Government staff, the N. W. M. P. officers, members of the judiciary, and the medical profession. To dwell in Dawson is not to be shut away from Society, but rather to be in a society whose several members belong to the world of travel, culture and good breeding that is found everywhere. A woman walking down Dawson streets might be stepping across Broadway or Fifth avenue, NewgYork. as far as her costume is concerned. The tailor-made suit, the lawn blouse and sailor hat, even the fresh- ironed white pique or muslin form the ordinary sum­ mer dress ; many furs are worn in winter with over­ shoes or felt boots for the coldest weather. Winter in the Yukon is quite possible for women. There is no raw wind or slush to cause grip or bronchitis. The 2. MARGIE N E W M A N. 3. A N N IE BURKE. 4. ELDORADO LEN N O N . 5 EM ILY CRAIG 6 A DvW SON BIKE PARTY 7. H. J . GOETZMAN AND F A M IL Y . 8 T R A IN IN G T H E DOG IO ASSISTANT GOLD COM MISSIONER J. I.ANGI.OIS BECC AND FAMILY. 12. ELIZA M ’LEN N A N . 13. ED ITH GOKTZM A X ,14 FL O R E N C E SC HESTER THE DAWSON air is clear, bracing, frosty, and the daily walk, two, three, five miles up the valley trails or over the hills brings roses to the cheeks in fine fashion. Dawson is splendidly healthy. The sanitary con- • ditions are good, drainage and pure water have been supplied, a strict health ordinance is as strictly en­ forced. As a consequence the typhoid fever hitherto prevalent at this season of the year has practically vanished, and the hospitals arc almost empty. Daw- m» i will be famxl as a h ealth resort at no distant da e. But in event of sickness the town is supplied with OF TODAY. There are two public schools in Dawson—one Roman Catholic, one Protestant. Both are supported bv the Government and both accept pupils of any creed. The former was established a year ago, the latter and larger one during the present month. The larger school is already overflowing and two or three additional schoolhouses are needed to meet the require­ ments of the town. There arc four churches in Dawson—Roman Catholic. Anglican. Presbyterian and Methodist— together with representatives of Christian Science, Theosophy and the Salvation Army. These comprise W H IT E H O RSE , Y. T .— F R E IG H T FOR DAWSON. two large general hospitals—one Protestant, the other Roman Catholic—together with several private hospi­ tals. All of these are well equipped and provided wiih trained nurses and doctors who must he duly qualified and licensed before they are permitted to prae ice either in the hospitals or homes. Dawson appears to he a particularly healthy place for children. Numbers of these little people have come in during the past year or tw r o, and their ruddy cheeks and sturdy figures prove their physical appreciation of the clima e. They endure the cold remarkably well. On the most extreme days of last winter, when the thermometer indicated over 50 deg. below, it was a common sight to see the little ones, wrapped until only their eyes peered out, racing up and down the streets with some pet dog attached to a small sled. The dog teams are a perpetual delight to the children in the Yukon. A sick child in Dawson is rare, and even the babies born in winter thrive and flourish. the religious organizations which are actively at work on lines of Christian progress and reform. The churches are all well attended and flourishing. The Sunday services in the little log buildings are often crowded, the special attractions of good music drawing many who would not otherwise attend. A man far a vav from home is attracted by the familiar hymns and prayers of his childhood, and a glance at the rows of weather-beaten faces bent over the hymn books or lifted to vard the preacher shows the power of the church. Attached to each church and working in and with it are various church organizations—the Sunday schools and I iblc classes, the week-night meetings and w r omen’s guilds. The latter accomplished much good last winter by furnishing various wards in hospitals, and supplying necessary linen. These guilds and gathering' fulfill the purpose of making Dawson women known to one another and engendering the friendly feeling which in this new territory is so desirable. *. 2 .' 3 - 4 AND 5 - ARCHES ER E C T E D IN DAWSON IN HONOR OF T H E G O V E R N O R -G E N E R A L OF CANADA. 6. T H E VICK-REGAL p a r t y IN DAWSON 7. GRAND STAND, W IT H G O V E R N O R -G E N E R A L RE CEIVING ADDRESSES. HEALTH OK DAWSON. Two years ago, it was customary for the miners to take out their ‘‘pokes” and shake their contribution of shining dust into the plate. But now currency is in common use, and this picturesque feature, together with others incident to the new mining camp, is pass­ ing away. But the churches vet dwell in log build­ ings. with the brown moss for calking,, homely enough to outside view, but with interiors painted and papered, varnished benches and a general air of cleanliness and neatness befitting their holy purpose. Much cannot be said about the architecture of Daw­ son buildings as yet. The number of frame structures is increasing every day. There are now many fine frame residences; while nearly all the business portion of ihe citv is frame. These are built with double walls with tar paper between, yet it is doubtful wheth­ er they are as warm—and certainly they are not as picturesque as the more primitive log cabin. One of the surprises is how utterly comfortable one of these cabins may be made. With double floor and well caulked interstices; with interior lined, first with cot­ ton and then some cheerily tinted; paper with plenty of low double windows well curtained; with rugs and cushions, robes, couches, portierres and screens; a tiny bed room curtained off in one corner, a useful heater screened away in another,—the fur-robed couch rolled up beside the table; the shaded lamp burning bright­ ly— -these little brown cabins hold a world of comfort when the mid-winter stars look down upon the Yukon vallev. A PORTION OK A DAWSON STKKPT. HEALTH OF DAWSON. B Y J . H M a c A R T H L R , M D . E tc ., M O . H . 1 r would be presumption on my part to give an accu­ rate account of the health of Dawson and the Yukon Territory with the data at mv disposal. The health of a community should be judged front its sickness- rate, but is usually judged from its " death -and-birth- rates,” or betier still from its “ eonve ed death-and- birth-rates,” witch would raise or lower he gross death-and-birth rules to what they would be if the local age—and sex—distribution were the sa ne as tha* of the eouiurv generally, sickn.ss-rate being unprocur­ able and no fixed standard having been adopted. The essentials for arriving at these conditions are : ( 1 ) A census which should give the age—and sex — -distribution. This we have not. but the population of the Yukon Territory can be very conservately esti­ mated for 1X 99 at 20,000 and for 1900 at 16.000. (2) The number of deaths and causes. This we have. (3) The number of births. This we have. (4) The number of sick and cause, with length of time each was incapacitated. This is impossible to procure, but the empty condition of the hospitals nearly all this year speaks volumes for the health of the community. The number of deaths in 1X 99 were 140, which gives a death rate of 7 per 1.000 living, estimating the population as above. s o m e o E d a w s o n ’s c a b i n s . HEALTH OF DAWSON. For the first seven months of 1900 the death rate has been : January .. 5 deaths—3.75 per a 1,000 per annum. February . 10 “ —7.5 a a a March . 6 “ —4.5 l t a a a April 8 “ —6. u a a a May 8 “ —6. a a a June . 8 “ —6. a a a a Julv 6 “ —4.5 a a a a For seven months— 51 deaths—5.42 “ “ These death rates are extremely low for any com­ munity, as the average death rate per 1,000 living Birth rate for first seven months of 1900.—14 births—1.5 per 1,000 per annum living. In summing up those figures we have to take into consideration that the population of the Yukon Terri­ tory, as in all other new countries, is largely composed of males in the prime of life, with very few children and aged people. It is among the latter in ordinary communities that the large percentage of deaths occur. This accounts for the extremely low death and birth rates. Nevertheless the conditions under which the majority of the population had or have to live ; the hardship of an Arctic winter where a variation in the F A I R C h I l d 's II r. F A IR C H IL D ’S HOTEL- 2. SALE OF DOGS AT DOC, POUND. 3. DAWSON HA Y SCALES. among general communities ranges from 16 to 20, or in large cities may run as high as 30. The deaths for 1900 include: Diseases of respira­ tory system—Pneumonia, 12 ; phthisis, 4. Tubercular diseases, including phthisis, 6. Miasmatic diseases— Enteric fever, 3. Circulatory diseases—Heart disease and apoplexy, 10. Diseases of urinary system, 3. Deaths from violence—Accidents, 5 ; suicide. 1 ; homi­ cide, 1. Other causes, 10. Z ym o tic D is e a s e s F or 1900—Number of cases notified during the first seven months : Smallpox, 7 ; scarftt fever, 7 ; enteric fever, 12 ; measels, 6. Zy­ motic death rate for the first seven months :—3 cases enteric fever—0.32 per 1.000 per annu^ i;ving. temperature of 100 deg. F. may be experienced when one comes out of a warm cabin, 60 deg. F. above to 40 deg. F. or even 60 deg. F. below zero ; the want of home comforts ; thé necessarily dark, stuffy cabins, not to mention the privations of the necessities of life, which bad cooking and high prices necessitated, often with people who never knew what it was to want for anything in their previous history. Is it a wonder that some diseases, as pneumonia, scurvy, enteric fever and dvsentry, have shown up amongst us ? On the other hand, here as in other dry climates we meet people who came to this country as a last resort for the cure of phthisis, and they tell you that it was the or.1 .y thing that saved their lives. I . N. W. M. P. AND QUADRANGLE. 2 . AT DRIL L. 3. COMMISSIONED O F F IC E R S . 4 NON-COMMISSION ED OF FIC ERS . 5 . FORCE ON PA RAD E. THE YUKON OFFICIALS. The lowering of the death rate from 7 per 1,000 in 1899 to 5.42 per 1,000 in 1900, and almost the entire disappearance of scurvy and enteric fever, is a marked indication of the increased health of the community, brought about by the improved hygenic conditions and the better facilities for transportation, whereby dietetic luxuries and upholstered furniture are gradually re­ placing our proverbial “ bacon and beans” and native hare, undressed lumber. There is also a marked increase in the number of women and children in the country in the last twelve months, which fact cannot be entirely overlooked as a cause of increased prosperity. Their personal attrac- t ons and cheerful homes, not to mention their culinary abilities, have a marked moral effect which acts as a u n ­ bracing tonic to their acquaintances among the sterner sex. The climate in the Yukon during the summer months is all that could be desired, dry, bracing at-, mos^ihere, clear sky or stratus clouds, very little rain and never excessively hot. This condition gradually through the autumn cools off to our winter which has a temperature ranging from zero F. to 60 deg. F. be­ low, dry atmosphere, short days, and unless when ex­ tremely cold not at all disagreeable if one is suitably clothed. The water supply and drainage of the town of Dawson is good, even better than could be expected in a new town. Dawson, Y.T., Sept. 7, 1900. 'r ‘ v * ■ - ■ PORTION OF DAWSON S M A IN STRKRT. THE YUKON OFFICIALS. T HE administration of the Yukon has been rele­ gated chiefly to the Department of the Interior of the Government of Canada. This Department’s officials include the Commissioner of the Territory, the Gold Commissioner, the Crown Land and Timber Agent, the Comptroller, the Legal Adviser, the Regis­ trar of Land Titles and the Territorial Secretary, with their staffs of clerks and stenographers ; and the North West Mounted Police. The Department of Justice is represented bv two judges. ii sheriff, a clerk of the court and their subordi­ nates, the Department of Customs by a collector and his clerks, the Department of Marine and Fisheries by an inspector, and the Public Works by several officials. Five of the chief officials constitute, with the Com­ missioner, the Yukon Council. These are the Senior Judge, the Gold Commissioner, the Legal Adviser, the Registrar, and the Officer Commanding the North West Mounted Police, who attend to the executive and legislative work of the Yukon. These men, in addition i. Postmaster I. T. Hartman. 2. Telegraph Snpt. M Creen. 3 T. A. Stewart. Inspector Fisheries. 4. Hector Stewart, Chi I Fire Department._ 5. Sheriff R. J. Eilbeck. 6. J. D. MacGregor, License Inspector. 7. Crown Timber I^and Agent F. K . Gosselin. 8. Justice Craig. 9. Justice Dugas 10. T. H. Hinton, '"omptroller’s Office. 11. Alfred Cleg.;, in charge Gov. Tel. Office. 12. Dr. J H. MacArthur, Health Offioer. 13. Crown Prosecutor F. C. Warle. 14 Ed. C. Senkler. Gold Con-. 1 5 - T. W. Fuller, Supt. Architect. 16 T. Dufferin PattuPo. Vice-Consul Sweden and Norway. 17. Councilman f. E Gii • ouard, Registrar 18. Comptroller J. T. Lithgow. 19. Dr. J. N. E. Brtrwn, Territorial Secretary. 20. Alfred Watson. Commissioner’s Office. 21. J. J. Delaney, Manager N. A. T. : T. Co. Dawson Stores. 22 E. Ward Smith, Assessor. THE YUKON to the heavy duties pertaining to their particular offices, assemble in parliamentary form once or twice weekly, after office hours, prepare ordinances for the local government of the Territory, and perform all the functions of a Municipal Council for the City of Daw­ son, viz. : attend to street improvement, drainage, lighting, fire protection, maintenance of indigent sick, establishment of sanitary measures; and countless other matters of greater or less importance respecting the Territory generally. For this they receive no remuneration. How well their municipal duties have been performed is proven by the fact that up to the present day the leading business firms have expressed themselves as so satisfied with the present form of municipal government as not to care to have Dawspn erected into an incorporated city with a representative council, although incorporation has been offered to the OFFICIALS. elling across the continent. Another is more sophis­ ticated, has been gently nurtured, is college bred and and travelled, and to him the journey to the Gold Fields and two years of service there are merely an in­ troduction to the more serious business of life, con­ nected with the State, the Church, the Bar, or other walk in life. A third type is the man who has seen many years of official service—the “I-have-the-honor- to-be-your-obedient-servant” sort of fellow, who is thor­ oughly conversant with the peculiar phases of Depart­ mental life, an invaluable official to the establishment of a new regime in a new district. To give in detail the work of the various sub-de­ partments in this great placer mining center would prove interesting, but could not be done within the limits of this short sketch. It may be said, however, that the work generally is now well systematized, and ORR & T U K E Y ’S TEAM S H A l ' U ' T . HEAVY F R E IG H T . citizens along the same lines as it has been granted to other Canadian towns. Among the rank and file of the officials are young men (mainly) who hail from Canadian homes as far distant from each other as the rich apple orchards of the Annapolis valley are from the splendrous peaks of the Selkirks. Some of them, as boys, had the plains of Abraham as their playground, others were reared on ‘‘The Prairies, boundless and beautiful,” and others in that Province of rich grain fields, beech and maple woods—Ontario. They are of various types. One, the only son of a widowed mother of slender means, is appointed a junior clerk, and prepares for a six thousand mile journey to “The Klondike^” to take his place in the Government service. He Is unaware of how well the State treats her sons when travelling in her service, and economizes by subsisting chiefly on ginger ale, dried soda biscuits and home-made pie, while trav- well performed, and requires no enconiums. Like that of the North West Mounted Police and the Yukon Council, it speaks for itself. The present .condition of affairs stands out in strong contrast to 1897 and the early p*rt of 1898, when thrice the work, it may be said, now performed bv some sixty officials in well appointed offices, sup­ plied with full office requisites, was performed by a handful of officials, crowded into mere shacks of build­ ings, working with lead pencil stubs, torn envelopes, torn paper, birch bark and chips. The chief duty of the “N. W. M. P.,” as they are called by everybody, as a short method of referring to them, is the maintenance of law and order in the Ter­ ritory. This means not only the policing of Dawson and its immediate environs, “the creeks” (all within a compass of thirty-five miles) but also of the outposts, extending from the boundary (between Canada and Alaska) ninety miles below (north of) Dawson, to the Til K Vl'KON White Pass. some six hundred miles alstve. or south nf. Dawson. The Police Officers collect the royalty,act as escort to the gold-laden miners between their claims on the creeks and the Yukon metropolis, fill the offices of Mining Recorders and Post Masters, at their posts in the more remote districts, and perform other duties of a more or less important character, the story of which would furnish material for a lengthy article in itself. A word as to the social life among the officials : A few of them have brought their wives and families from the East. Two or thn e of the more courageous single men have married since their arrival. (These OFFICIALS. ally, once in a while, he will cruise on the street, go down town and perchance watch the fart» dealer, the roulette twirlcr, or era}) man relieve the royalty- burdened miner of his dust, and it may he, join in a game occasionally, if he is “ flush.” Or, possibly, he may visit the giddy theatre, and spend a few sous in purchasing champagne for the soubrettes ; hut this would open a new chapter of a new story of (it might he averred) more interest than the above narration of the life in general of the Yukon officials. To the outside world have traveled many tales of alleged official misjjoings of the officials of the Yukon “ BEAK A M ) I'ORHKAK” — TWO DAWSON ETRE D E P A R T M E N T PETS. of course live a quiet and domestic life). The single men are noticeably lonely, and. for the most part re­ served. except on occasions. These occasions, festive in character, cannot be said to occur oftener than about once in every full moon ; and. it must he con­ fessed, are only celebrated bv a minority of the officials what might he denominated “ the submerged tenth.” There is some palliation (if palliation is required) whan it is known that there are no W. Y. S. C. or kindred societies in Dawson for restraining the exuberance of young-manhood. His simple room, simply furnished, is not attraction enough for the buoyant youth. Xatur- That the vindication of these officials has not been so widely published as have been the charges brought against them is certainly a fact. for "bad news travels far.” Any man mav. wi.h impunity, bring charges against any official of the Yukon, and a full and im- par.ial investigation is immediately made. It is due tie* Yukon officials to state h°re that not one of such chaig's has been substantiated at the trial, although the judges and prosecuting attorney have gone even farther than they would have been warranted in going in unofficial charges of a similar nature, in the attempt to reach the facts in the case. r n o v R R N M U v T o f f i c e s w n c a n a d t a v h a n k o p c o m m f .r c p 2. m a t o r w o o d ’s h o m e . 3. g o v e r n m e n t T E L E G R A P H O F F IC E . 4. DAWSON F IR E D E PA R T M E N T S. HOTEI. M ’nONAT.D (S R .A 'K OF R N. A 6 . 1F R R 1T O R IA I, COURT ROOMS. I. A. C. CO .’S STORE. 2 N. A T & T. CO.'S’ ST *RES 3. POSTOFFICE, CO M PTRO LLER 'S AND CO M M ISSIO N E R ’S OFFICES. 4. M B N D H A M ’S JEVVEI.RY ST • ' 4 S T R U T S V C l ' m N H HIST. ft. FO STER 'S SIGN W ORKS. ^ 7. HOI.HORN CA FE AND G R E E N T R E E HO El, S V K \ O I K'i HE A TIN G A E N G IN E E R IN G SUPPLY CO ’S STORE. HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE SKETCH OF THE YUKON TERRITORY. BY COMMISSIONER WILLIAM OÛ1LV1E. H ISTORY accounts for only the last half-dozen decades of the Yukon. Though Alexander Mackenzie in 1789 descended the mighty river which bears his name, he did not dream or know of (except it may be through vague allusions of the In­ dians he came in contact with) another mighty river between himself and the Pacific ocean. Still later, when he made his renowned journey (1793) from the heart of the continent up the placid Peace river and across New Caledonia (now the province of British Columbia) to the Pacific ocean he does not appear to have thought of the vast territory to the north of him drained by our great river. The Russian, Malakoff, who in 1838 entered its mouth and ascended it to its junction with the Koyukuk, knew nothing of the ex­ tent nor direction of the river abt)ve him, and his suc­ cessor, Zagoskin, who built Fort Nulato in 1843, was p ? content as were his successors to confine their labors to about seven hundred miles of the river—thus ascend­ ing only about one hundred miles above Nulato. The name Yukon appears to have come from the term ap­ plied to it by the Indians around Nulato, “Yu-kon-ah,” which simply means the “great water,” or river. Two years after the Russian Malakoff ascended what he called the Kwich-pak (pronounced Kwif- pak), now the Yukon, a young Scotchman, Alexander Campbell, of the Hudson Bay Company was making his way by arduous labor from the Mackenzie to the headwaters of the Yukon, on the Pelly branch, which he discovered and named in the summer of 1840, and in 1843 he descended this Btream to its confluence with the stream he named the Lewis. He made this journey of nearly a thousand miles (back and forth) in a birch-bark canoe accompanied by a half-breed interpreter, two French-Canadians and three Indians. The report of his adventures induced his company to establish a post near the mouth of the Pelly, which he named Fort Selkirk—a point familiar to travellers on the river. This fort was established in 1848, and was occupied until 1852. In 1850 it oc­ curred to this intrepid traveller to descend the river and learn whether or not he was on the waters of the Colville river, which flows into the Arctic ocean in latitude 71 degrees, west longitude 151 degrees. Let us glance back at the Mackenzie. In 1825 another Scotch clerk of the same company made an ex­ ploration of part of Peel river and the region around its confluence with the Mackenzie, which was followed up by the establishment of Fort Yukon, at the conflu­ ence of the Porcupine and Yukon, in 1847. These ad­ vances seem slow to us, but would the best of us have done any better under the conditions? Certainly not. There is not time here to refer to the labor incident to the transport of a trading outfit from London to Fort Yukon, covering beside the ocean voyage a journey of about 4,500 miles where tracking line and oar or pad­ dle were the instruments of locomotion, except on the portages (many of them miles in length), over which the crew’s backs were the resting places for the loads. When we say that the outfits were often three years in transit, and the return of the furs the same, we convey some idea of the difficulties to be sur­ mounted. Let not the reader think that any of us are pioneers in this region. Trading posts were estab­ lished in the interior more than a century ago, when Canada contained only two or three towns, and the west coast was, it might be said, unknown. A story is told of a trader at one of these posts who did not learn of the battle of Waterloo until three years after it was fought, nevertheless took out his lingering flint-lock and fired a salute in honor of the great victory. It is hardly necessary to say that those early heroes cannot be considered as prospectors in the mining sense of the word, j'et Campbell knew that there were “specks” of gold in the gravel at Selkirk, and in the early sixties the existence of gold was known on a stream tributary to the Yukon below the Porcupine, now known as Birch creek. This discovery appears to have been made in 1862 or ’63 by the now Very Reverend Archdeacon McDonald, of Fort Mc­ Pherson on Peel river, who labored for years among the Indians around Fort Yukon, and up as far as Fortymile. The knowledge of his discovery was possessed by the people at Fort Yukon, soon after it was made, for in a letter to his father in Toronto a clerk at the fort writes under date October 2, 1864, as follows: “ I had some thoughts of digging the gold here, but am not sure about it. I do not think it is in paying quantities at the fort, but if I could only get time to make an expedition up the Yukon, I expect we should find it in abundance, but I am always on the voyage or busy at the fort during the summer, a n d i n t h e W IN T E R N O T H IN G CAN B E DONE IN T H E W A Y OF GOLD h u n t i n g . I think that next fall, after-arriving from mv trip down the Yukon, 1 shall he able to go up the HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE SK river. There in a small river not far from here that the minister, the Rev. McDonald, saw so much gold on a year or two ago that he could have gathered it with a spoon. I have often wished to go hut can never find the time. Should 1 find gold in paying quantities I may turn gold digger, hut this is mkkki.y A LAST UKSOUT WIIKN" I CAN OO NO HKTTKU.” Oh, ye miners of the Yukon ! think of this young man on thirty or forty pounds ($lo0-$200) a year using such language. We know you will smile, and, well, ----- ! I ----- * *; you know as a last resort. As far as we know it can he truthfully said that the first man who thought of gold mining in the ex­ treme North was Arthur Harper. This gentleman who hailed from the County of Antrim, Ireland, came to America when he was IS years of age, about the mid­ dle of this century. Mining excitement carried him to the West coast, and he drifted about as the golden tide rose or fell until he reached the northern parts of Brit­ ish Columbia. A study of maps then extant led him to think the extensive Mackenzie and Yukon water systems—head­ ing as both of them did in known auriferous regions— must have gold in more of their systems than was then • known, and he determined to test his theory. Associ­ ated with him on this venture were Frederick W. Hart, from the county of Antrim, Ireland ; Samuel Wilkin­ son, an Englishman ; Ceorge Finch, a Canadian, and Andrew Kanselar. a German. * These five men left Manson creek, on the head­ waters of Peace river, in September, 1 8 7 * 2 ; proceeded down the Peace to a small stream called Half-wav river,"which they learned had its source near one of the tributaries of the Liard. Up Half-way river thev worked their way in dug-out canoes until winter set in, when they continued with sleighs of their own make, reaching and continuing down Nelson river (the tributary of Liard referred to).to a point thev deemed safe for canoe navigation, where a halt was called until the river opened. Dug-out canoes were made and early in May the journey down the Nelson was continued in them to the junction with the Liard. Here another they met whose name will go down the course of time associated with the Yukon. Leroy Napo­ leon (better known as .Jack) McQuesten. An acquaint­ ance which was begun in the mining fields of British Co­ lumbia was renewed, confidences exchanged, and to bet­ ter enable them to proceed McQuesten gave them his boat and took their dug-out canoes. Here Wilkinson determined to try his luck on the Liard and left the original fiv e* . The remainder continued down the Liard to the Mackenzie and down it to the Peel from which by a series of small streams tributary to both water systems, w hich have quite recently become known as part of the Edmonton route, they made their way to the Porcupine. It was thus by this route that the «ITCH OF THE YUKON TERRITORY. first real miners who ever entered the Yukon valley came and they were not two years doing it, cither. On the Mackenzie ‘ they were joined by a .Scotchman named Nicholson and an American named McNiff. who continued with them to Fort Yukon. At Fort Yukon Harper saw a piece of native cop­ per which the owner, an Indian, informed him came from White river. He determined to make search for the source of it. and here Kanseler determined to go down the Yukon instead of up. Harper. Hart and Finch started on the 2bth July (after a fifteen-days’ stay at Yukon) to prospect the Yukon and White rivers, ascending Fortvmile rivera short distance, as they found fair prospects on it. but the Indians in the vicinity frightened them away bv describing a bad canon some distance up it. Had Pate arranged it otherwise and they had continued and found the canon a very trifling obstacle which they were destined to pass and repass many times in the fu­ ture, they would, in the nature of things, have discov­ ered the gold on that stream, and if so, who can say how differently the history of the Yukon might have been written? Continuing up the Yukon they reached While river on the 6th September, 1N 78. ascended it some dis- danee, and, finding game plentiful, stopped some time securing winter supplies of meat. Space prevents further allusion to their doings than to sav that they failed to find the copper, but from indications thev ob­ served believed they were near it at their turning point. In the spring they prospected around th e* mouth of the Stewart river, but finding nothing te » satisfy them, turned their boat down stream, and on the lower river found their associates from British Columbia, and also found McQuesten and his associate M ay*), who had followed them down the Mackenzie and crossed to the Porcupine in September. Space forbids further reference to the antecedents of those two men than to say that they were Americans—McQuesten from the state of Maim*—and that they had for several years previously been fur trading and trapping in the Athabasca and Peace river districts. McQuesten entered the service of the Alaska Com­ mercial Company, and in that company’s employ came up the river on their steamer " Yukon” to where in August, 1S74, he built Fort Reliance within sight of the golden Klondike, which he and his partner Har­ per called “Tron-deg” — very nearly the Indian name for it, “Tron-dik.” Harper prospected around the mouth of the Koy- ukuk for some time, and in l H 7 n joined MeQuesteil at Reliance and entered into a partnership with him which lasted fourteen years. Trading for many years at the doorstep of the hidden millions of the now world-famous creeks over which tlrey often hunted, but never looked for gold, or if they did. never dreamed I. R E D CROSS HOSPITAL 2. GOOD SA M A RITAN HOSPITAL. 1. SALVATION AK JjY BARRACKS. 4. COM M ANDER D A W S O N S . A. 5. PR E S B Y T E R IA N CHURCH. 6. REV. J J . W R IG H T 7. IN T E R IO R OF A DAWSON C H l’RCH. 8. REV. A. E. H E T H E R IN G T O N . 9. ST. P A U L ’S EPISCOPAL CHURCH IO. M E. C H IIIC H . I I . ST. M A R Y ’S HOSPITAL. ST. M A R Y ’S CHURCH. j j i i r .sitf.r,ad fi.;i i ü V î, Liai J . 'u r*,'llla£lU \*. tttu lu g u b i s h b u t r . V a CHAS. M IL N E tîiainscnrciQaingH î :«Kr *. .^V /'Æ ia.- r [ j j j g g f f OtiII « p f K 1 v A f t o r * 1. G o v e rn m e n t L and Office. 2. Lad n e Co. Stores. 3. Holm e, Miller A Co. 4. Royal Grocery. 5. Chas. M ilne’s Store. 8. J. P. M cL ennan, Dry Goods. 7. S ta n d ard T h e a tre . 8. Am es M ercan tile Co. Store. 9. C riterion Hotel. 10. Savoy Th e a tre . 11. Hoffm an Grill 12. G andolfa's F ru it Store. 13 M elbourne Hotel. 14. Alaska E x p lo ra tio n Co. Stores 15. Alaska C om m ercial Co Office B u ild in g . 18. OTphenm T h e a te r Building. 17. T ra d in g A E x p lo ra tio n Co. Stores a n d W arehouses. 18. F airview Hotel. HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE SKETCH OF. THE YUKON TERRITORY. of the buried treasures. H ad they then done so, we ask again, how differently might the history of the Yukon have been written. In the fall of 1877 Harper crossed overland from Re­ liance to-the head of Sixtymile river and found pros­ pects which assured him of $20 per day, but bad weather and unfavorable conditions stopped his work, wh^eh he intended to resume next year, but was or­ dered by the company to the lower river, and he could not afford to disobey his orders. When one reflects on how nearly this man a gen­ eration ago came to startling the world wdth the dis­ covery of the Koyukuk, Tan-an-ah (on which he prospected), Fortymile, Sixtvmile, the Klondike, and Stewart and the White river copper deposits, how he lived to -witness others completing the work he had begun, and how he died a comparatively young man (62) just as the Klondike was opening its golden gates to him, one cannot hut wonder at the vagaries of fate. His faith and confidence in the country were al­ most prophetic, and his correspondence with old ^ac­ quaintances had much to do with its development. ■ We come now to a short statement of the golden discoveries in the Territory and adjoining region. In the early eighties a few miners made their way into the region by the old Dyea pass and prospectiug^along the main river reached the Stewart, where they worked several years with such success and in such numbers that Harper, in the summer of 1886, erected a trading post there for their accommodation^ Hitherto all the gold found in the country was fine and required mer- -cqry to save it, which is hardly to be wondered at when we consider that all the mining done was bar and surface digging. In 1886, however, coarse gold was discovered on Fortymile river about 24 miles up, and the following year the Stewart was abandoned and Harper & McQuesten started the town of Fortymile in September, 1887, and it remained the principal em­ porium on the Yukon river for 10 years, and is by no means dead vet, though its mining region is much smaller, and jioor when compared with the Dawson district. I call the attention O f the croakers who predict the speedy extinction of Dawson to this fact : In those early days from 201) to 400 miners came into the country every year, hut as freighting accommo­ dations were then very bmited and not more than enough provisions for 75 to 100 men could he got up. only about that number would winter in the country, the others making their way out by poling up or going down to St. Michael, and from there to Seattle or San Francisco. Tfie reports of those men kept alive the in­ terest in the country which led to its gradual explora­ tion and development. Rich finds were made on Birch creek in 1891 and Circle City sprang into existence ; good dirt was found on Mission creek and its tributarv (American creek) two or three years later, and about the same time the rich creeks (Miller and Glacier) on the head of Sixtvmile were exploited. Many now began to turn their attention to other regions, and in 1897 Robert Henderson, from Prince Edwards Island, down by the sea, and his associates, Munson and Swan­ son, discovered rich dirt on Gold Bottom creek (since named Hunker), and Henderson’s invitation to George W. Carmack, of California, to join them on Gold Bot­ tom led to the discovery, of gold on Bonanza and El­ dorado, and to the world-wide fame of the Klondike. In 1887 two men spent the summer prospecting this river but pronounced it worthless ; and again in 1893 three men spent the season on it and returned the same verdict, and, strangely enough, one of them located in *4896 a good claim on Bonanza, and acquired a com­ fortable corppetenee. We might multiply these disap­ pointments or mistakes, but our only motive would T e to point to the necessity for thorough prospecting be­ fore considering a district or creek worthless, and in this sphere, as in all others, the prospector is born, not made. We will now glance briefly at the diffusion of min­ eral wealth in this Territory and adjoining country Gold we know has been found in most streams in the Territory, true in many, many cases in quantities too little to think of working^y any method extant. We wish to lay all possible stress on this feature, yet we wish to emphasize the fact that the Territory contains about 7,000 miles of rivers and streams of which about half we know a little, and that little points to the hope, if not certainty, that this region is only in its swad­ dling clothes as a mining country. There is not space in an article of this kind (in fact it would make a long article itself) to dwell on the indications that point to this conclusion, they are so wide-spread geographic­ ally. Wc believe we are within the mark in saying that the part already developed in this Territory has produced nearly $55,000,000, and that before that small part is exhausted it will much more than double this. Of the rest—well, we can only wait. It niqst always he borne in mind that nature lias in a manner lodged a demurrer against the miner in this region, hut nature may he pleaded with in an effectual way bv modern science ; in short, it is only a question of “Will it pay?” Adverse conditions, due to human agency, whether of political or commercial derivation, must, in the inherent nature of man, be swept aside, and the march of time brings us daily nearer this consummation. Copper ore. has been found on the headwaters of the Tan-an-ah and White, rivers, and at White Horse, on the Yukon. This points to a copper lode of great ex­ tent traversing the country between those points,' much of which is in our Territory. It appears to us it is only a matter of time until a railroad is pushed HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE SKETCH .OK THE YUKON TERRITORY. from W hit»* Horse to the head of White river through this region, and thence to Selkirk, or some point on the Yukon—possibly Stewart will be a better point to Btrike for from the White river terminus. We have no correct map of White river, but taking it as laid down on our latest maps it is about 190 miles from White Horse to a point on YVhite river about midway between Klotassin and Nisling riv­ ers (tributaries to White river), while from there to the mouth of White river is about 45, and to Stew­ art 10 miles further. From the point on White river to Selkirk is about 70 miles. These distances total about 245 miles from White Horse to Stewart, and about 260 miles to Selkirk. It must be borne^ in mind that they are taken off the map in straight lines from point to point, and a road in the same general route would probably prove somewhat longer. The Stewart route would certainly prove the best for the general use of the country, as it would strike nearer to the mineral centers as known, terminating at what will in all probability prove one of the most im­ portant points in the country. It will also traverse a portion of the country away from the river and thus prove another source of lumber supply, a very impor­ tant consideration. When time shows the necessity for the extension of the railroad from White Horse towards Dawson, this line will prove the most direct, and probably com­ mercially more advantageous than any other. Indi­ cations of copper have been found at other points in the Territory, but nowhere so far of commercial impor­ tance. A small exposure of galena was found by the writer on Forty-Mile river in 1887 about three miles above the mouth, of which specimens sent to the Geo­ logical Department at Ottawa yielded 30 ounces of silver to the ton. The exposure, however, is too small to prove of commercial value unless it should expand as it is opened. Forms of asbestos have been found, but this would prove of more profit probably in the country than for export. Platinum is sometimes found associated with the gold and can hardly be considered apart from it, it has so far proved so trifling in amount. The existence of petroleum has several times been reported in the Territory, but so far nothing definite is known. Our lumber resources are very limited and fast disappearing, and it is little more than a matter of months until we have to import most of what is wanted fur building. It was deemed advisable two years ago to close all the smaller streams against timber cutting and permits until it was known what mining necessi­ ties required, but even if they were thrown open they would not prolong the supply very much. Fortunately nature has compensated the scarcity of wood by an abundant supply of coal. A discovery of this mineral is now reported near White Horse, and on his way down the river in 1887 the writer discov­ ered coal cropping out on the right bank of the river about six miles above Five Fingers. The seams as seen are thin but may thicken as they are followed. He also discovered coal on Coal creek just below Forty - Mile, and observed indications of it elsewhere in that country. Here the seams are thick and profitable to work. One of the seams is being mined and Dawson is in part using it as fuel. The Dawson fire depart­ ment has b»;en using it in its steam fire engines with unqualified Hueeess., Outcrops of the same coal mea­ sure are known at many other points, and one of them on Rock creek, a tributary of the Klondike, about 20 miles from Dawson, is being developed. The measure is known to extend from the Inter­ national Boundary Line southeasterly over 140 miles, and at many points is convenient to the Yukon river. All the exposures mentioned yield about the same grade of coal—a good lignite. Tests do not give it credit for useful coking qualities. If it had it would be easy to establish smelters at White Horse to reduce the copper ore there. Apart, however, from any such question, the mineral is most important in the country, and we have unlimited fields of it. The reademnust pardon the meagre information given, and we ask him to recognize the large field and small space at our disposal. A few words on a question of great importance to the Territory will prove of interest. The Boundary question, and here, too, space forbids any attempt at exhaustion. The early exploring and trading adven­ tures of British and Russians in the last century en­ gendered controversies between those two countries over maratime and land boundaries—Russia claiming sovereignty over Bering sea, the intrepid Danish sailor who gave his name to it having, on behalf of Russia, navigated much of its shallow waters. This sover­ eignty Britain would not admit, and in this protest was joined by the United States After three years nego­ tiation a treaty was concluded and ratified in 1825 in which Russia abandoned the sovereignty of Bering sea, in which, also, the boundary line between thé posses­ sions of the contracting parties was defined. Unfortu­ nately scant geographical knowledge left the defini­ tions in part uncertain, or at least left room for. contention which would probably have resulted with the most exact definition when opposing interests and traditions meet Section III of the treaty provides (we cannot quote it all) that the line “shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection of the 14 1st degree of west longi­ tude,” west of Greenwich, and this meridian north­ wards was to form the boundary. Experience had taught Britain that mountains had been sometimes shown on maps which dH not exist, or, if they did, were not where they were represented to be. So an addendum, as it were, was put to Section III in Sec­ tion IV providing that where the mountain boundary as described above “shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possession and the line of coast, which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned, shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues (about 34)^ miles) therefrom.” Great bodies (generally) move slowly, and it may be years before any definite result is achieved, and until it is nature’s portals to the country are not as free as we could wish. But let no Canadian or Briton fear that the Empire is lax in pushing the question to a peace­ ful and fair solution. ■ Ok T hk Dawson Ba r .— Auguste Noel. 2. C. M. Woodworth. 3 Frank J. McDoügal. 4. N. F. Hagel, Q. C. 5. O. H. Clark. 6. D. H. MacKinnon. 7. Wm. M. McKay. 8. F. S. Stacpoole. 9. J. B. Pattullo. 10. Wm. Burritt. 11. E. Schoff. 12. Wm. White. 13. F. L. Gwillim. 14. J. P Smith, rs. H D. Hulin.-. 1. ] . F. M ’DO VA 1,0 . 2. R. W. CA U T U iV . 3. DA V MATTHRSOV. 4. I.ON G R IF F IV . 5. H . C. ADAMS. 6. U. S. CONSUL M ’COOK. 7 J. H TH QM LINSOV. S W. H . PARSONS. 9. H. J . GOBTZMAN. IO C H aS. MEADOWS. 11. FR A N * M O R T IM E R . 12. I.o l lS CA K F IN K L K 13. H. M ’DIAHMID. 14. GEO. DF LION. I. K. W. BROW N. 2 JO H N L. TIM M IN S 3. H. TE R O L L E R , VICE U. S CONSUL. 4. E. B. BROWN. 5 E. S STRAIT. 6. A. S. R E E D . 7. DR. THOMPSON. 8. J . T. BURKE. 9 FALCON JOSI.VN. IO R. M. BE O R \ Il W. M H R K R O ' . 12 THOS. CHTSHOLM. 13. W. V. TUKEY 14. C. M CH AM BERS. LS M RYAN l6. Il P. HANSEN. 17 KM. S ORR. |8 . J. P M ’LKNNAN. 19. HARRY EDWARDS. 2 ) K I’. M I .E N N \N . . D A W S o N ’S D E P A R T n E N T T O R I F V A. E. COMPANY T his Store opened its doors to the purchasing public of Dawson and Yukon Turritory, August 1898 under the direction of the present manager Mr. L. R. Fulda. At that time the Company owned two small warehouses, comparing these with the Seven Mammoth Storehouses now owned and filled to the roofs with the choicest products of the worlds markets one cannot wonder that this Company has established its SUPREMACY IN DAWSON. THE STORE.... is acknowledged to he the best in in the Yukon Territory, the interior arrangement is superior to manv large citv Stores, a WAITING ROOM HANDSOMELY FURNISHED in connection with the Cloak Department is a feature that appeals to the Cadies of I 'awson. /lo c k s Carried FIVE NEW’ DEPARTMENTS were added this year, namelv Staple and Fancy Diy Goods, Men’ s and Boy’ s Clothing ; and Furnishings, Boots and J"hoes, Ladies’ and Misses j • J"uits and Jackets, and Machinery, while the Grocery, Provis'cns, Feed, Hardware, Furniture, Crockery, G lass­ ware, stationery and Drug Departments - have all been replenished with----- New Goods.. •1100.000, one hundred thousand dollars has been spent in develop­ ing a Coal Mine at Rock ('reek. 20 miles from Dawson. The product is a Superior Quality o f Coal * ...and is now’ on sale in Dawson... The Business Principles which have guided us in the past will be Strictly : dhered to in the future.------ — Alaska Exploration Co. w /V tf "VF MINERAL WEALTH OF YUKON TERRITORY. BY T. DUFFERIN PATTULLO, OF THE GOLD COMMISSIONER’S STAFF. I T IS doubtful if the early pioneers of the Yukon Ter­ ritory—those men, who, when almost nothing was known of this region, when the presence of gold was a mere rumor, when success was a hope and fail­ ure a probability, first crossed the divides in search of gold—it is doubtful if these men, could, in their most sanguine moments, anticipate the present stage of mineral development in the Yukon Territory. That the splendid growth which has attended the efforts of the early pioneers of the territory, will continue for a very considerable number of years, there seems every reason to believe. To properly estimate the possible resources of the Yukon Territory it is necessary to review briefly the primary conditions under which mining was carried on in the early days of the camp in relation to condi­ tions as they exist today. There can be no doubt that mining operations in the Yukon have been car­ ried on under great natural disadvantages. Practically water and fuel are the only articles which this: territory produces for the sustenance of human life and the car­ rying on of mining operations. All food stuffs and tools and machinery for the carrying on of mining operations have to be imported and the centre of supply is fifteen hundred miles distant In the early days in the life of the territory all these supplies had either to be packed across the Chilcoot and White passes upon men's backs or brought up the river by the pioneer trading companies who had a monopoly of the trade and whose interest it naturally appeared to be to keep up the price of all articles brought into the territory by them. The result was that bacon and beans consti­ tuted the chief diet of the miner and a pick and shovel were his only tools for the development of his claim. Under these circumstances, it was not until the par­ ticularly rich discovery of Bonanza creek, made by Mr. Geo Cormack, that men began to realize that there were immense possibilities in the gold resources of the territory. With the discovery of Bonanza creek may be said to have begun the tide of immigration into the terri­ tory. It was readily seen, however, by the early workers upon Bonanza and adjacent creeks, that if handsome profits could be made on many claims of these creeks with the cost of all articles at a maximum figure and with work carried on in the most crude manner, that with the cost of food stuffs lowered, with the importation of machinery, and the lowering of wages, scores of miles of territory which it was im­ possible to work at a profit under the circumstances then existent, could, with improved conditions, be placed upon a paying basis and the life of the camp be extended indefinitely. It did not take long for shrewd business men upon the outside to realize this and to the credit of the Government at Ottawa it must be said that they at once realized the importance of the finds within the territory and immediately undertook the organization of the territory and the establishment of the machinery of government. Today we have the through communication by telegraph completed, a railroad completed to a point this side of White Hors^ Rapids, steamers operating up­ on the upper Yukon, and in Dawson today instead of a tew loghuts we have a thoroughly substantially built town of hundreds of buildings, many of which would do credit to cities of the east With the improvement in transportation facilities and the immigration of many thousands of people have come the rapid and more easy importation of all articles of consumption, machinery etc and the lower­ ing of wages, and ground is now being worked at a profit which formerly would not pay. As yet it must be said, there has not been that decline in the price of commodities which the present facilities of transport would naturally lead one to expect but this is due to a variety of circumstances which it is not the purpose of this article to discuss. I do not think, however, that the public is so much concerned regarding the manner in which pres­ ent development has been brought about as it is in the actual resources, and the possibilities which are likely to accrue, from the resources of the territory At the present time Bonanza, Eldorado, Hunker, Sulphur, Gold Run and Dominion creeks and many of'their tributaries are being developed upon a large scale. Large quantities of machinery have been placed upon many claims and the day of the pick, shovel* and rocker is about ended. The question now naturally arises, how long before these creeks will be worked out ? In answering this question I wish to be conservative. Worked as they are at present a few years will prob­ ably work out the best claims upon these creeks, but there are miles and miles of territory within the gold area of these creeks which has not yet been touched, and which, together with ground already worked in a primitive manner but which will be reworked, will provide work for a thriving population for—let us say, a generation. In this connection I am speaking of placer mining There is also to be considered gold quartz and copper. ro DAWSON Till*: KOAD 'I Il is a lm o st impossible at the present stage of dev lopment in (|uart/ mining in this territory to lore tell -.lie extent and value of gold quartz here. Recent­ ly there has been considerable prospecting for gold quartz and a few hardy old prospectors seem to think that they have found the “mother lode." It is quite certain that some wonderfully good surface indications have been found, though until considerable develop­ ment has been done it is impossible to determine as to the merits of those finds. That many have a great deal of confidence in the quartz of the territory is shown in measure by the number of locations recorded at the Gold Commissioner’s office in Dawson and the various recording offices throughout the territory. Regarding copper the same may be said as of gold quartz, only development work can determine how rich this territory is in that mineral. A factor which will be potent in the future devel­ opment of this territory is the discovery of a good quality of coal While the timber resources are great, each year they are further removed from the centre of demand and in the future development of quartz min­ ing, the coal of this territory will undoubtedly be of immense value. What we today, however, must realize, is that the present field of operations will, beyond doubt, last for many years to come, with the possibility, I will even say probability, of the territory’s resources last­ ing for generations to come. There are immense pos­ sibilities in store for the Yukon Territory. Tt is a matter for capital to determine. It is not likely, how­ ever, that capital will overlook a field of operations which will produce, I believe, during the year 1900- 1901 $25,000,000. THE ROAD TO DAWSON. T HE days of ’97, like unto, the days of ’40, iire now hut a memory. The hardships endured by the gold seeking argonauts in their prog­ ress over the icy passes and by raging torrents toward the golden Klondike have faded away as mists before the sun. Where once the weary prospector toiled painrully along with pack and sled, today the shriek of the locomotive is heard, and the thii.l whistle of float­ ing palaces resounds and echoes through the pines. The tourist, or the fortune-seeker, who today visits the Yukon finds that the achievements of the engineering genius have smoothed the way, till now, what was formerly a task requiring the exertion of will and muacle has become a pleasure trip. Leaving Vancouver or Seattle the traveller jour­ neys on one of a dozen finely appointed steamships and within three or three and a half days’ time ar­ rives at Skagwa}' at the head of the Lvnn canal. There he purchases a ticket from the officials of the White Pass tf e Yukon railway and is conveyed over the mountains in a modern up-to-date railway carriage through landscapes whose beauty is excelled by none. In and out of the mountain gorges winds the puff­ ing locomotive, the synonym of progress, while in the valley far below can be seen glimpses of the trail that the pioneers of ’ 97 followed through heartbreak and disappointment to fortune in the Golden North. A run of four hours brings him to Bennett, nest­ ling at the foot of a mountain heading a lake of the same name, and after a short wait the train rushes on again to W ’hite Horse. Here is the parting of the ways, and the traveller most here decide whether he will entrust himself and his goods' t a scow or embark 011 one of the twenty palatial i-teamers now running "ii the Upper Yukon. In the one case there will he a personal fare of $30 and ihe freight charges on h i-» outfit which amount in all to abuut $125 per ton from Vancouver to Dawson. On the otln-r hand he may purchase a scow at prices ranging from $300 to $800, accoming t the demqpd at the time. It is generally consider' d cheaper and better to ship all lots of five tons or uader direct to Dawson via the White Pass line and connecting steamers, though many ] eop!e with large shipments prefer to handle them by the methods of s owe. From White Horse the traveller, should he decide to take a steamer, will arrive in two days at Dawson, the metropolis of the North, and the fountain of that stream of gold winch for the last three years has daz­ zled the world. Here he will find as orderly and as modern a city as exists anywhere on earth, where through tne tele­ graph he will lie within two minutes of Vancouver and the outside world. The journey can be made from Vancouver to Dawson in about six days’.time, with no probability of accidents, and with all the comforts and much more pleasure than attend traveling in other parts of the world. The total expense of the trip from Vancouver to Dawson should not exceed $100, and it can B e made at less expense. 1. DAW SON E L E C T R IC L IO H T PO W E R H O U SE A N D M A C H IN E S H O PS. 2. DAW SON M A C H IN E S H O P S . 3 . K L O N D IK E M IL L , K L O N D IK E C IT Y . 4 C .-Y L U M B E R CO ’S M IL L . 5 O. W . H O B B S’ M IL L . 6 YUKO N SAW M IL L . 7 . T H E L A D U E CO. M IL L . I . M ’L E N N A N , M ’F E E L Y ft C O .’S W A R E H O U S E . 2. S T A N D A R D O IL CO. 3 . DAW SON W A R E H O U S E CO. 4 W H IT E PA SS A YU K O N DO CK . 5 . A. K. CO. W A R E H O U S E S . 6 YU K O N DO CK . 7 . L A N C A S T E R ft C A I.D E R H E A D DOCK. C A L IF O R N IA M F.AT M A R K E T 2. A V E R Y ’S S T O R E . K L O N D IK E M A R K E T , ETC J . S T O R E O F O 'B R IE N & M O R A N , K L O N ­ D IK E C IT Y , A N D M R . O ’B R IE N 'S H O M E . 4 S U S P E N S IO N B R ID G E O V ER K L O N D IK E R IV E R . 5 . J . E . W IL S O N ’S T E A M S . ^6 A N D 7 . DAW SON G A R D E N S . S. E X T E R IO R O F . A. T & T . CC . W A R E H O U SES 9 . I T E R IO R K L O N D IK E M IL L . r. B E N N E T T C IT Y , B. C ., ON W . P . & Y . R Y . 2. T U N N E L ON T H E W . P . ft Y . R Y . 3. T H R O U G H T H E P A 9S. 4. BIG C U R V E ON T H E W. P. ft Y ..R Y . 5 . C A R IB O U C R O S S IN G . 6 . H A N G IN G RO CK ON W . P . ft Y . R Y . 7 . N E A R T H E W H IT E PASS S U M M IT. 8 . BLACK L A K E ON W . P . ft Y . R Y . " O ’BRIEN, JACKSON & McDONELL, C. A, FREIDMAN, PROPRIETORS. MANAGER. Dawson s Leading Play House 2 8 8 3 S8 £S8 S8 SSS83 S8 8 8 S » 8 8 g8 SS ; \ OurCircuid , VICTORIA, \ \ VANCOUVER, \ l WHITEHORSE, \ \ ...D AW SO N. \ ADDRESS ALL G CORRESPONDENCE g T O ... £ C. McNllle, \ Box 372, s VICTORIA, S B. C. $ ...LONGEST CIRCUIT IN TH E WORLD... Reputable Artists Get Good Engagements From Us Grand Sacred Concerts S Every Sunday Evening.. B RULING, BINDING, PRINTING, ...B la n k B o o k M a k in g ... Bring your “special form" jobs to us, and have them neatly and accurately ruled by machinery. We have the only Ruling Machine and Bindery north of Vancouver. On short notice w e can rule and bind any form or book for you. We carry the largest stock of Ledger and heavy Linen Papers in the North, and Guarantee Satisfaction... JOB WORK DONE WHILE YOU WAIT! The Yukon Sun, DAW SON, Y. T . METEOROLOGICAL STATISTICS. BY COMMISSIONER WILLIAM OGILVIE. 1^ attempting even an outline of the meteor.dgical conditions of the Yukon Terrritory the paucity of records must be borne in mind. At only a few points and in broken intervals has any authentic record been kept. Many who would observe regularly have not had reliable instruments, and JO the writer wishes to give only what is reliable, he is compel led to rely, it might be said, entirely on his own ob-erva- tions. These extend over three different periods. First, from August, 1887, until Mjy, 1888, bot^ in­ clusive. Second, Irom August, 1895, until April* 1897, both inclusive. Third, from November (in­ clusive) 1898, until date. A summary of these readings follows in thL article. The readings were taken from standard in­ struments furnished by the meteorological depar.ment of Canada. These instruments «re the he-t grade by the be.-t maker- nnd are carefully tested by compari­ son with a standard instrument at the Royal Observ­ atory at Kew, England, and with each instrum enta table of its errors, technically called " ‘index errors,” is furnished, which enables us to correct our readings to standard. However, the errors are always small, generally a small fraction of a degree, which for all ordinary purposes, may be neglected. In the sum­ mary furnished the readings are corrected. The reader may be somewhat surpised at the lack of readings away down in the 70s and 80s, which report often attributes to this territory. During five winters’ sojourn in this country the writer has, dur­ ing one winter only, noted it below 60 and that only seven times, and this winter (1895-6) is r Terred to by old timers as the cold winter. Much of the talk about extiemely low temperatures is founded on mere con­ jecture, based on the freezing point of liquids, such as pain killer, which is not likely to have a uniform freezing point, as the amount of non-freezing fluid in it may vary. Mercury freezes or solidifies at —39.2, and below —35 a mercurial thermometer is very unreliable. The writer has seen a standard mercurial thermometer register be’ow —60 alongside of a stand­ ard spirit one which stood at —54, and the latter, of cour.-e, was correct. Another source of error with non-trained or inex­ perienced observers is reading the minus readings the wrong w iy, or towards 0 instead of away from it. To illustrate: Self-registering thermometers generally lie nearly horizontally. Now, suppose an untrained or inexperienced observer has read a considt rable number of positive readings and is suddenly called on to read a succession of (or minus) readings. In the positive readin s he has been reading towards the right or in the natural order. In the minus readings the direc­ tion is reversed and he is apt to call the temperature the arithmetical complement of what it really is. For instance, 47 aboye he records correctly, but 47 below lie is apt to read as 53 through force of habit in read­ ing towards the right. The same remarks apply to thermometers hanging vertically, where in positive reading he reads upwards and in minus reading downwards. With reference to high temperatures the writer has seldom seen thermometers show readings above 90 degrees when the instrument was properly sheltered from the sunlight. Above 90 degrees but few readings have ever been noted by him when the thermometer was truly in the shade. It must be borne in mind that these readings were all taken in the valley of the river, generally quite close to its bmks, and the temperature of the river water must have affected them. The tempera­ ture of the water in the main stream in July and August is 54 to 56 degrees, and of its tributaries from 46 to 56 degrees. Such a mass of water must affect temperalure near it, and it is fair to infer that records some miles away from the streams would be several degrees lower, even at the same altitude. The alti­ tudes above sea of different points alço affect the tem­ peratures, The range of altitude in the territory runs from about 800 feet at the international bound­ ary line to about 2,150 at Lake Lyndeman, Dawson being about 1,000, Selkirk about 1.440 and White Horse about 2,020. The only comparison we can make between records on the river and elsewhere is for the months of Match and April, 1899, between records kept on Dominion creek and Dawson. On Dominion creek the mean maximum temperature for March was 24 2, mem minimum -7""2; for April, mean maximum 520, mean minimum 17'7. The table sh ms those at Diwson. The earliest noted date of ice breaking up in the Spring is May 4, and the latest May 24. The latest known date on which ice appeared in the Fall was No­ vember 4, 1889 ; average, about the middle of October. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR DAWSON. 'T E M P E R A T U R E . N U M B E R O F T IM E S . l S 'J K W B M o n th . M ean M in im u m . M ean M a x im u m . H ig h e s t, j L o w est. 32 d e g s. a n d b elo w . Z e ro a n d b elo w . -10 d e g s. : a n d b e lo w . -20 d eg s. a n d b e lo w . -30 d e g s. a n d b elo w . -40 d eg s. a n d b e lo w . I I I | ? s i -00 d e g s. a n d b e le w . A ug. 30 » d e c s. 2 1-6 d e g s. 4 Bept. 31-7 1 60 18 O ct. 18‘5 •- 4-0 1 4 31 N ov. - 5 1 -24 1 “ 1 30 22 12 3 Dec. -33-6 •• -27.6 ilegs. 10-5 d e g s. -5 5 1 4 ' I 31 31 29 26 19 14 4 J a n . -25-3 - -15-8 13-0 • • -53*5 .. ! « 27 23 10 16 7 3 ; F eb . -1 6 8 •• - 4-8 - 24-2 * • -5 2 7 4 4 ! 29 24 17 1 1 7 ( » 1 ' M arch -1 1 5 “ -52-7 4 4 ! 26 19 13 6 ü 4 1 j A p ril -20 4 “ -37-7 14 ! 29 28 23 18 7 M ay 108 - 43 3 •• 55 0 * * - 1 8 * * : 30 1 A ug. 40-1 " 28-0 ■ ■ 6 0 S ep t. 90-0 21-5 ■ 18 O ct. 1 04 •• -12-7 i 29 1 1 N ov. 4-2 " 119 “ 3 8 5 “ -86 3 ; 30 12 3 1 1 Dee. -1 8 2 •• . -IS 8 6 0 -5 5 4 : 3 1 29 2 0 10 6 3 1 ; J a n . ■ 4 U “ -33 0 “ 6.0 -67 9 .. ! 31 31 29 25 24 15 12 5 F eb . -25 6 •• - 11-6 •• 3 20 -444-3 4 4 1 29 27 24 16 1 1 10 2 2 M arch 2-4 " 18 1 •• 39-5 -87 3 4 ‘ i 31 20 6 3 1 A p ril 2-0 “ 24.0 “ 49-0 -28-4 “ j 28 15 10 8 M ay 28-8 - 48-7 - 62.0 4 » 5-0 4 * 1 18 J u n e 39-8 ■ ■ 65-1 •• 8 00 27-8 4 J n ly 415 68.9 “ 81 0 33 0 ! A ug. 42T •• 62-6 - 76 0 27-2 ; 2 ! S ep t. 34-3 - Ô05 '* 6 30 4 8 “ 8 O ct 20-2 - 32 9 “ 51-0 - 1-0 * • 27 2 N ov. -14.7 •• - 6-0 “ 22-5 •• -38 0 “ 30 23 18 13 7 i Dec. -17-4 “ - 4 » 5 14 1 1 0 4 1 -44 5 4 4 31 28 19 1 1 7 2 ! J a n . -24 0 - -140 “ 10 0 .. -5 5 6 •• 31 27 2 1 16 13 9 t) F eb , -1-2-3 0 6 4 4 31-0 * • -3 6 0 4 * 28 23 14 9 2 i M arch -14-7 ■ * -54 8 30 2 1 15 42 8 5 a A p ril 181 - - 5 0 4 4 27 1 Nov. -177 “ -7 1 “ 23 2 .. -11.4 30 27 18 13 9 2 Dec. - 7.4 3-7 - 38-3 4 1 -41-2 1 4 82 27 16 5 3 2 J a n . -23-5 -12 1 •• 2-0 -1 4 6 .. ; 31 31 30 22 12 Feb. -1 9 6 “ - 3-9 •• 7.4 -41 4 4 4 i % 28 19 15 7 2 ! M arch - 9 8 “ •23.7 •• 51.0 34.2 “ 31 19 13 9 7 i A p ril 217 52T 67-1 3-0 4 4 26 j M ay 35-9 65 4 “ 76 0 17-0 4 4 8 J u n e 4 M “ 73.5 900 39 3 * • J u ly 5 06 •• 80-2 “ 94 6 42-6 *1 Aug. 46 2 “ 71-7 “ 87 6 30-0 “ 1 1 1 S ep t. 30-9 “ 50-3 “ 78-5 4 4 2 1-2 8 • O ct. 1 1 0 25.4 “ 46 9 - 9 6 4 ‘ 31 7 N ov. 6-9 “ 13-9 •• 303 -15-0 30 7 2 Dec. -29-3 •' -13-2 '• 17-6 4 4 -49 5 4 4 81 26 22 19 14 4 ■ -1 J a n . -30-5 •• -177 •• 6-6 -55-5 .. 1 31 30 27 «4 18 7 2 Feb. -1 6 0 " - 1-8 “ 183 -44.6 28 2 1 15 13 9 4 M ar c h - 2 0 “ 32-2 - 51 6 -41-2 4 4 31 13 30 19 8 2 A o ril 23-1 • 43 5 “ .50-8 2-8 14 26 May 35-9 •• 58 0 " 67-3 » « 22-7 1 4 6 J u n e 45-2 •' 69-2 - 87-6 36-4 4 4 J u ly 50 3 - 71-9 85 9 40-1 4 4 l Aug. 44-5 62 3 - 81 3 30-0 “ 1 , Sept. 3 5 » - 51-4 •• 64 6 “ 25-8 4 4 6 1 R E M A R K S . F ir s t sn o w o n th e 23rd. |F 1 rst ic e r u n n in g in r iv e r o n 21nt. ;I« ! Ret in r iv e r o n th e 15th. N o re a d in g s w e re ta k e n 3 rd , 4 th , 6 th . | 7 th , 8 th a n d 1 1 th . iM ax. T e m p , w a s n o t ta k e n o n 3d. N o re a d in g s w e re ta k e n fro m 1st to 9 th . F irs t ice i n r iv e r 21st O c to b e r ic e s e t in r iv e r (to 22nd N o v e m b e r le e b ro k e u p M ay 17th. F irs t ice O c to b e r 3 rd , ra il t h ic k ly u n til 1 3th, c le a r e d , a n d c a m e a g a in 29th. Ice s e t N o v e m b e r 13th. N o r e a d in g s fo r M ax. T e m p . 6 th , 7 th ,8 th •• •• “ “ •• u p o n 16 d a y s. “ “ •• “ “ o n th e 28th. ..................................................... •• 4 th & 5 th . Ice b ro k e u p M ay 14th. iliid a y s r e a c h e d o n ly 1 to 5 a n d 21 to3t). IF irst ic e in r iv e r o n 13th. C lo sed 23rd. Ice b ro k e n p M ay 8 tb . iF irs t s te a m e r to D aw so n M ay 16th. A P O R T IO N O F T H E YU KO N R IV E R F L E E T . 7- STF.A M ER C L IF F O R D S IF T O N S H O O T IN G M IL E S C A N Y O N . SOM K OK T H K YUKON R IV E R F L E E T . v THE WHITE P A S S & YUKON ROUTE. The Scenic Route ..... of the World. m m m m m m m m m m m m m m w m m m m m m m m s | Skagw ay f | To Dawson | ! In 48 Hours g N O EXPENSIVE TRANSFERS. At the Terminus of the Railway you step from Luxurious Coaches to Palatial Steamboats that carry you down the Northern Rivers to Dawson. It is a Pleasure Trip, the entire distance; 150 pounds of baggage free with each full ticket; 75 pounds with each half­ fare ticket. STEAMERS LEAVE WHITE HORSE DAILY. For Information relative to Passenger or Freight Rates apply to any Agent of the Company at San Francisco, Seattle, Tacoma, Victoria, Vancouver, or to E. C. HAWKINS, Gen. Mgr. S. M. IRWIN, Gen. Traffic Mgr, Skagwfty. Seattle and Skagwav. J. H . R O G E R S, Agent, Dawson. w iu^ V L 'l V f f ? f ? ? S '* Fine Tailor-Made. Suits and Overcoats They come high in price, but you get Garments that will satisfy you. THEY LOOK SWELL, FIT RIGHT AND ...KEEP THEIR SHAPE... A Magnificent Line of N EC K W EA R , SHIRTS A N D ..HOSIERY. A Fine Assortment o f ^ Fur caps a n d M i t t e n s See our Goods, and we feel quite sure you will purchase. U c n P U D C n r The Reliable Seattle IP S H B ER G , ctotliler. istjAve., opp. C.D. Dock. Do you want to Buy or Sell Come and See Us Anything? jAjA B a rre n & null WHOLESALE AND COMMISSION .. MERCHANTS... — • — All kinds of Provisions Bought and Sold or Handled on Commission. Dealers in Hay, Grain and Feed. AGENTS FOR STEAMERS We have landing facilities for Steamers and Scows, and forward Goods in any Quantity to all Parts of the Yukon River, or Creeks. WARM OR COLD ..STORAGE.. Office at ■ B a rre n & Hull D e ck, » *W S M V T ESTABLISHED 1897- A. J. Bannerman, ! % % % V Dawson, Y. T. Real Estate Mining and Financial Agent Correspondence Solicited.. References Furnished.. OFFICE/: VICTORIA CHAMBER/, Cor. is t Ave. an d znd St. S T R A IT ’S Auction House This house offers Greater Bargains than ever. Come in Chechacos and Sourdoughs and let me sell you an outfit cheaper than the cheap­ est........... Groceries and General Merchandise. Near Klondike Hotel, front St. GEO. H■ ME AO, S u c c e sso r to E 9. S tra it. W. R. D O C k rH I ft CO. ..PRESCRIPTIONS OUR SPECIALTY.. Nlgir clerk H A tte M u e e ---------South Dawson. Fairchild’ s Hotel.... T H E A T T E N T IO N of r e a d e r s of th e “ Su n ' s ” s p é c ia l is c a lle d to th e h a n d s o m e h a lf - to n e of m y H o te l, w h ic h a p p e a r s o n p a g e 14: My w in ­ d o w d is p la y of B o ttle d g o o d - is th e fin e s t in J aw son u n d s p e 'k s fo r th e Q u a lity o f m y w in e s a n d L iq u o rs . Accommodations Strictly First-Class. W. E. FAIRCHILD, Prop. DAWSON, Y. T. YUKON PIONEER TRADING CO... v / M V / A V » r» * » V t V . v * v v . v * w * * % KLONDIKE CITY, YUKON TERRITORY.. % General Merchandise, Dry Goods, Groceries, Miners’ Supplies, Ready-made Clothing General M erchants ! t Branches at............ ..Circle City and Forty-Mile.. I FUR/ B O U G H T . . O 'B R I E N & M O R A N - FORTY-MILE TOWNJTTE TO W N LOTS FOR SALE The Patent for this Townsite has been Issued, and the Undersigned can give ...A CLEAR DEED TO ALL LOTS SOLD... PLANS TO BE SEEN AS BELOW. APPLY TO T H O M A S O’B R IE N , K londike City. OR TO MIS AGENT AT FORTY-MILE o)o oü)°^ôlWoojoijooWgoj10^0 0 [°,i (o'WE1 foo)oivS'C® "/ÂYWEdo WâOoWS ro^jÊ'To E. T. Orr. A ° jo 'o x O \2 J D ) o i £ o X ° jo o x D 0 / 0 W . V . Tukey ORR & TUKEY, Freighters ...AND... Forwarders Daily Stage To and From Grand Forks. Dawson Office: A. C. Co Building, Phone 8. Warehouse: Opposite Electric Light Plant, Phone 43. Grand Forks Office: Oppo-ûte Gold Hill Hotel, Phone 9. . . AT RYAN’S You will find The real thing in UNDERW EAR. Opp. S-Y T. Dock. c m m S H " » T ? f-ÎM É A fN S . W 0 Q M m OX°fo C fo S O G v U oiofo The Best Assorted Stock of Groceries In Dawson Can be had At this “ Up-To- Date Store ” Family Trade and Miners’ Outfits get Special' Attention. J , L 7 im m ins, S e c o rd A ve % THERE IS ALWAYS A before and an after to eating, and conference is most valuable i:i the be­ fore stage G R IFFIN & BOYKER. proprietors of Dawson’s popular Cafe, the NORTHERN, are on the top wave of prosperity, and success has rewarded their endeavors to please their patrons in giving them he best service, the best food, and the most comfortable surroundings of a 'y eating place in the Northwest country. Recently the proprietors have expended a large sum in remodeling and refitting this popular place, and patrons can row enjoy the good service and- polite attention afforded them at all times midst surroundings ot plate glass mirrors and finest of fittings. This with Private Boxes tor Families speaks volumes for the gentlemen who have done so much in giving Dawson-a Metropolitan cafe. Special Rates for Banquets. The Best $ 1 0 0 Dinner in the City. Short Orders at All Hours. Northern Cafe, DAWSON, Y. T. I» f h c y - « P i d ro S S if if driié m m cr: ^ II if "è% ...ALWAYS FIRST.... *A««r s ' D r u .? ,S V R E I D & C O ., CHEMISTS. 1 ■* ir t Avi'., Dawson. V. T. NIGHT BEIL IN CONNECTION. The Yukon Plum bing, Heating and Engineering S. A. WYE, Manager. Supply C o ., L id . ('or. Tliinl Ave. and Thin! St., .... Opposite New I’ostolliee, DAW SON, Y. T. S - V .T . CO. DEALER IN éé M M » W High-Grade Goods” General iBfflBKI Hardware, Merchandise, | | S t e a m F it t in g s , E tc . SECOND AVE., Between Second and Third Sts., DAW SON, Y. T. IS A BUSINESS I UNDERSTAND. Others may profess to know, but with me there is no experimenting. Quick Despatch with due regard to care of all goods sent by my trams is guaranteed. Phone ip, Dawson. J. E. WILSON. 0 . W. HOBBS, MANUFACTURER AND RETAILER OF LUMBER Mill Work in All Branches. Manufacturer and Dealer in Brick and Lime. ( 'orresponden.ee solicited. D a w s o n Saw M i l l & B u ild in g C o . 0 . W. HOBBS, PROPRIETOR. DAWSON, Y. T. J . P . W H I T N K V W . C . P l\D E A R WHITNEY & PEDLAR, The Old Reliable Firm of Bennett and White Horse. ! M in ers’ O u lllis a S pecially. I General Merchandisers WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. Stock new and fully complete. The only Brick Store in Dawson, ('.ive us a call before looking elsewhere. DAWSON, Second Ave., Near Postoffice. WHITE HORSE, Y. T. 0^ 0 (0 5 ^0( 0 ° ) ( S ^ o S S O f ô N S C fo 'O C Ïo 'O tf o N 5 (5 ^^(5o^C S ^O C ro^3C roN sC ro ï3üo'«W o-' 0 3 ^0 (0 x O ^ o X ? G spj) °} 0(0 y O v J ^ c y ^ o çxon ojot* 3 FINEST STORES «.AND». STOCK jt IN j* DAWSON. 5M ( i o ^ o 000 C i)o ^ o io/ u o V O o(o G fo x ? Cvo a o)ü(i .Sole Agents In Dawson and Northwest Territory for. Lubeck’s Vegetables, ^fî^Rex Meats. :REOPENED The Sourdough’s Favorite ^ORPHEUM THEATRE^ Dawson, Yukon Territory. ♦♦Remodelled and Refitted Throughout^ rr\^C pi a 'S p /'o OUR MOTTO; “BE UP-TO-DATE." STRICTLY ADHERED TO ..We Pay the Best Salaries in the North.. Performers Communicate with ALEX. PANTAGES, Manager. m j)o(o m q J o t Tg w O ofo G T oX9 O ofo $§% ^°r° (sc£v t 0 1 0 / q o jj° g ! CSOÇ) o )o { o v o jn Q v ® f lc \J ® J D G S 5 . [c ^ o ÎV c 0 X 3 (3 7 Lim ited. Yukon Telephone Syndicate, ...Telephone Exchange Bnlldlng... 3d Street, between 1st and 2nd Avenues. Do a Lim e Telephoning and save much Tim e and ..T r a v e l.. DONALD B. OLSON. Manager. % Dawson Electric L ig jp tt & Power Co., LIMITED. OFFICE: 3rd Street, next Door to A. C. Store. 0 * T » PHONE C EN TR AL DONALD B. OLSON. Manager. IF Y O U LIVE T O E A T ! Try The California M eat Market, ^rd Avenue South, rpposite Electric Light Plant. OYSTERS, GAME AND FISH IN SEASON. A Trial order will convince you that you receive the Rest the Market affords.................... REHP1 & BUCKHOLZ, PROPRIETORS NORQUAY’S ^ — - DRUG STORE C 0 » J ° J o (c Drugs and Chemicals. 6Î$n. : ..Prescription Work a Specialty.. 1 FRONT STREET. ^ FOR CHOICE LIQUORS V OR A FANCY MIXED DRINK \t V The Sideboard O P I T I MULLIN, Prop. D. A. SHINDLËR, W%fW BICYCLES, G U N S, A M M U N IT IO N .. .. HARDW ARE .. Complete Line of Bicycle Parts. Q l 0 T 0 W oT^Q Jo o j o j o Jo ° A ? Jo 0) o (d y o m Ü M ) O^oVo 0 ^ 0 (0 V o j o J. U f o'0 5o^tfr f O ^O » ^(5oS9 J^\D u^\D (5pS 2ercr^(5P o '^G ro x 9 (3 o ^ (V o X 9 (5 109 Front Ssrect, DAWSON, Y. T. o o ; ÇVOP) qjo Ç ) c x ° ^ c x ° ficx5^^îs2J9 *îsâ^)^Rs2-D^X2-0G5iovO C5i ioJDQi *0(0 °JX°?o 0 ) 1 ofo o(oo ÿ c M O °,4?Jo®) 2 ^ 0 °)jZ C o v o \ ° vot^O I m L ' \ ,/K' / K ’ \}S Wholesale** A. M - Co. Retails Dawson, Y. T. -:- San F rancisco, Cal. Nomk, Alaska. ^*i\i j y 1 *£^Sellers of General Merchandise^^ ; 7i\j Quality First, \/T\ï Price Afterward. ;/T\i ..THE AMES MERCANTILE COMPANY.. 01' R POLICY:------ — N ]T “ Your Money Back If Not Satisfied” ...WE PROMISE YOU A NEAT SAVING HERE... ,/ i~ v MY : M \C - /K t l g '/lvF '\ i s , ;?Kj ■ /i*\ /.U M i\ M V DAWSON, Y. T \s l\'} - ------- W PORTLAND BAR Cor. 3d Street and Second Ave. ..Telephone j* Connection.. ' ...... Red Front Grocery.. JOE HOUSTON, Proprietor... High-Class STAPLE AND FANCY GROCERIES^ Special Attention Given to OUTFITTING OF MINERS... 2nd Street, near Bank B.N.A. DAWSON, Y. T. m '* « * ALASKA COMMERCIAL CO / J i- , \]A . \ 1 S } ...The Pioneer Company of the Yukon... ky;; Largest S t o r e s L a r g e s t Warehouses / 1 V Largest Steamboats. vj “ Xarçjest Business r-lV , 1900 - ««S— ?K ~ - .~ Halfdan Orotschier.. 1565 Largest Stock of Goods ' S T • ' ! '7 K i ‘M T ,y i\’ Dawson Post Is Fitted With Public Safe Deposit Vaults ■ 1900 ./iv MY, '.s ly m m m / 1\ ÏM/ | / 1 \ i / i v U’l V (\!/ MINING BROKER AND REAL ESTATE AGENT.. Room 8, Aurora No. 2 , Building. Front Street, Dawson, Y. T. If You Want the Best STATIONERY, CONFECTIONERY, Etc. CAM, AT TII1C---------- Athenian Circulating L ib ra ry & ...AR T STORE... 2nd Avenue. Between 2nd and 3d Streets OLSEN ô TÔZIER, Proprietors. VjF O'BRIEN C L U B e^ ^ V . $ T r A r A r A f A r T AAA t W i t ...A Gentlemen's Resort m ' / l \ ;xu: Si Win re you meet all the prominent men of tlie city and are af- forded the opportunitv for diversion and entertainment. )/!* K j* .J. A. Marchbank, Manager.. / i - Front Street, Dawson, Y. T. :• p-Y BONANZA BUIhDlNO. W y \\J V r / s t { Every Picture In This Number Was Made From a Photograph I aken l»y GOETZMAN C -y , V * dm ' 1$ # f i w DAWSON’S LEADING PHOTOGRAPHER Copies of Each Subject May be Obtained of Him on Application. Ÿ f # VIEWS OF THE KLONDIKE. T housands of Pictures were taken by Goet/unan during tlie Rush of 1HP7-DH, and to date, including scenes on White Pass, the famous Chilcoot Pass, and all the way to Dawson; pictures of Dawson and the Mines in any number, up to date. Copies of all these may be obtained on ap- ication in person or by mail. f r PO R TR A ITS A S P E C IA LTY . •% . G O ETZM AN TH E PHOTOGRAPHER, Victoria Building, Dawson, Y. T. I f f S) t V V s ■ f S ' f s l4**àà» à«ètâ*A« A A A A ^A A A A A A A J \ 7 A!)K A - AI K MAN. Advocates, Notaries. Etc. F. HAGEL, Q. C . Office, A. C. Office Building. Barristers and Solicitors, Advocates, Notaries Public. Conveyancers. Telephone No. 48. 'J 'A B O R A'HULME. sters and Solicii c. Conveyancers Offices, Rooms 1 , 2, 8, Orphcum Building. gELCOURT. MrDOUGAL A SMITH, Barristers, Solicitors and Notaries. Offices in Ottawa and Dawson. Rooms i and 2, Chis­ holm's Block. Special attention given to Parliamentary work. N. A. Belcourt, M. P . Q. C , Frank McDougal. J. P Smith. 8 Law Offices: Over McLennan, McFeelv A Co,’ s New Store. Dawson, Y. T. pATTULLO A RIDLEY, — Advocates, Notaries, Conveyancers, Etc. Offices, First Avenue. J^JACKINNON A NOEL. Advocates. Second St., Near Bank of B. N. A . glJR R IT T A McKAY, Ad vocates, Solicitors, Notaries. Commissioners for Ontario and British Columbia. ■ ^ H IT E , McCAUL A DAVEY. 1 i Barristers, Solicitors, Advocates and Notaries Public. ; Offices in Aurora No. 2, Front St. QW ILLIM A CRIS?; FRANK L. Q W ILLIM FRED O. CRISP Offices in Aurora No. 2 Building, Dawson. gL U JN 8CHOFF, t Barristers, Solicitors, Notaries Public. Office: Victoria Building. P. 0. Box 2 f . Dawson. Y. T. - : J ► ► H. C. LISLE J. K. SPARLING. M. A. ;i T ISLE A SPARLING, Barristers, Solicitors, Notaries Public, Etc. Dawson, Y. T. Barrister. Notary Public, Ac. McLennan. McFeelv A Co.’s Building, Front Avenue, Dawson, Y. T. j'’ " D. GREEN, B. Sc.. Dominion Land Surveyor, QLARK. WILSO? A STAC POOLE. ; Barristers, Solicitors. Advocates and Notaries Public. Monte Car£o Office Building, Front Street. McLennan, McFcely A Co.’s Block, Dawson, Y.T. QAUTLEY A COTE. Dominion Land Surveyors, Office: Harper Street, Back of Klondike Hotel, Dowson, Y. T R. W Cautley, D. L. S., Late Mining Inspector. J. L. Cote, D. L. S., C. B., Department of interior. HERBERT E. A. ROBERTSON HAROLD B. ROBEB^rgON gOBERT#ON A ROBERTSON, j ^ Advocates and Notaries Public. W. 0 . M UCE. F. O. TURNER gR U C E A TURNER, Mining, Fire and Life Insurance, Real Estate and Financial Agents. ^ (fm s 9 and 10, A. C. Office Building, Third St. OAK HALL RIA, B. C. DAWSON, Y. T. C lo th in g , F u r n is h in g s , ^ m R n n t~ and S I o « o M c CAN BC eS S B R O S . vv'f ***** r*-