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Report of the Governor of the District of Alaska to the Secretary of the Interior

Author:Alaska. GovernorPublished:1897Type:Politics & GovernmentMARC Record:PAC MARC RecordDownload PDF:1897, Report of the Governor.pdf (18421 KB)
Frc-- REPORT OJ' 'rlIB GOVERNOR OF THE DISTRICT OF ALASKA TO TB1D SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. ~ 8 97. WASHINGTON: GOVEBNMENT PRINTING OFIl'lOE. 1891. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE DISTRICT OF ALASKA TO THE SECRET ARY OF· THE INTERIOR. ~ 8 97 .. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFIC1!l. 1897. REPQRT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. DISTRICT OF ALASKA, EXEOUTIVE OFFICE, Sitka, October 5, 1897. SIR: I herewith submit my report upon affairs in Alaska for 1897. LAW AND ITS EXEOUTION· IN ALASKA •. At the time of the transfer of Alaska to the United States by Russia, in October, 1867, this vast region was placed uuder the mili­ tary Department of the Columbia, and Gen. Jeff. C. Davis, with three companies of troops, was placed in charge. They were stationed at Port Tongas, Fort Wrangell, Sitka, Fort Kenai, and Kadiak. . Customs were collected from the first by revenne officers, but Con· gress, on July 27,1868; passed a law organizing the whole purchase into" a customs collection district,') and by the same act the importa. tion and sale of firearms, ammunition, and distilled spirits were pro­ -hibited. This state of affairs 60ntinued until June, 1877, when the order came to withdraw the last of the forces from Alaska. . Immediately after the occupation, American citiz~ns attempted to a !quire preemptioll rights to lands at Sitka. The Department decided that- . Such claims and. settlements ,are not only without the sanction of law, but are in direct violation of the provisions of the laws of Congress applicable to p'llblic (lomaill secnred to the United States by any treaty made with a foreign nation; and, if deemed necessary and advisable, military force may be used to remov(\ the intrU(lers. ." It is not easily understood how, during these ten years of military occupan\?y, the inhabitants of the ceded territory could be admitted to the eujoymeut of all the rights, advantages, and immuniti!3s of citizens ofthe United States, as ,guaranteed under article 3 of the treaty. After the withdrawal of the bst of the troops, the care of this immense area was cast upon the Treasury Department. For nearly a year the whole business was in' the hands of a deputy collector. By the w~y of preparation, two cases of rifles and two cases of ammunition were shipped to the collector's office at Sitka. The special agent telegraphed from Port Townsend to the Secretary of the Treasury, "No cutter should be dispatched without largely increased force and medical officer; Gatling gun required." And in another communication he sa.ys, "Since the withdrawal of the milita.ry 3 4 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. from Alaska that Territory has been practically without any govern· ment or protection whatever, save the occasional presence of a vessel of the revenue marine." . When a new collector came, in July, 1878, he at onoe assumed the functions of a probate judge as well as those of a customs officer. The Department began to feel that Alaska was very much of a white elephant, or was at least worthless and a watery waste; and, indeed, the chief of that department proposed to abolish the whole customs district. The natives became impressed with the idea that the whites who remained after the departure of the soldiers were not esteemed very highly, and consequently matters were brought to a climax in the spring of 1879, when a considerable portion of the natives at Sitka armed and organized themselves and attempted to march upon the white settle­ ment with the avowed. intent of massacre and plunder. They were prevented by the timely interference of Annahootz and his Kokwanton Rupporters. The inhabitants were thoroughly a.Jarmed, and sent a petition to the authorities of British Oolumbia to send a man·of:war at once to protect their lives until they could obtain protection from their own government. The Osprey was sent ofl" at once aud afforded the people protection until relieved by the U. S. S. Alaska. From this time until the autumn of 1884 Alaska remained under the rn1e of the Navy Department. During these years the people felt more free, as life and property were more secure; but there was but little incentive to take hold of any resources of the country save that of furs. Some attent.ion had been paid to mining near Sitka, and discoveries had been made near Juneau. No title con1d be obtained from the Govern­ ment. The naval officers did much to curb the natives by breaking up their stills with which they manufactured a murder-producing rum called "hoo-chi.DOO," by freeing those who were held in bondage as slaves, and by pnnishing those who had bound and tortured others as witches. Many of these officers gave aid and eucouragement to the missionaries, who began to establish schools and churches in behalf of these degraded people. . A feeling of better security began to prevail, and men started to prospect while others were developing quartz lodes near Sitka. In 1880 rich discoveries occurred on the main coast bordering on Gas'tinaux Ohannel. Some companies started enterprises in the fish industry. But every effort emphasized the fact that Alaska was without any civil government. At last Oongress gave heed for a little while, and, on May 17, 1884~ it passed what is known as the" organic act." This makes the whole ceded territ()ry into ajudicial district,and gives it a governor, district judge, attorney, clerk, marshal, four commissioners, together with· a certain nnmber of deputies. The collector of customs and his depnties are embodied as organized under the law of July 27,1868. Section 7 reads: "That the general laws of the State of Oregon now in force are hereby declared to be the law of said District so far as the same may be applicable." Section 8 creates it a land district, with a commissioner, the clerk and marshal to be the land officers ex-officio. The laws of the United States relating to mining claims and the rights incident thereto, were to be in full force and efl'~t, but it REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 5 expressly declares that "nothing contained in this act shall be con­ strued to put in force the general land laws of the Unit~d States." Section 9 provides: "There shall be no legislative assembly in Raid District, nor shall any Delegate be sent to Congress t11erefrom." The original law of 1R68 prohibiting the importation and sale of dis­ tilled spirits was strengthened, in section 14, by prohibiting the importa­ tion, manufacture, and sale of intoxicating liquors except for medicinal, mechanical, and scientific purposes. During the past twelve years and ov~r-that is, from 1884 until the beginning of this present Administration-the following persons have heen appointed and sent here to administer the law as they deemed it applicable under this act: Governors.-John H. Kinkead, Nevada; A. P. Swineford, Michigan; Lyman E. Knapp, Vermont; James Sheakley, Pennsylvania. Judges.-Ward McAllister, jr., California; E. J. Dawn, Oregon; Lafayette Dawson, Missouri; John H. Keatley, Iowa; John S. Bugbee, Californial Warren Truitt, Oregon; Arthur K. Delaney, Washington. United /States Attorneys.-E. W. Basket, Iowa; M. D. Ball, Virginia; Whit. M. Grant, Iowa; C. S. Johnson, Nebraska; Lytt~n Taylor, Ten­ nessee; Burton E. Bennett, Washington. Olerks.-A. T. Lewis, Illinois; Henry E. Hayden, Minnesota; N. R. Peckinpaugh, Indiana; C. D. Rogers, Alaska. Marshals.-M. C. Hillyer, California; Barton Atkins, New York; Orville'!'. Porter, Oregon; Louis L. Williams, Missouri. Oommi88'ioners at Unalaska.-Chester Seeber, California;, Joseph B. Johnston, Virginia; Melallcton W. Hunt, California; Louis H. Tarp· Jey, Oregon; Lycurgus R. W oodavard, Califoruia. Oommissioner at Kadiak.-Alphonso O. Edwards, Washington. Oommissioners at Juneau.-Henry States, Oregon; Louis L. Williams, Missouri; William R. Hoyt, Wisconsin; Henry W. MeIleDP, Indiana; John Y. Ostrander, Washington. • Oom1ni88ionm's at Sitka.-John G. Brady, Alaska; T. Carlos Jewett, Minnesota; ~obert C. Rogers, California. Oommissioners at Wro:n,qell.-George P. Ihre, Louisiana; ,James Sheakley, Pennsylvania; William A. Kelly, Alaska; K. M. Jackson, Texas. Oollectors.-Peter French, New York; John McCafierty, Kentucky; A:K. Delaney, Wisconsin; Max Pracht, Oregon; W. T. Hatch, Oregon; B. F. Moore, New York. If variety is the spice of life, Alaska has not lacked for seasoning during these years of the organic act. However, the present state of afi'airs is far preferable to that which existed during the years 1878 and 1879. The enconragement given to mining by the full extension of the min­ ing laws has pushed that industry forward by ~aps and bounds. But those who have been residents of the Territory for twenty or more years, and who have almost in defiance of regulations and rules settled upon and improved Jots of land for homesteads, have waited in vain for Congress to exteud the general land laws. Perhaps nothing has so retarded the true and substantial growth of Alaska as this helplessness on the part of settlers to obtain titles to their homes. The conditions which largely pr6vail in Oregon do not exist here, and any improvement which that State may hl1/ve made in her laws since 1884 does not innre to the benefit of this district. The civil and criminal jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in Oregon i8 very limited, 6 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. but they have other courts with greater powers, ·and the means of com­ munication are rapid and abundant. But a United States commis­ sioner clothed with the same civil and criminal jurisdiction, located at Unalaska, Circle City, or even at Juneau and Fort Wrangell, feels him· self circumscribed to pettiness when he is called to sit aud administer justice to litigants when he knows that his jurisdiction extends only to $250 in civil suits, and to six months' imprisonment in criminal cases. By the act approved June 4, 1897, four additional commissionerships have been created, who are to h.ave the same powers, duties, fees, and salaries as the present commissioners. The President has designated ~t. Michaels, Unga, Circle City, and Dyea as the places of residence. By the provisions of the organic act, section 4, the clerk is ex· officio recorder of tile district, but the district eourt may direct the establish­ ment of separate offices at Wrangell, Unalaska, and Juneau City. It did direct the establishment of offices at Wrangell and Juneau City, but not elsewhere; and it now appears that the court has no authority to redistrict the Territory and mark out proper boundaries for each commissioner as a recorder. These officers will thus be deprived of much of their expected income, and the certain salary of $1,000 will hardly be a sure preventative of what the papers call" klondicitis." All these commissioners should have their jurisdiction enlarged to $1,000 in civil suits and covering aJImisdemeanors where the punish­ me1lt is less than one year, the boundaries of their districts determined for recording purposes, and their salaries increased according to their location, the cost of subsistence and transportation, and the hardships to be endured. When the commissioner sits as a trial justice his mind should not be biased by the amount of fees there is in each case for himself. It would be better for all concerned to raise his salary and do away with ftles. The district court, in endeavoring to administer the law, has had a difficult task in wrestling with the OrE'gon code to find out what is applicable to cases under consideration. The population being so sparse and scattered makes it a matter of the greatest difficulty to secure juries. Matters of the greatest importance have come before this court, even affairs of international magnitude, and they have been disposed of with dignity and ability. A large proportion of the trials is for the violation of the liquor laws. Public sentiment has been strong against the enforcement of these laws, and .this sentiment has been iutensified by the inconsistent attitude of the Government itself. This is brought about by the collection of revenue by deputy internal revenue officers from those who are conducting saloons and manufactur­ ing beer. When the whisky dealers and brewers are broug'ht to tdal for the importation, manufacture, and sale of intoxicating liquors within th~ District, they exhibit their receipts for money paid on account of their busilless to a. revenue collector of the United States. The judge is prompt to rule this out as evidence in favor of the accused, but a jury will almost inval'iably bring in a verdict of "Not guilty." During the last term of court t.he judge made a strenuolls effort to enforce the law against this lar~e class of offenders, aud a number of convictions were secured. It was Ib demonstration tha.t the law could be upheld it' the officers of the court were determined to do it. ATTORNEY. The United States attoruey sllould be represented by an assistant at tlle court of each commissioner. The commissioner at Circle City, for BEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 7 instance can put the United States to an enormous expense by COlll­ mitting pe~sons on insufficient testimony, which will not hold even before a gra.nd jury. MARSHAL. The marshal and his deputies are the executive officers of the court. A glance at the shore liu·e of Alaska will convince one of t.he helpless­ lIess of officers who are to serve papers and make arrests. They can depend only upon the regular mail. steamers, w~ich touch at 'Yrangell, .J uneau, and Sitka, and return tWIce each month. All travelmg com· muuication must be by water. Among the multitudes who will turn their feet toward Alaska next spring will be llUmbers of daring criminals. Tbey are now reading the papers and picking up every item of information. A small seaworthy and fast steam vessel will always be a necessity to look after this class. The value of the protection to life and property which it will give will more than offset the expense. THE REINDEER PRODLEM. The people who live north of the Alaska Peninsula, on the Island of St. Lawrence, ou the shores of Bering Sea and Straits, upon the mar­ gins of the Arctic Ocean, and along the rivers which empty into these, are, by the testimony of revenue officers who have had long service iu these parts, by letters from missionaries who live among them, and by the narratives of explorers and traveler!:!, brought face to face with starvation, and large numbers of them peri..~h for lack of food. They have been accustomed to an abundance of whales, walrns, seals, fish, and wild reindeer. The white man has come with his wonderful machines-steamships, bomb lances, repeating rifles, and powerful gear. The whales go farther north, ·and numbers of steam whalers winter at Herschel Island, hoping to get at tbese monsters as soon as the ice breaks. The Eskimo finds his food supply diminishing year by year, with llO hope for better times. ' Those who had long paid attention to and studied this sad condition of these fine people asked why they could not be taught to cultivate th~ domestic reindeer. The Chuch Chee, across the straits in Siberia, raIse them, and are never brought to hunger. The reindeer is as va.luable ill its way to an Eskimo as the bamboo is to a Chinaman. It affords him food, shelter, clothing, utensils, and transportation. This question commended itself to the common sense of some benev­ olent people, and inquiries were started. The Alaska Eskimo kill about 15,000 wild reindeer each year. The domestic aud wild reindeer eat the same kind of food, and there could be uo question about a supply of food over a vast regioll. This was such a hopeful project that Dr. Sheldon Jackson, geu~ral agent of education in Alaska, took it up for action. Strange as It may seem, this enterprise has been under the fostering care of the Bureau of Educatioll from its inception. . It has been demonstrated that the deer can be purchased in Siberia and tr~lIsported to Alaska; that they can be herded and multiplied. The mtroduction of the families of Laplanders, who are experts in all matte!s pert~illing to reindeer, was wise and fortuna.te. Four years of e~perlence With them as herders and teachers of the Eskimo appreu­ tIces have proved how wonderfully well adapted they are to show forth n1~d demonstrate to those nortbern people aU the utility there is in reludeer. 8 REPOR'r OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA, Since this undertaking began the rich discoveries of gold in various parts of the Yukon Valley have opened up a far more extended field for the usefulness of these animals. Transportation is very costly, and I consequently the miner can only skim over the country and dig and thaw out his prospecting holes upon the richest spots. The dog so far has been his faithful friend, and he is valued as high as $200. But the dog must be fed upon animal food, and when a pros­ pecting trip is undertaken a large part of the freight must consist of provisions for the teams. On the other hand, the moss for the deer is spread out over the face of the gl'ound, and when he is unharnessed he cau go to eating. The long journey of 2,000 miles and more taken last winter by the superintendent and two Lapps shows how well adapted this animal is to serve the people who are ready to pour in upon the Yukon and its branches. Oongress should feel that it has spent the money well, and should be ready to grant more if the Bureau asks for it. SCHOOLS. In section 13 of the organic act, the Secretary of the Interior is-­ directed to "make needful and proper provision for the education of the children of school age in the Territory of Alaska without referenc( to race, until such time as permanent provision shall be made for the same." This has been done nnder the care of the Bnreau of Education, with Dr. Sheldon Jackson as general agent. It is safe to say that no work nnder the care of any department of the Government has been more fruitful of good results than the labor of this Bureau here in Alaska. Education had been neglected for eighteen years. The people were dispersed over a Vltst area. There were no buildings or facilities of any kind whatsoever. This good work has steadily progressed from year to year under very small appropriations, and to-day the children in Alaska are learning to read and write the English language, and other primary branches, under the instruction of teachers as carefully selected as are teachers in any of the States. The schools have been primary, but now there is beginning to be a demand for those of a higher grade. New communities are starting up in various places. They cry for mail routes, for teachers and school buildings. More families are coming to Alaska, for men who have to eal'n their living find that they can support their families with less effort and fewer doctor bills than in other places which they have tried. Right now thousands of people over the States are inquiring what Alaska has to offer in the way of schools. To meet the demand for more teachers and school buildings, I would respectfully urge that the appropriation be increased to $60,000. MAlL ROUTES. The people of Alaska. feel grateful to the officers of the Post-dffice Department for their efiorts in trying to serve them with the mails. All pioneer service of this kind is costly, and especially so in Alaska. Probably in no place 011 the globe is such hardship and suffering endured as on the mail route from Dyea.to Circle Oity and return in the winter months. Contracts should be let with great care, for a failure of a single deliv­ ery is a great disappointment to all and a seriouB loss to many who depend upon the mails for intormation a.nd instructioDs. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 9 The route from Sitka to Unalaska should be increased from seven deliveries to twelve. It is a long time to shut off this portion of the Territory from communicating with the outside world. With reindeer transportation, mails can be sent all over Alaska during the winter. AGRIOULTURE. , The friends of Alaska have never claimed tbat it has great agricul­ tural possibilities in tbe way of raising staple crops, but they do main­ tain tbat very much can be accomplished by giving the same amount of toil and care as is bestowed upon land in the States. Grass grows abundantly in all the southeastern part and all along tbe margin of the North Pacific and upon the ~humagin and .Aleutian islands. Large areas in the interior are overgrown annually with red­ top, and especially is this true around Cook Inlet. In southeastern Alaska, redtop, blue grass, clover, timotby, and alfalfa bave all been tried with success. It is true that there is much rain, and curing bay as in the States can not be relied upon; but silos will work here as wen as anywbere, and the methods pursued in northern Nor­ way and Sweden will answer here. The moisture makes the grass grow and the yield is never disappointing. Alaska should furnish its own beef, butter, and cheese, and have some to spare. . Cattle, horses, mules, donkeys, goats, and hogs all do well. The hogs now wear their tails in a curly twist, and are no -longer molested by the nibbling of the voracious crow. The red and black currant, strawberry, salmon berry, red and blue whortleberry, cranberry, and various other kinds are na.tive to the land and usually call be obtained in abundance in season. Cultivated ber­ ries, where their culture is attempted, yield well. Radishes, parsnips, carrots, beets, onions, turnips, potatoes, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, borse·radish, rhubarb, and pease, have been culti· vated with success for many years at Sitka. . Hardly anything has been done to test the soils or to make experi­ ments since we have come into possession. The Hussians began early. Nicholas Reza.noft; in writing from Kadiak, on August 10, 1805, says: The monks experimented in 1795, sowing onions, turnips, carrots, mustard, poppy, toba.cco, potatoes, cabbage, cucumber, watermelolls, radishes, beets, peas, beans, corn, sunflowers, and gar(len flowers. Out of all these, potatoes, radishes, and turnips gave good crops; the others flourished, bllt did Dot mature. The next year, 1796, these monks took up anew location near an old Aleut settlement upon Karluk Straits. They had fair crops of potatoes, radishes, large turnips, and oabbage without heads. The followin~ year they raised very good crops of potatoes, radishes, and turnips­ the latter weighing as much as 10 pounds. In 1802 they found that seaweed and kelp from the beach make excellent fertilizers. In 1804 they sowed 4 pounds of bar­ ley a.nd reaped 60 pounds, aud this year they uisod 3,200 pounds of potatoes. They made further investigation in later yeurs aronnd Kadiak, but appear never to bave !tttempted anything in the southeastern part of their possessions. They procared In the fall large quantities of pot.atoes from the natives of Killisno, Hootznahoo, and Kak60l All this goes to show that it is worth while for the Agricultural Department to take Alaska nnder its care and give all these matters fair treatment. Indeed, it has made a start this season by sending two gentlemen, Messrs. Evans and Killin, to make rapid inquiries along the coast as far as Unalaska. It is sincerely hoped that the reports of these forerunner3 may induce the Secretary of Agriculture to plan more extended work to be done here next year. 10 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. TIMBEH. The whole coast of Alaska, including the islands from 54 0 40' to the eastern part of Kadiak Island, is covered with tim bel' to the snow liue of the mountains. Hemlock and spruce prevail, but in places there is the yellow 01' Sitka cedar, and upon Prince of Wales Island the red cedar attains large size. It is difficult to estimate the quantity of each, except to say that the amount of spruce and hemlock capable of being sawed into good merchantable lumber is very great. This timber is one of the great resources of the country. It stands to-day almost in its virgin state, for all that the Russians and Americans have used from tIle lrst until now does not amount to as much as is burned in one small fire ill Washington or Oreg'on. :Fire' very seldom takes hold in these dense forests. The moss on the ground and over fallen trunl{s is deep and holds water like a sponge. The rains are so al.mndant that the moss and thick underbrush is kept soaked. Growths of large trees can be seen upon the mountain sides with apparently no soil whatever. Every man who builds a tire to cook a meal, or builds a house to cover his head, is a trespasser upon this timber reserve. The Govern­ ment has not put it on the salable lists. The people use it for all domestic purposes and for mining. It is almost as necessary as the water and nir to support life in this latitude. What trees are taken are cut within a few hundred feet of saltwater and are put in by what is known as hand logging. Very mucll of the lumber and timbers used in the construction of the quartz mills and other buildings in and around Juneau has been illlported from Puget Sound. There need u~ no fear of Alaska being denuded of its timber as long as rain falls as it does, and that will surely be as long as the Japan current flows and the mountains stand. The place of the native settlement on Halleck Island, 10 miles north of Sitka, and where they still lived when they massacred the Russian settlement in 1804, is now thickly overgrown with talJ spruce trees, many of them over 2 feet in diameter. Great mountain slides occur, when acres of timber from the top to the bottom of the mountain are sloughed oft' into the sea,. In a few years this bare place is covered with the salmon berry, black currant, devil club, elder, and other bushes, and in a few years more a growth of alder will choke down these; and theil, by and by, the alder mnst give place to the spruce and hemlock. It appears like big fish eating little fish even in the vegetable kingdom. The early disposal of these tim bel' tracts is a matter of great concern to tlw people, for they would at once enter into the lumbering business, and in the near future could build up a very profitable trade with .Tapau and China. The great facilities for water transportation will make the southeastern coast very desirable for lumber shipments. Common rough spruce lumber sells in Sitka at $13 per M feet, tongue and grooved flooring and beveled siding a.t $18 per M feet; clear boat stock, dressed two sides, $26 per M feet. Funs. The fur industry took precedence from the firAt. In 1776 Captain Cook, when he touched at Unalaska, found the Russians already there. He says: There are Russiaus npon all the principal islands between Unalaska and Kam­ chatka, for tho 8010 purpose of collect.iug fm's, Their great object is the sea beaver or otter. I never heard them inquire after any other animal, though those who8~ skins are of inferior value are also made part ot' theil' cargoes. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 11 The Russian·American Company devoted its energies almost exclu· sively to the collection of furs. China furnished a market for sea ott~r and other rich kinds. This fur industry has gone on from year to year without any let· up. If, in early days, skins worth Reveral hundred dol1ars were bartered for goods worth only 50 cents, it,is n~t:so now. Competition·is keen, aJlll frequently the natives get more in cash for their skins than the same fetch when sold in London. There are 110 statistics from which to make ·out the annual valuation. The manifests in tho custom·house give ]10 help, for the entries are so many bales of furs, without a word of description or value. While this trade will remaiu extensive for years, it must necessarily decline as the great Yukon Valley and the mountain fastnesses of the coast are invaded by the prospector and the miner and tIIO hordes who , crowd in when success is assured. The trading' posts of the fur com· panies will serve the miner well and will be paid ill dust instead of furs. 1.'he vessels in the carrying trade will continue; only the kinds of mer· chandise will £lifter. The tmnsition will be easy and natural. FUR SEAL. Tbere is still another year of the modus vivendi under tIle regulations as laid down by the arbitrators at Paris. Our Heet of revenue cutters has been on patrol duty all season, and no doubt .the results of this sea· son will be similar to those of the four preceding. It all proves that pelagic sealing is constantly reducing the herd upon the islands. Our contention that we have a property right in ·these animals is surely the proper allegation tor us to set up and constantly to maintain. The branding of aU the female .pups upon the rookeries is a wise course to pursue, for it will put an unmistakable mark of identifica.tion upon the animal; and if it renders the pelt valueless to the furrier, pelagic sealing will cease because it will not pay. These experiments of President Jordan and Colonel Murray and their associates will be fol· lowed with great interest. If they solve this problem of the fur· seal question between ourselves and Great Britain, they will deserve the gratitude of the nation. Section 5 of the organic act provides: The governor appointed under the provisions of this act shall, from time to time, inquire into the operations of the Alaska Seal and Fnr Company, and shall annually report to Congress the result of such inquiries. ' The present incumbent took the oath of office July 15, and has had ~o opportunity since that date to visit the seal islands and carry out this requirement. List of Bealing 1I888els boarded by Unitllil Stat88 CTuiBllf'B in Bering Sea, SeaB01t of 1897. NaDie. Nationality. Dates boarded. Vern ................... British ....... Ang.1, 12,·18,24,26, SePt.16 ... ·.~: .................. ~. ~rletl8 ...••....••...•••••.. '\0 ..••..•. Aug. 1-,2, 10, 11, 15, 25, I:!ept. 3 .••. , ..••..••••••.•••••.. ~~f~1f~!~~~~~~~~~i~ ~~J~L~~jjj i~jj!~!t~lm8mI~~~~tjj~~~HHjji;~jijjjiiij ~~ne\ope •••..••••.•••. British....... Aug. 24, Sept. 4 ..••••••••....••.••.••.•••.•.•..•••••• u~ili~I~~:::: :::::::: ::: ::: ::~~ :::::::: .t~lHk ~~~Kt ~?:::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::: ::: City ors"n Diego ...•••..... do ........ Aug. IS, Sept. 15 .................................... . Borealis ....•.•.•••...•...... do .•••.... Aug. 19 ..•...•...•..•..•.•...••...••.••..•.•...•..•.. A. li:.l'wnt .................. do ........ July 29, ill. Aug, 2li, Sept. Iii ......................... . Skins taken. 26t 680 625 18-1 NODe. 182 215 698 S45 153 402 125 380 12 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. LiBt of BeaU.g ,jesBel. boarded by U.'W Statu CM$iBerB itl Beri.g Sea, eto.-Continned. N .. me. N .. tion .. lity. Beatrice...... •••••.••. British ..••••• J. Eppinger. ••••••.•••. American •••. Alnoko •..•.. •••••.. .•. British ..••••• Dora Selwerd •••••.••..•.•.. do ..•.•••. Enterprise ..••• , .••••.••.... do •....•.. Otto •......•...•...•..•..... do .••..... Tere8 ........................ do ..•.•••. E. n. Marvin ..•..•..••..•... do •....... Sadie Tnrple •••••..••..••.. do ....... . Ocean Belle .•...••.•••..•... do .••.•.•. St. L .. wrence........... American .••. D .. te boarded. Ang.19.26. Sept. 3 •••••••••••.•••..•..•••••••.••••••. Aug. 1. 7,11,18, 24, Sept. 11 .......................... . Ang.8.26 ........................................... . Aug. 8.12. 25. Sept. 8 ................................ . July 81. Aug. lB. 25. Sept. 13 ••••••••••••••...••...••.. 1::=: fg,'ii:iJi:::::: ::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::: Ang. 11, 25. Sept. 3, 12 ............................... . 1::I:~: :::: :::: :::: ::::: ::::::::: ::::: ::::: ::::::::: Aug. 12 ............................................. . Skln8 taken. 4M 443 1124 888 508 251 559 973 118 457 199 10.482 ~:~:: ~~ !!~~~:~.!el~':::: :::::: :::::::::::::: ::::: :::::: ::::::::::::::::: :::: ::::::: :::::: 9, ~ , Respeotfully submitted. C. L .. HooPEB. 10.482 Oapta"n. R. O. S .• Oommanding Bering Sea .Fleet. CompariBO'II of pelagio estoll in BBri·ng Sea for 18!5-1897. 1895. 1896. 1897. Natlona1l~y. Vessels. SkiDa Aver· V88sela. SkiDs Aver· Ve88elo. SkiDS Aver· taken. age. taken. "ge. taken. agc. ------------------------ Brltl.h ........ 36 24,762 685 M 20,469' 379 21 9.625 458.7 American ..••. 18 6.4M 358 12 3,280 273 3 857 285.0 --------- --------- M 81,216 578 66 23.749 359 2' 10.482 436.7 Numberoffemalea .............................................................................. 8.498 Nnmber of males. ......... .... ........... .......... .... ..... ........ ........... .............. ••. 3.728 Selt undert.ermlned .................. .... ..... ........... ............ ....... .................. •. . . 258 T!'tal ..................................................................................... 10,482 N OTB.-The foregoing is only .. pproximate. being the nnmber reported by the sealers when boarded. Many of them toolt seals .. fter the last boardlng.-C. L. H.' H. M. S. WILD SWAN. Unala":a. SepUmber 16. 18~1. Name. Remark8. Dates boarded. 1---.,----;----1 ~~D~~ 'FIrst. Second Third. -------1------------1----------- Ep))luger .... .......... Aug. 7 St. Lawrence... ....... Alig. 8 Favorite............... Aug. 19 AnDie E. P .. int ..... '''1 Aug. 19 ~::::: :::::::::::::J ~::::: Tereea ................. 1 Ang. 20 Trinmph ....... ....... Ang. 20 Ocean Belle ............. Ang. 20 E.n.M .. rvln· .......... 1 Aug. 25 Dora Selwerd... ....... Ang. 25 ZllIabMay ............. 1 Aug. 26 Otto. .... . ............. Aug. 20 vera············ .. · .... 1 Aug. 29 Mary Taylor.. ......... Sept. 3 Penelope .............. Sept. 8 Aug. 20 ........ .. 'Aug:26' ·8ej)i."i· Aug. 20 Sept. 3 Aug. 21 Aug. 23 Aug. 23 Aug. 29 ·&pt.··4· :::::::::: ..................... Sept. 3 ......... . 143 14 416 331 414 8M 821 1,117 493 87' 714 432 790 166 4118 GU - Boarded by two United Sta"". reve­ nue cottera. Bo .. rd8ll by Grant Aug. 17. Boarded by Corwin. MACVBY NAPIER, C - Oommander An" Senior NAVAl Ogwer, Bering &4 • .. ptaln HOOPBlI, &mwr Ogw.r. U. S. B. O. &rftc_. UfI4IIaka. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. Reported oatch of Bea otter, BeaBon of 1897. II Name. Kate Bnd Anne •••...............••.••.. Herman •.......•........••.•••......••. ~~~:~~ff::: ::::::::::::::: :::::::: :::::: Rnttler .....••..••....•••••.•.••.•...... tl~l~~~~ :::::: ::::::::::::: :::: :::::::: Everett Hayes .....••.•••••••.....••••.. Emma ........................... _ ••.. ____ .. Nnmber of .klns. Name. ~ ~':,"I!n~~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 St. Paul •••••.••••...•••......•.••...... 57 Anaconda ••••••.. , ..... : ............. . 22 Ennice ....•••..•••••••••••............ 11 Marjory •••••••••••....•.•............. 18 Makaouwft' •••••••••••••••••..•••.••••. 36 36 Total ••.••••••....••••.....••.... 25 II Approximate ooly.-C. L. H. FISHERIES. 13 Number of skins. 6 25 27 10 2 1 33 892 Alaska is the aqua.rium of the North Pacific. The oulaehau, herring, cod, halibut, and salmon inhabit these waters. It is a vast food pt'e· serve, and will be more and more drawn upon as the central line of population in the United States moves westward., The Russians had salteries and sent au occasional cargo of salmon to the Sandwich Islands, and returned with sugar and rice. The swift·running stream and the lake at its source are the places where the salmon come in from the ocean to spawn, and these abound all along the coast Jine. The packing of salmon in cans began upon the Columbia and other rivers below. The industry grew as the markets were cultivated and the demand increased. As in all other industries, experience suggested and taught improvements in the art of soldering and can making, and in the manner of catching, handling, and cooking the fish. The system and methods of one of these 'salmon cauneries are planned to get the largest results from the least cost. As the demand grew, more (\apital was thrown into these enterprises and larger fields were sought. In 1878 a venture was made near Sitka, hut it was allowed to die out. The following year another venture was made at Klawak, on Prince of Wales Island, and it flourished. Others came, and by 1886 8 salmon canneries and 9 aalteries were in opera· tion, and the product was valued at $500,000 in San Francisco. In 1896, ten years later, we have 29 canneries and 14 salteries, producing 949,645 cases of fish, 4 dozen I·pound cans to the case, and.l0,OOO bar­ rels, the combined vaJue amounting to $2,383,751. The officers of the Alaska Packers' Association 'have kindly furnished the statistics following. 14 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. Stati8tics of Alaska sa17l1on pack, season 1896. Men employed. Apparatus Number salmon taken. Name aDillocation. - White. Natlye. Chinese. used. King. Red. Silver. --- ------ Bristol Bay Canning Co., NlIsha~ak .................. 66 49 100 Gill nets ...... 5,362 427,882 38,680 Alaekn acking Co., Nush·, agak ....................... 69 51 100 ..... do ........ 5,449 423,891 49,510 Arctic Packing Co., Nush· agak ....................... 66 47 100 . .... do ........ 3,066 410,.917 20,340 Arctic POOkin~ Co., Naknek. 60 ao 00 . .... do ........ 1,352 304,267 53,488 ThinPointpoo ingCo.,l'h!n Point ...................... 20 17 ...... ioo· Seine ......... ......... 27,108 10,207 Karluk Packing Co., Karluk. 100 52 . ••.. do ........ .-.. "--- 821,943 ............ --- Burne Packin~ Co., Karluk .. 100 40 100 ..... do ........ .. ........... 843,840 ........ __ . Ufra;!:i.S.~~~.~.~~.~~~.~:. 32 16 70 . .... do ........ ....... ~~,- .... 252,060 . .......... Arctic Packing Co., Alitak .. a5 21 51 . .... do ........ 285,060 ........... Arotlc Fishing Co., Kusiloft' .. 60 46 100 Gillnete •••.... 18,076 3(10,863 58,002 C~Er;lk~~!.. ~.~~~~~. ?~':. 89 33 158 Gill nets and 3,304 456,500 56,7M seine. Pacillo Packing Co., Prince William Sound ............. 108 42 65 . .... do ........ 817 282,438 210,073 Pyramid Harbor Packing Co., Pyramid Harbor .........•• 106 95 81 Gill nets ...... 10,823 412,510 5,852 Glacier Packing Co., Fort Al!~~~¥~~;.· p~~ki~g~d' 57 63 75 ..... do ........ 3,958 123,537 447,396 p.!r:[ ~i!:~nl..cki~g·c~.:· 50 120 130 Seine ......... ........ - 216,060 759,479 KOlfiunj: .................. 77 23 100 GlII nete ..... : 1,172 283,363 74,050 U~linl!'::::~~.~.~~.~~~.~:. 64 35 00 Gill nets and . __ ..... .229,020 . ......... seine. E~l:;ak~i~~~ .. ~~.~~~~.~:. 22 2 .......... Gill nets ..... , --_ ...... 20;400 . .......... T~~~ak~~~~~~~ .. ~.~~.~~~.~:. 'U 2 .......... . .... do ........ . ........ 10,576 . .......... -- ----- ------ . Total. .................. 1;195 813 1,510 ..................... 54,279 6,141,334 I, H02, 730 '. Lighters'and Nets. SaIl Steam· boats. Value Bar· tonnaj[e Name and location. Ca8e8. rals. orsem· oftlB ployed. Num· Num· em· plate. ber. Value. tier. Valne. ployed. .' , .... , --------------------- '., " Bristol Day CannjDg. Go". Al~~~ara~ki~g' '¢~:; 'Nl~~h:' . 38,314 ............ 2 42 $18,000 80 $4,000 1,280 $18,300 agak ....................... 39,115 ......... 1 44 13,000 '84 5,000 1,536 18,775 Arctic Packing. Co., Ntlsh· . , agak ....................... 35,6~ ........ 1 43 12,500 88 4,400 1,073 17,124 Arctic Packiu(i Co., ~aknek. 27,1 338 2 23 15,000 88 4,400 1,158 13, 0~4 ThinPoint.l:'ac iugCo., Thin Point ...................... \111 1 10 6,000 3 600 229 .......... Karluk Paokiug Co., Karlnk .. 08,405 }I'600 1 47 30,000 15 7,500 } 4,900 Hume Pack!n!; Co., Karluk .. 70,320 48 21,000 15 7,500 76,71-1. Ugauuk FiBhmg Stntlon, ~t::';!;king·c~·.: Aiitak::: 21,006· 28 15,200 10 5,100 23,155 _ .. _ ..... 1 23 11,000 4 800 771 11,115 Arctio Fishing Co., Kn8iloff .. 34,707 167 2 40 18,200 80 7,000 1,172 16,688 C~~*ik~~: .. ~~~.~~~~ •. ~~':. 48,361 2 24 19,000 00 8,600 1,470 23,213 PaciOo Packing Co., Prince 1,375 19,139 William Sound ............. 39,873 ........ - 3 43 45,000 75 6,000 Pyramid Harbor PROkingCo., 1,263 'Pyramid Harbor ........... 47,456 ......... 1 31 18,000 200 14,000 22,779 Glacier Packing Co., Fort 44,233 1 17 14,200 60 3,000 1,278 21,232 A;:~:~:l:.;~~· p-';';ki~g' ~~d' .......... - Fur Co., Loring ............ 61,467 ......... 2 11 13,100 15 3,600 940 29,504 Point Roberts Packing Co., 29,730 !Y1 3 12 12,500 30 4,250 1,364 14,270 u K.!trkjf;~hi~g· s t'~~i~;':' §:UnaRiver ................ 19,764 ........ 2 13 ......... 80 4,000 1,110 9,487 El£gak Fishing Station, 750 3 600 5 600 555 !;~fak .................... .. ................ ... w .......... ........... T'!Po~ak ~~~~~.~ •• ~~:. ~~~.~:. 2411 ......... 2 400 2 200 229 ........... ------ ~ ------- ----- Total. .................. 648,864 3,812 30 282,700 974 90,450 21,70a 311,454 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 15 E8timated, 1896. Name al\ll location. Case8. Barrel8. C'. E. Whitney & Co., Nushagak...... ..... ....... ............ ......... ........... .......... 1,741 Naknek Packing Co: , N .. knek....... ....... ....... ............... ...... .......... 8,698 200 Berinlt Sea l'acking vo., U gaehik....... ......................... ................. 20,004 286 Joseph Hume Packing Co., Chignik...... ........ ........ ........... ............. 16, sua ........ .. Pacitlc Steam Wh .. ling Co., Chignik.............................................. 21,515 ........ .. Alaska Improvement Co., Karluk................................................ 80,000 C. D. Ladd, Cooks Inlet........................................................... .......... 850 Pacific Ste .. m Whaling Co., Prince Williams Sound.............................. 31,513 Peninsular Fis.hing and Tradi~g Co., Copper River............ ...... ............ 21,000 ......... . Baranolf Packmg Co., BarRnoil ~8Iand....... ...... ...... .............. .......... 15,358 96 North Pacific FiShin,!!.' and TradingCo., Klaw .. k...... ............ ...... .......... 16,800 329 Boston Fislling and TrAding Co .. Yes Bay........ ......... ....................... 23,000 ......... . Metlakahtla Tnduetrial Co., Metlakaht.la ............ :....................... ..... 12,000 ........ .. Pacific Steam Whalinf. Co., Hunters Bay............ ............. ................ 26,000 Quadra Packing Co., Cape Fox..... . ... . .. ...... ...... .... .. ..... . . .... . ....... . . . 8,000 Varioue, southeastern Alaska.................................................... .......... 2,000 Total......................... ...... ...... . ................. ...... ....... . . . 300,781 5,502 Attention is called to the valuation of the tin plate used in this business-$311,454, paying a duty of $93,456, and under the present tariff rate it would pay $116,700. The registered tonnage of American sllips employed was 37,398, and this of a high class, to carry such valuable cargoes. 'fhirty steamboats are ~mployed, some of them as much as 500 tons capacity. In answer to the clIarge that these cannery people are no good to Alaska, they maintain that one association of them has left $103,804.85 in payment for boxes and labor furnished by the natives and whiteR who remain as residents of the Territory; that they keep up three medical stations, one iu Bering Sea, one upon Kadiak Island, and one in Prince William Sound. These are thoroughly equipped and attended by com­ petent doctors, who minister to the ills of all employees and I.Iatives without charge for service or medicine. ' Mr. W. B. Bradford, secretary of the Alaska Packers' Association, writes: Appreciating the necessity that the large number of fish which were taken dema.nded at some poiuts til assist nature, we established in the spring of 1896 a la.rge hatchery at Karluk River, Katliak Island, aud, contrary to the belief of many experienced persons, and also the trial which was made in 1892, that the fish could not be successfully hntchad, we have been enabled to turn ont 3,000,000 fry this sea­ son. As success is now assured, we ~ha.ll procced to place hatchories at soveral otber pointe, as the utility of the same has beeu dewonstrated on both the Corumbia and Fraser rivers. Mr. J. C. Oalbreath, at Point Ellis, Kuiu Island, on Chatham Strait, has had a hatchery in opera.tion for several years, and he claims remarkable success. These two are the only ones of the canning people who have been solicitous and farSighted enough to take up this work of fish· hatching, so as to be sure of putting back as much and more fish life than they have taken out. Fearing that the streams were being robbed of salmon by the use of dams, barricades, etc., driven and erected across them by the canners and others, Congress passed alaw, in March, 1889, prohibiting this under a pe~alty of $250 per day. Inspectors of' salmon fisheries have hecn athPpoIDted from year to year ~ enforce the provisions of' this act; but 1S has been a farce from the beginning until now. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 17 order to protect and inspect tho salmon fisheries, provision should bo made for the use of II cutter with steam launoh amI proper boatll for the officer assigned to the duty of inspecting the southwestern district ;Iond Rome of the otherwise inaccessible points, for a portion of tho fishing season at least, 80 that visits could be made quietly and the detection of violators of the law a88urerl. . The whole question of salmon taking, breeding, and inspection is not at all satisfactory. The method of obtaining proper laws on this sub· ject will be snggested toward tIle close of this report. No persons are so interested and solicitous about this matter as the persons who have made such large investments. They are desirous and anxious to obtain the best laws for the protection of the industry and to have them unfailingly enforced. Two firms have for many years been sending out fleets of vessels for cod. Large portions of their catch have been taken in waters a.round the Shumagin Islands and in Bering Sea. This fish is caught in the southeastern section and all around the coast. Halibut abound, and a beginning has been made in Shipping in ice to various points East. One establishment at Killisnoo has been handling the herring for its oil and the residuum turned into guano, or fertilizing material. It is the Alaska Oil and Guano Company, Carl Spnhn, president. This gentleman has kindly furnished the following: Catch of herring, season 18::6,25,750 barrels,90,650 gallons oil, 550 tOilS guano; total value $35,000. They put up some salt codfish alld salmon bellies and 700 half barrels salt herring, of the value of $3,000. . They fiRhed with one gang, employing one steamer, from August 27 to November 7, employing 35 white men, 40 natives, 5 Japanese, and 3 Chinese. This is not near up to the capacity of this plant, because prices have been too low. Right now they are running to their utmost, and expect an output of 200,000 gallons of oil and 1,200 tons of guano. This company has industriously worked up a market for their guano, and are rewarded by large orders from those who have proved its value. It is a well-managed concern, and is a great credit to Alaska as the pioneer in this industry. ~. MINES. When Oaptain Cook was in Prince William Sound, which name he himself gave to that body of water, he wrote: As to the copper, these people seem to procure it themselves, or at IIlost it lJasses through few hands to them, for they used to express its being in a sufficient quantity when they offered allY to barter by poillting to their weapons, as if to Bay that, having so much of this wetal of their own, they wanted no more. La Perouse, at Port des Fran~ais, June, 1786, says: Our naturalists coll60ted ochre, coppery pyritOB, garnets (hrit.tle, bllt very large and p~rfectly orystallized), schorl in crystal, granite schist, ho.rnstone, very pure quartz, wlca, plumbago, and coals. Some of these substances provo tbatthe mountains con· bin copper and iron ores. The Americans. of Port des FranQais kno\v how to forge iron, to fashion copper. In speaking of the female, he says: . The lower lip is pierced with a kind of pin of copper or gold, which is either left III the opening or its place is supplied with a ring of the same material till the period of pUberty. Senator Sumner's great speech in favor of t.he purchase of Alaska should be published and CIrculated to· day for its valuable information. 6734-2 18 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. What he said on the mineral products is here given in full: In considering the mineral products I shall first ask attention to such indications as are afforded by the carly navigators. They were not geologists. Indeed, geology was at that time unknown. They saw only what was exposed. And yet during the long interval that has elapsed not very mnch has been l\ lded to their conclusions. The existence of iron is hardly lesll uucertain )lOW than then. The existence of cop­ :(Ier is hardly more certain now than then. Gold, which is 80 often It dangeronR iguis fatuns, did not appear to deceive them, but coal, which is much more desirable than gold, was reporteel by several, and once at least with reasonable certainty. The boat that landed from Bering, when he discovered the coast, founel, among other things, "a wllOtstone on which it appeared that copper knives had been sharp­ ened." This was the first sign of that mineral wealth whieh already excites /Sitch an interest. At another point where Bering landed" one of the Americaus had a knife hanging by his side, of which his people took notice on account of its ullusual make." It has been snpposed that this knife was of iron. Next came Cook, who, when in: Prince William Sound, saw" copper and iron." In his judgment the iron came through the intervention of Indian tribes from Hudson Bay or the settlements on the Canadian lakes, amI his editor refers in a note to the knife seen by Bering as coming from the same quarter; but Cook thought that the copper was 0 btailleel near at home, as the natives, when engaged in barter, gave the idea "that having so much of this metal of their own they wanted no more." Naturally enough, for they were not far from the Copper River. Maurelle, the French officer in the serVice of Spain, landed in sight of Mount St. Elias in 1779, amI ho reports Indians with arrowheads of copper, "which made the Spaniards suspect mines of this metal there!' La Perouse, who was also in this neighborhood, after mentioning that the naturalists of the expedition allowed no rock or stone to escape observation, reports ochre, schist~ mica, very pure quartz, granite, pyrites of copper, plurnbu,go, and eoal, and then adas that some things annonnce that the mounta·ins contain mines of iron and copper. He reports, further, that the natives had daggers of iron and sometimes of red copper; that the latte.r metal was common enough with thew, serving for oruam .. nts and for the points of their arrows; and he then states the vory question of Cook with regard to the way in which they acquired these metals_ He insists thltt "tho natives know how to forge iron and work copper." Spears and arrows "pointed with bone or iron," and also" an iron dagger" for each man, appear in Yancoll,'er's account of the natives on the parallel of 54'" 5W, just within the southern lilDits of Russian America. Lisiansky also saw at Sitka "a thin plate of virgiu copper," found on Copper River, 3 feet in length, and at one end 20 inches in breadth, with figures painted on its sides, which had come from the I,088es8iou of tho natives. Meares report8 "pure malleable lumps of copper in the possession of the natives," sometimes weighing as much as a pound; also necklaces, all obtained in barter with other natives farther north. Portlock, while in Cook Inlet, in latitude 59 0 26', at a place oalled Grahams Harbor, makes another (liscovery. 'V:Llking arountl the bay he saw "two veins of cannel coal just above the beach, and with very little trouble several pieces were got Ollt of the bank nearly as large as a wltn's hand." If the good captain did not report more than he saw. thi8 wonM be most important, for from the time when the amusing biogl'llpher of LOt'(l Keeper Nort.h described that clean, flaky coal which he calls "candle," because often usell for i t·s light, bllt which is generally called cannel, no coal has beeu lUore of a household favorite. He reports, further, that "returning on board in the evening he tried SOIllO of the coal, and found it to burn clear and well." Add to thelle different reports the gen­ eral testimony of Meares, who, when dwelling on the resources of this couutry, boldly includes "mines which ure known to be between the latitudes of 41)0 u.[J(l600 north, and which may hereafter prove a most valuable source of commerce between AmerIca and China." It is especially when we seek to estimate the mincral products that we feel the want of careful explorations. We know more of the roving aborigines than of these stationary citizens of the soil. We know more of the trees. A tree is conspicuous. A mineral is hidden in the earth, to be found by chauce or scieuce. Thus fILl' it seems as if chance only had ruled. '1'he Uussian Government handtld over tho coun­ try to a tradin~ company, whose exclusive interest was furs. Tho company only followed its busmess when it looked to wild beasts with rich-skins rather tha.n to the soil. Its mines were above ground rather than below. There werelL1so essell­ tial difficulties in the way of any explorations. The interior was praetically inaccess­ ible. The thick forest, saturated with rain and overgrown with wet mosses, presented obstacles which nothing but enlightened enterprise could overcome. Even at a short distance from the port of Sitka all effort had failed, and the inner recesses of the island, only 30 miles broad, were never penetrated. The late Prof. Henry D. Rogers, in his admirable paper on the physical features of America, being a. part of his contribution to Keith J ohuston's Atlas, full of knowl- REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 19 , ed~e and of fine ~eneraliza,tion, says of this northwest belt of country, that it is "httle known in Its topography to any but the roving Indians and the thinly scat­ tered fur trapper"." But there are certain general features which he proceeds to designate. According to him, it belongs to what is known as the Tertiary period of ~eology, intervenin~ betwllen the Cretaceous period and that now in progress, but Including also grnlllto, gneiss, and ancient metamorphic rocks. It is not known if the true coal measur611 prevail in any part, although there is I'eason to believe that they may exist on the coast of the Arctic Ocean between Cape Lisburne and Point Harrow. BeJ):inning at the south, we have Sitka aml its associate islamls, composed chiefly of volcanic rocks, with limestone near. Little is known even of the coast between Sitka and Mount St. Elias, which, itself a volcano (f), is the beginning of a volcanic region occupying the peninsula of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, amI having no less than thirty volcanoes, Bome extinct, but others still active. Most of the rocks here are volcauic, and the only fossiliferous beds aro of the Tertiary period. North of Alaska and neal' the mouth of the Kwichpak the coast seems to be volcanic or metamorphic, and probably tertiary, with a. vein of lignite near the head of Nortons Sound. At the head of Kotzebue Sound the cliffs abound in the bones of elephants and other extinct mammals, together with those of the musk ox and animals now living in the same latitude. From Kotzebue Sound northward the coast has a volcanic character. Then at Cape Thompson it is called subcarboniferous, followed by rocks of the Carboniferous age, being limestones, shales, and sandstones, which extend from Cape Lisburne far round to Point Barrow. At Cape Beaufort, very near the seventieth parallel of latitude and north of the Arctic Circle, ou a high ridge a quarter of a mile from the beach, is a. seam of coal wbich appears to be of the true coal measure. From this general outline, which leaves much in uncertainty, I come now to what is more important. It is not entirely certain that iron has been found in this region, although fre­ quently reported. The evidence 'Points to the south and also to the north. Near Sitka it was reportecl by the Russian en~ineer Doroschin, although it does not appear that anything has been done to verify hiS report. A visitor there as late as last yeRr saw excellent iron, reportecl to be from a bed in the neighborhood, which was sa,id to be inexhaustible and with rebundant wood for its reduction. Then, again, on Kotzebuo Sound specimens have been collected. At 66° 35' Kotzebue found a false return in his calculatious, which he attributed to the disturbing influence of "iron." A resident on the Yukon thinks that there is iron in that neighborhood. Silver, also, has been reported at Sitka by the sarno Russian engineer who reporte(1 iron there, and, like the iron, "in sufficient quantity to pay for the working!' Lead was reported by the Russian explorer Lieutenant Zagoyskin on the lower part of the Kwikpak, but it is not known to what exteut it exists. Copper is found on the banks of tho Copper River, calle(l by the natives Mjednaja, meaning copper, and of its affluent, t,he Tshitachitna, in masses sometimes as large as 40 pounds. Of this there can be little uoubt. It ill mentioned by- Golowin in the Archiv of Erman as late as 1863. It was undoubtedly from this nmghborhoocl that the copper was obtained which arrested the attention of the early navigators. Traces of. copper are also found ill other places 011 thc coast; also in the mountRins near the YUKon, where the Indians use it for arrowheads. Coal seems to exist all along the coast--according to Golowin, "everywhere in greater or less abundance!' Traces of it are reporte(l ou the islauds of the Sitkan Archipelago;' and this is extremely probable, for it has been worked successfully 011 Vancouver Island below. It is also found on the Kenaian Peninsula, Alaska; the Islan(lof Unga, belonging to the Shumagin group; Unalaska, and iQr to the north at Beaufort. At the latter place it is "slaty, burning with a pure flame and rapid consumption," and it is supposed that there are extensive beds in the neighborhood better in quality. For an account of this coal I refer to the scientific illustrations of Beechey's Voyage. Tho natives also report coal in the interior 011 the Kwikpak. The coal of Una­ laska, and probably of Alaska, is tertiary, and not ad.apted for steamers. Wi t,h regard to that of Unga, scientific authorities are divided. That of the Kenaian Pellint;ula is the best amI tlIe most extensive. It is foun(l on the eastern side of Cook Inlet, half­ way betwoen Cape Anchor and the Russian settlement of St. NicholaR, i\1 veins three­ quartenlof a yardtor more in thickness, and ranging in quality from mere carbonif­ erous wood to antnracite. According to one autnority, these coal veins oxtend and spread themselves far in the interior. It appears that this coal has been more than once sent to California for trial, and that it was there pronounced a good article. Since t·hen it has been mined by the company, not only for their own uses, but also for export to California. In making these statements I rely particularly upon Golo­ win in the Archiv of Erman, and also upon the elaborate work of Grewingk, in the Transactions of tho Mineralogical Society of Petersburg for 1848 and 1849 (p. 112). where will be found a special map of the Kenaian Peninsula.. 20 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. Gold is less important than coal, but its discovery produces more excitement. The report of gold in any quarter stimulates the emigrant or the II.dventurer who hopes to obtain riches swiftly; nor is this distant region without sucll experience. Only a few years ago the British colony of Victoria. was aroused by a rumor of golcl in the mouutains of the Stikine River, not far in the interior from Sitka. At ollce there was a race that way, amI the solitudes of this river were penetrated by hunters ill quest of the glittering orc. Discomfiture ensued. Gold hall been found, but not in sufficient quautities reasonably accessible. Nature for the present set up obstacles; but failure in one place will bll no discouragement in o.notlier, especially as thero it! reason to believe that the mOllntaills here contain a continuation of those auriferous deposits which havc become so famous farther south. Tho Sierm Nevada chain of California reaches here. Traces of gold have been observed at other lloints. One report places a deposit not far from Sit-ka. Tho saille writer who reports iron thore, also I'eports that dur­ ing the last year he saw a piece of gold as lar~e at! a marble, which was IIhown by an Indian. But the Russian engineor, DoroschlD, furnishes testimony more precise. He reports gold in at least three difforent localities, each of considorable extent. The first is the mountain mnge on the north of Cook Inlet amI extending into Alaska, consisting principally of clay slate with permeating veins of (liorite, the latter being known as a gold· bearing rock. He observed this in tho summer of 1851. About the same time certain Indians from the Bay of Jakutat, not far from Mount St. Elias, brought him specimens of diorite fonnd ill their neighborhoo.l making, therefore, a second deposit. In the summer of 1855 the same engineer found gold on the southern side of Cook Inlet, in the mountaius of the Kenai Peninsub. S!~t­ isfying himself, first, that the bank occupied by the redoubt of St. Nicholas, at tho mouth of the Kaknu River, is gold bearlDg, he was induced to follow the develop­ ment of diorite in the upper valley of the river, and, at! he ascended, fOlll\II a gold­ bearing alluvion !?radually increasing, with scales of gold becoming coarser and coarser, instead of being scarcely visible, as at first. It 1oes not appear that the discoveries on Cook Inlet were pursued; but it is reporte!l that the Hudson Bay Company, holding the eountry about the Bay of Jakutat under a lease from the Russian company, have found the diorite in that neighborhood valuable. This incident has given rise to a recent coutroversy. Rus­ sitm journals attacked the engineer for remi88ness in not eXllloring tho Jakutat country. He hall defende!} himself by setting out what he actually did in the way of discovery and the essential difficulty at the time in doing more; all which will be found iu a number just reeeived of the work to which I have so often referred. the Archiv von Rnssland, by Erman, for 1866, volume 25, page 229. Tlms much for the mineral resources of thi8 new-found country as thoy have been recognized ut a few points on the extensive coast, leaving the vast unknown interior witbout a word. . The other great statesman, William H. Seward, whose name is more intimately connected with Alaska. tha.n even Sumner's, visited the coast, and, in a speech delivered at Sitka, August 12,1869, he said: Alaska has been as yet imperfectly explored, but enough Is known to aSllure UB that it possesses treasures of what are called the baser ores equal to those of all.V other region of the continent. We have Copper Island and Copper River, so name!l as the places where tho nati ves, before the :period of RU88ian discovery, had procured the pure metal from which they fabricated lDstruments of war and legendary shields. In regard to iron, the question seems to be not where it can be found, but whether thero is any place where it (loes not exist. Mr. Davidson, of the Coast Survey, invited me to go up to him at t,he station he had taken up the Chilkat River to make his observations of the eclipse, by writing me that he had discovered an iron monn­ tain there. 'Vhen I came there I found that, very properly, he had been stmlying the heavens 110 bnsily that he had but cur80rily examined the eartl,lunder his feet; that it was not a single iron mountain he had discovered, but a. range of hills, the very dust of which lI(lheres to the magnet, while the range itself, 2,000 feet high, extemls along the east bank of the river 30 miles. Limestone and marble crop out on the banks of the same river, and ill many other places. Coal beds, a.cceBBible to navigation, are fouud at Kootznoo. It is said, how­ ever, that the concentrated resin which tho mineral contains renders it too inllam­ mabie to be safel.V used by steamers. In any case, it would seem calculated to sup­ ply the fuel requisite for the manufacture of iron. What seems to bo excellent eannol coal is also found in the Prince of Wales Archipela~o. There are also mines at Cook Inlet. Placer'and ql1artz gold mining is pnrsued nnder many social disad­ vantages upon the Stikine and elsewhere, with a. degree of suceess which, while it does not warrant us in assigning a superiority in that respect to the Territory, does, nevertheless, warran.t us in regarding gold mining as an established IWd l'eliu,hle resource. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 21 In 1858 there occurred what is known as the Fraser River excite­ ment, and this merged into the Cariboo country, where large quantities of gold were obtained. . In 1862 gold was discovered upon the Stikine River in British Colum- bia, near the Alaska boundary line. . About the year 1867 Oaptain Lewis, of the Hudson Bay Company's steamer Otter, picked up a man who was wounded, hungry, and drifting in a canoe near Takou Harbor in the neighborhood of Stockade Point. This man had some gold dust. His name was Culver. He had two partners, and the natives, attacking them, killed one. He told the story of his discovery at Port Townsend, where a party fitted out and embarked on the schooner Louisa Downs. He said that he could take them to the place. They came to Sitka, replenished their stores, and proceeded to the neighborhood of the Takou' but Culver could not tell anything, for it all seemed a blank to him. They threat­ ened to hang him, and then he lost his wits altogether. He came back to Sitka, where he died a few years afterwards. He told his best friends, just before dying, that he had always told the truth about the gold, and that some day the place would be found. In 1873 gold was discovered in the Cassiar district of British Columbia, and the entrance to it is up the Stikine River. It was ill the summer of this year that William Dunlap, Edward Doyle, P. Burns, Frank Mahony, and some others started to prospect around Sitka. They found colors in Indian River, and at the falll:! a quartz ledge carrying mineral. At tIle llead of Silver liay, 10 miles from town, they found colors and float quartz in a stream. In following up the stream they found a branch of it flowing across It large quartz ledge. They brougbt back samples, and these were exhibited on the cOllnter of the saloon, wllich was conducted by Samuel Militich, a Slavonian, who had encouraged and aided the prospectors. Among the soldiers who were stationed here was Nicholas Haley. He had worked upon the mines ill Oalifornia and Nevada. When he saw this ore he became interested and found out all that he could lea,rn. He and another soldier obtained a few days' leave, and they, with Edward Doyle, went t() the ledge already discovered. Two blasts were put in, and about $300 worth of fine gold quartz specimens were blown onto When Haley visited this ledge soon afterwardt! he went farther up the stream, and in about a quarter of a mile he came upon a fine crop­ ping of quartz. When the disintegrated surface was panned plenty of colors could be obtained. These were prolJoun(:ed genuine discoveries, and are the first real discoveries of gold in Alaska . . Fort Wrangt!1l \vas the entry port and headquarters of miners enter- lDg the Oassiar country. . In 1874 a number went prospecting on the main coast north from Wrangell, and discovered aud worked placer ground at a place called Shuck, in Stephens Passage and not far from Holklmm Bay. A con­ siderable amount of dust was taken from a few claims. Alaska, at tliis time, was connected very closely with Oregon. The mail steamer hailed from there and the traders and merchants did nearly all of their business in Portland. The military officers came from Vancouver, only 14 miles from Portland. These officers took great interest in the quartz discoveries. It was quite natural, there­ fore, that the first mining company should be incorporated under the laws of Oregon, in Portland. This was on January 30,1877, and it was known as the AlaskaOold and Silver Mining Company. 22 REPORT OF' THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. The mine was named Stewart Tunnel, after Major Stewart, who waS then in command of the troops sta.tioned at Sitka. The Portland merchants controlled the stock. The work of develop­ ment began, and in 1879.30 10-stamp mill was put up. But affairs were not managed well, and in the spring of 1880 the president of the com­ pany came up and shut down the works. This turn left quite a number of men in the neigbborhood of Sitka without employment. Two of these were Richard T. Harris and Joseph Juneau. They were outfitted by George E. Pilz, tbe superintendeut of the Stewart Tunnel mine, and N. A. Fuller, storekeeper. Harris and Juneau struck out in the direction of Takou. In October they returned with quartz' crammed with gold, and such a quantity as to leave no doubt as to the value of the discovery. Everybody wore a smile, espe­ cially poor Pilz, who had just about run to the end of his string. The officers of the Ja'me.~town, the United States man-of-war lying in the harbor, shoved out their twenty-dollar pieces, and they were taken in, of course. Steam launch, boats, canoes, and steamers were made ready and there was a rush for Gastinaux ChaDuel. Locations were made, both placer and quartz, along Gold Creek and at its source, in Silver Bow Basin. A town was marked out, and some called it Rockwell, after the popular executive officer of the Jamestown, others Harrisburg, but fiually, at a miners' meeting in May, 1882, the name of Juneau was adopted. The first winter waR one of waiting, and, as the wag of the camp, Pat McGlinchy, used to say, "They lived 011 snowballs and pepper." Work began in earnest in 1881, and many thousands of dollars were washed out. New life was thus given to mining. Prospectors branched out in all directions. Douglas Island, across the channel from Juneau, received immediate attention, and considerable gold was cleaned up from claims upon the beach. Several hydraulic: claims were located on top of what is now the Treadwell group. Quartz locations were made upou this island in May, 1881. Mr. John Treadwell, of San li'rancisco, acquired for bimself and others in the same city a number of the locations by purchase. ,Development began by runuing two tunnels and erecting a 5-stamp mill. In due time, when there was no longer any doubt as to the extent ana value of the ore, cost of transportation, ti~nber, wood, and other problems, which have to be considered in valuing a mine, a 240-stamp mill was erected with an of its accessories in the way of' shops, water, and steam power, tracks, wha.rf, electric lights, amI clIlorinatioll works. The machinery is the best that can be obtained, and the greatest care has been taken in the CO[)stl'tlctiOll of the whole plant. These works are not surpassed by anything similar in any mining country. - This Alaska Treadwell concern has given tone and backbone to min­ ing ill this far-off quarter of the globe. Day and night, month after month, year after year, these stamps have been dropping and the smoke from the :fires in the chlorination works has beeu wafted either up or down the channel. The monthly shipments of bricks of bullion are arguments of great weight. This has been going' on since 1885. It is a great wonder that such a practical school in mining has not been taken up by some enterprising university. A dormitory and class room could be built ana the students could be put through the actual work of mining and be made to understand how to conduct it for a profit. l'heory could be corrected by practice. They could go along hand in hand. These corporations are composed of liberal-minded men, REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. ',28 , .J, and they no doubt would welcome and aid such a movement on the part of universities. Young men put through such a course would find a promising field right here in Alaska. The country needs trained and skillful mining superintendents and managers even more than it does capital for development. . The Alaska Treadwell is 450 feet wide .. Mr. Robert DUllcan, .ir., the able superintendent, has kindly fur· 1Iished a copy of his report for the year ended April 30,1896. His last is not yet printed. Mining people will no doubt take great interest in reading what follows: THE MINE. During the year thore were minod of ore as followR: 110·foot level: . Soctions D to H, 15 to 20 ............................................ .. Sections A to G, 20 to 24 ....••...•...........••..........•...••••...... Sections C to F, 24 to 27 ................................... , .•.......• Tons. 88,172 130,361 42,475 Total ............................................................... 261,008 220·foot level: Main crosscut.. .••. ............ .•• ......... ...... .. .•.. ..•. 2,662 Making a total of ...........•....•........•...............••..•....• 263,670 The above ore wa~ mined at a cost or" $144,787.68 or nearly 55 cents por tOil' includod in above is :L small amount of waste rock, which was minod and tramnleci to a drunp, and of which no separate accollnt was kept. It will 1)0 noticell that all the ore and waste mined (luring tho last year was hoisted from the no and 220 levels. Heretofore a great portion of the ore was taken direct from the ad it level to the mill, which did away with the cost of hoisting. The aboye cost of $0.5491 per tOil includes sinking and developmcnt work and all costs in the mine clevelopment. DEVI :LOPMENT WORK. 110 amI 220 foot levels: Feet. Drives and crosscuts.. .•.. ••. ............... ............................ 798 Chutes anti upraises...... . .••.•. ...• .... ...... ...... .... ....•.. ..... .... 293 Shaft sinking (main shaft).... .... ...... .... ...•.. ...... .... ••.. .... .... 50 Totnl (leyelopment work .............................................. 1,141 Except the shaft sinking and 120 feet of crosscut on 220 level, all of the above footage was done in ore of fair milling value. From the fire assays made we find the ore developed has an assay yalue of $4.19 per ton; this is obtained from an ayer· age of about fifty samples of ore taken during the cleauing up of ~he drifts after blasting the rounds. As far ItS development work has gone ou the 22O·foot level, we find the ore has about the sarno value as the ore ou the level above it. The vein on this level at the main crosscut is 426 feet wille, or a few feet wider'than on the nO·foot level. At this date an upra.ise is beiug driven to eonnect the 220 with the 110 foot level. When connection is made, development work on the vein wi1l be vigorously pushed cast and west. In the writer's judgment, the vein on the 220·foot level looks more promising than it (lid on tllO 110·foot leyel. This is especially noticeable in the 200 feot of the vein ne",rest the foot wall, 100 feet of which, it will be remembered, on the nO·foot level was poor, nUll in fact wQrthless, except tho 4 feet next the foot wall. It may also be sRid that the slate horse has enMrely disappeared ou the 220·foot leve1. During winter de\'olopment work hlLll to bo entirely sllspende(l for want of eom­ prCllsed air; this will not occur another year, as it is the iutention to pnt iu a new duplex Riedler compressor, to be driven by either water or stllam power. Our old compressor cnu bo driven l)y water only; therefore the reason of the compresse(l air being short iu winter. During the next "winter the main shaft should be sunk to the S30·foot level and a new working shaft shollhl be sunk, ae during the winter hereafter it is proposed to work entirely under cover and leave the open pits to be worked when there is no snow to retard the handling of tho ore; therefore the neoessity of having another working shaft. During the year the main shaft was equipped. with two water.hoisting skips or buckets, also a dumping rig for these; an 8·inoh plunger pump was placed at the 24 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. ", •• " oj 220 loading station. We are now fully prepared to handle any big rush of water we may have. RESERVES OF ORE. Adit level •••••••••••••••••.•••••.....•.••...•••....••.•..........•..... 110·foot level .......................................................... . 220·foot level,200 by 420 by 110 ...................•..•..............•••.• Ton •• 1&1,000 1,971,900 610,000 TotaL ............................................................ 2,745,900 The ore on the 110 lovel is estimated from the No.1 and No.2 east and Nos. 1,2, 3, and 4 west drifts, all of which are now in average ore. On tho 220·foot le\'el tho ore in sight or reserve is thus taken: Vein,420 feet wide; height, 100 foet, and lengt.h 200 feet. It it safe to say that the ore will continue good for, say, 100 feet east and west of the main crosscut. The general appearanco of the mine at this date is excellent· in fact. it never has been better during tho six years that I have been here. TilE Mil..!. 01' 240 STAMPS. During the period under review tho mill has crushed 263,670 tons of ore, at a cost of $91,671.34, or 341 cents per ton. The crushing this year is over 22,000 tons more than ever was crushed before in the same time. The Gates crushers are principally accountablc for this, and the length of drop of the stamps was, also, increased somewhat. During the year new foundations were put under 60 stamps of the old mill; tlte foundations of all of the old mill are now practically renewed and are in·1hst·class order; work will be continued ill placiug new foundations in the new part of the mill next winter, and so on until new foundations 31'0 put in all of it. All of the mill machinery has been kept in good ropair during the year. TRR CHJ.ORINATION WORKS. The works· have been fully employed (with the exception of a fc1'l' stoppages for repairs), three furnaeeH on this company's own ore, ,~n(t oue on oro from the Aluska Mexican Gold Miniug Compnny. During the period under review there were 4,397.6 tons of Alaska 'rreadwell con· centrates worked, at a total cost of $30,012.80, or $6.83 per ton. The works havo been kept in thorough repair, and vats and precipitating tubs renewed as required. MECHANICAL. The mill engines, air. compressor plant, mine locomotives, and electric·light plant, and all other machinery, have been kept in thorough repa.ir. Additions to this department during the coming year will be, one 2,000 IS-candle· powcr light W cstinghouse direct·current dynamo, to be dri ven 11:; Pelton water whecl or steam pOWOl', at will; we have entirely outgrown our present electric.light pla.nt; also, one dnplex Riedler compressor, 24 by 36 inch air cylinders, driven by 1\ crOSij· compound condensing Corliss engine, 22 an(l 38 inch by 36·inch stroke, 01' by water power with the Pelton wheel, at will. STORE. The store has been very successfully run during the year, and has beaten its OWII record as to profi te. GENERAL. There were built during the yellr Hix cottages; two 25 by 30 feet, and four 25 by 20 feet, at I~ cost of $3,711.83. 'l'heBll cott.ages are reuted to employees, allll it iij my intention to build a few more of them during the coming year. They are a very necessary adjunct to the establisbment. It is also my intention to build, adjoining our wharf, coal bnnkers, to hold I\bout 3,000 tons of coal; our coal storage is entirely inadequate. These bunkers willl'ay for themselves in about three years, as we now 8ell a great deal of coal to other COli· cems here. By these bunkers I Itlso hope to still reduce the cost of our coal. A contract has now been let to put in the piling foundation for these bunkers and. warehouse. Usual repairs have been made on Jo'jsh Creek ditch ano. other ditches, aut! the whole line has been kept iu order. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 25 A new 6-inch main water pipe W8.8 laid, connecting the IlUFerent departments, for protection from fIre. This was done at a cost of $347.47. A new powder magazine wu.s also built. This was lone by driving a large tunnel into the mountain side, and in this tunnel Ii. magazine was built. The cost of this was $1,227.84. In the store ann office department there was put in a cbrome steel vault, burglar and fire proof, size 6 by 8 feet, with time locks, etc. This vault bll8 cost so far $1,809.90. It will cost about $300 more before all of the concrete work is finished. LABOR. Throughout tho year l:tbor has been plentiful. The average nnmber of employees for the year wa8171 white llIen and 27 IUllian!l. Contmctor8 and conl-wood ilion are not includod in this Ilverage. 'Vages were paid u.s follows: ____ Oc_cu_p_a_t_io_n_. ___ '_ 'VngcR. Miner8 ••.•••.•••••.••••..• ..1 Laborer8 .....•......•....•.. UemarkH. Por IUem, with hoard and 100lging. Do. Drill men •...••••••.••..••..• Indians ••••...•......••...•.. $2.50 2.00 2.50 2.00 In 8ummer an.1 $3 In winter, wltb bonu8e8 allIl boaril aUlI 100lging. Por diem, paid daily:" Mill men: Concentrator8 ..••••..• ' • Feeders •..••.••••••..•... Amaisaruntors ...•...•••• 65.00-100.00 Per month, with boar.1 anlllOllging. 70.00-100.00 Do. do. 00.00-100.00 Do. do. ChlorinatIOn WOl"ks: Ron.sters ..•••...•••.••••• 2.50 2.00 2.00-2.25 Per lliom, with bo.rtl anlllodgi11g. Do. I}O. Roaster.' hell)crs ....... . }'loor moo ............ _ ... . Machine shop: Mechanic8 .............. . Blacksmif.h ........... .. Blacksmiths' helpers ... . 2.0~.00 4.00 2.00 Do. do. Do. Do. Do. do. do. do. Bullio11 8tatemen t, twelve mont1t8 ending JIf ay 1.~, 1896. Per toD Crnsh· Sui· Sui· Ylcltlfre~ PAr ton Yield 8ul· from Dat", of shipment. eli. pbllrets pltllrets gold. III free phuretK. 8ul· saved. treBtod. gold. phu· rets. 0" --- 1895. Tom. Tons. Tons. JuneI5 .••••••••••• 25,991 416.5 398.3 $59,187.38 $2.28 $28,885.06 $72.58 July 15 ............ 22,823 406.5 384..2 64,985.90 2.85 28,158.48 73.33 August1fl ........ 23,806 402.3 416.5 59,750.69 2.51 28,150.26 67.52 September 15 ...... 22,849 377.2 402.8 56,478.24 2.47 24,288.17 60.27 October 15 ......... 20,821 397.2 aOO.6 -53,720.99 2.58 23,579.33 59.46 November 15 .••••• 23,711 376.7 400 37,286.77 1.57 19,828.01 49.57 DeeemberI5 ....... 22,033 364.3 369.1 35,990.90 1.03 18,827.10 51.00 1896. Janunry 15 ........ 21,293 344.6 964.2 37,135.04 1.28 lR, 039. 82 52.00 February 15 ....... 18,013 255.1 205 28,949.57 1.60 12,729.59 48.04 March 15 .......... 17,940 270.6 281.6 25,684.35 1.43 12,672.19 45.00 April 15 ........... 22,114 362.7 347.3 32,169.93 1.46 14,765.04 42.50 May 15 ............ 22,276 400.2 372 30,657.07 1.65 17,699.42 47,,57 'Bllse bar .......... 1,050.07 ........ .. 6::i4i: SO· ........ FilwriDgR ••••••••. .......... .......... ....... -... .............. 1.22 ------------ Total.. ...... 263,670 4,373.9 4,397.6 528,958.80 a2.oo 253,870.87 a57.73 a Average. T'ltul Total Jieitl yield. 1 16r ton. $88,073.04 $3.39 93,144.38 4.08 87,912.05 3.69 80,766.41 3.53 77,300.22 3.71 57,114.78 2. 6.~ 1 4,818.00 2.49 50,074.86 2.63 41,679.16 2.31 38.256.1 4 2.13 46,9:14.97 2.13 1 4,356.49 2.44 1,056.07 . ....... 5,:141.80 .25 782,829.67 a2.97 26 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA Bullion shipments ft·om Paris 01' Treadtvell mine, froll~ beg.il~lIing of toork to May, 1896. [Tho Paris mino was owned by Alaska Mill ond Mining Company up to Jnue 1, 1890; since that date it has been owned and operated by the Alaskn Treadwell Gold Mining Company.] Concentrates (suI· Total Op~r. Yieldfreo plmrets). yield OperAting ating Dates. Crusbed. gold. Total yielll. costs Chlori- Ylel 1. per profits. per natell. ton. ton. TlYfIs. TIYfIB. 1882-1884 ...... .......... $10, 002. 80 . ........ ............. $10, 002. 86 ..-.... Augu"ttoDe· cember,I885. 34,495 232. 1;6. 3a 2051 $10,143.00 243,319. a3 $7.02 Jan unrK to Decom or, 1880 ......... 00,826 283,750.24 1,5661 82,429.97 366,186.21 4.03 $729,090. 00 $2.25 JanulHl to Decem ar, 1887 ......... January to December, 108,306 343,421.80 1,697 133,512.72 470,934.52 4.40 1888 ......... 121,173 348,264.20 1,354 81,625.21 429,889.41 3.55 January to December, 1889 ......... 214,544 540,665.03 2,527 111,825.75 652,490.78 3.04 308, 000. 00 } Janua~to 1.78 May, 1 0 •.. 47,788 101,279.70 1,510 59,402.10 160,681.86 3.36 38,000.09 017, 112 1 1,800,400.16 ._-- ----------------- 8,865 478,938.81 2, 339, 398. 97 3.79 1,075,000. 00 2.05 June, 1800, to May, 1891. .. 220,686 $531, 185. 77 a5,860 $238,586.03 $769, 765. 80 $3.49 *"J 8, 208. 90 $1.59 June, 1891, to May,I892 ... 239,633 50S, 804.81 6,176 198,122.56 707,017. 37 2.95 361,980.16 1.44 June, 1892, to 694,658.74 May, 1893 ... 237,235 504, 78:;. 46 4,584 189,873. 28 2.94 385,613.79 1.30 June, 1893, to May, 1894 ... 220,043 518,194.34 4,042 187,753.69 705,948.03 3.20 429,948. 86 1. 25 June. 1894, to 241,278' May. 1805 ... 411,070.66 4,261 215,250.40 626,327.00 2.60 309,534.50 1.31 J uoe, 1895, to May, 1896 __ . 263,670 528,958.80 4,397.6 253,870.87 782,829.67 2.97 497,342.22 1.08 2, 039, 657 i4, 863, s5o.OO 38, 194-:6 I, 702, 395.64io. 625, 045.64 ""3.2513,477,028.49 --- 1.54 a Includmg 501 tons 80ld. The given .. total yield por ton" does not exactly .how the valne of the quartz crushed in each period, a. tho amonnt of snll'hllret. chlorinated was sometimes leAs and sometime. greater than the product of sulphurets for that particular period. The IIgnres in the above statement. llrior to May 31, 1890, bave beon pre)ll\red by Mr. Hamilton Smith from a careful aoalysis of the acconDt~ of the Alaska Mill anll Mining Company. The directors of the Alaska Treadwell take a pardonable pride in presenting the foregoing e.CCOlluts to the shareholders of the compnny. All.expeoses of construction have been (as has been the practice heretofore) charged to operating, as well as freights on bullion, mint cbargcs, aod 11,11 expenses of management; the profit for tbe yee.r of $497,342.22 WIlS therefore applicable for dividends. The total costs per ton were $1.16; from this can be tleductel18 cents per ton, being the profit from the store, leaving the not cost for tho year 1895-96 at $1.08 per ton. This is an astonish· ingly low cost for mining and reducing hard qnart:r., where nel1rly ol1e third of tbe bullion product was obtained by the olaborate 1)rOC l8S of concentration, roasting. amI chlorination, 1\.1\(\ roflects great credit on Mr. Duncan, the SllpOrilltel\(\ent, aud the other officials of the cOlllpany. By rcfercnce to pago 21 it will be soen that the costs were $2.05 per ton for the first five years (1885-1890) of the milling operations of the mine, which was then considered sa.tisfactory. The company is sinking a shaft, and no doubt in the near future will erect a mill of more tban twice the capacity of the present one. Next comes the Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Company, under almost the same management as the Alal)ka Treadwell. This property is on Douglas Island aud about a half mile south of the Alaska Tread· well. Mr. Uobert Duncan, .ir., is the superintendent of this mine also. His report for 1896 is of so much importance to mining mell, to show what is being accomplished in Alaska, that liberty is taken to give it almost in full: REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 27 TnE MINE. During the year there were mined of ore as follows: Adit level: Tons. Pit No. I, G to K,43 to 47 ........................................ 26,754 Pit No.2, G to L,42 to 52 ........................................ 20,405 Stope No.2, K to L, 42 to 43.................... ...... ..... ...... 5,862 Stope No.4, L to N, 29 to 32 .................. , ..... ...... .... .... 1,903 Total .... '.'" .... ...... ...... .... .... ...... .... .... .... .... ...... 54, 924 110·foot level: Stope No.1, M and N,t 44 to 49 ................................... 25,268 Stope No.4, 0, 30 to:!2 .......................................... 5,723 Drifts, cross·cuts, upraises, and chutes, N to P, 28 to 53........... 3,515 , Total..... . ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .... .... ...... .... .. ...... 34,506 220·foot level- Stope No. I, ° and P, 43 to 48 .................................. 9,003 Drifts, crosscuts, upraises, and chutes ° and P, 38 to 41. ........ 3,148 Winze......................................................... 121 TotaL..... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . 12, 272 Total ore milled .................................................... 101,702 Waste rock mined and tl'tl.rurue(l to waste dump ................... _ ... _.... 1,290 Total mincd .... .... . ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 102, 992 The above 101,702 tons of ore wero mined at a cost of $116,056.20, or $1.1411 pcr ton. There wus no separate account kept of tho 1,290 tODs of waste rock or slato, the cost of which is included in the total cost per ton of oro. Development work underground during the year has bccn a.s follows: Feet. Adit level: Chutes all(lupraises. ...... ...... .... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... 274 no·toot level: Drives and crosscuts ................................................ 831 Chutes and upraises .................................................. 296 Total. ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... .... .... .... ...... ...... ...... 1, 127 220·foot le\'el: DrivilB a.nd crosscuts ................................................ 750 Chutes a.nd upraises ................................................. 296 TotaL.... .... .••. .... .... .... .... ...... .... ...... .... .... .... .... .... 1,046 Main shaft sinking... . .... ...... .... ...... .... .... ...... .... ...... .... ...... 62 Total development work for year .................. ~ ................... 3,409 ADIT LEVEL. Ore is still being mined from pit No.1, which at this dato looks poor on or near the surface; but it is of fair milling value about 30 feet down frolU the surface. No.2 pit (in Section 0,50, see map) is now beiDg worked, and from which fair ore is being obtained. During the year little ore has been taken from No.4 stope, this level, which is also being kept as reservo ore. . Prospect shaft No.5 is being sunk from the surface (in Section H, 41) between No. S nnll No.4 stopes. This ill being done with a view of stoping some good ore which is located at this point on the surface. It ill the intontion to drop tho ore into No.4 stope, and from there take it to the mill. no· FOOT LEVEL. This level, dl1ring the period under review, hos I)(len extendell west about 500 feet. All of this distnnce the level is in good ore, and is now cOllnected with No.4 Prospect shnft, where ore iilllOW being stoped. The vein at this point (No. 1 Prospect shaft) iff over 60 feet wiele. During the drifting of the a.bov! 500 feet on t,he vein an ore snmple was ta.ken from every blast, or about 100 samples were taken and assayed. We fiml the average value of th.e assays to be $3.21 pel' ton, which is about average milling ore. 28 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. ~ No.1 stope on this lovel at this dat.e looks '\'tell. A good percentage of the ore we are now milling is being taken from this stope. . Intermediate drifts have been driven on this level, and chutes have been pu in place, ready for the delivery of ore. 22O·FOOT LEVEL. This level has been extended west about S60 feet, all of wbich distance is in good ore. No orosscuts have been driven across the ore body; therefore, in my estimato ot' the ore developed for the year, I take the vein 88 being 10 teet wide. It is safe to say that the vein will double the above width. During the driving of this level over 100 assayll were made from samples taken from the ore as it was blasted, which result ill an average assay valne of $7.12 per ton. At this date we are in ore lL888ying between $20 and $-lO per ton. Intermediate drifts have been driven on thililevel and chutes put in place, which are ready for stoping ore. This drift will be continued west to a point about Section P,4O, where an upraise wi11 1,e made to connect with the level a1)ove. East drift, on this level, has been extended during the year 65 feet, all in fair ore. For some distance intermediate drifts have been driven and chutes put in place. We are now sinking a winze from the 22O·foot level on tbe vein. This winze is now about 30 feet deep, and is in fair ore. It is my intention to place a small hoist· ing engine here, to be driven by compressed air, and sink this winze at least 330 feet. If the ore iii found to go down this depth (with the vein at tbe same angle as it is at the 22O·foot level), then it would be advisable to sink a main shn.ft out at the mouth of the adit level (Section J, (5), and hoist and dump direct into the ore·crusbers. In doing development work throughout the year, samples of ore were taken 88 it was blasted from tbe different faces of the drifts and assayed. From these assays we find the average valne of the ore developed for the year to be $4.74 per ton. The general appearanc.e of the mine at this date is good. RESERVES OF ORE. Estimate of oro in sigbt: TODs. Adit level...... .•. ... . .. . ..•.•. .. ..•. .... ••.• ••.. .... .••••. •••. •••••. .... 238, 230 UO-foot level ............................................................. 256,694 220·foot level.... .... .... .... •••. ...... ••.••. •••• .... •••••• .... .... ....... 112,342 Total ................................................................ 607,266 MAIN SHAFT. During the year the main shaft was Bunk from the surface to the adit level} and there connected with what was the collar of the main shaft. Head·gear was placed over the shaft and the hoisting engines were moved to the surface from the adit level. All Of the ore is now hoisted directly to the surface, and from there trammed to the top of the crusher tower, instead of being hoisted twice, DII was done with the oIrl system. The change was also necessary to enable the comet crusher to crush all of the ore required for the 120·stamp mill. We now drop the ore to a fine set of /.,'Tizzles before it falls into the comet crushers. This, of conrse, enables us to lun the 120· stawp mill with the same crushers as were used for the 60.stamp mill. THE MILL. The mill (of 60 Atamps until August 20, and of 120 stamps daring the balance of the year) has crushed 101,702 tons of ore, or 3.57 tons per stamp per day of twenty· four hours' running time, at a cost of $0.3491 per ton. The running time made for the year was 350 days, 1 honr, and 20 minutes; of this .time, water power was used 171 days, 21 bours, and 50 minntes and steam power 17~ days, 3 hours, and 30 minutes. Attache!l to this report is the mill record for the year 1896, which shows the cause of 80 muoh lost time.as compared with our year's work in 1895. Concentrates saved by the mill during the year were 2,219.4 tons, of Wllich 1,651.2 tons were treated at the Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Company's chlorination works, at a net cost of $10 per ton of 2,000 pounds L!!5.6i per cent of the gold con· tained in tbe concentrates of a net value of about ljSOO,ooo. For the use of this company the Alaska Tread well Gold Mining Company bas built another rOlU!ting furnace and has generally enlarged tbeir cblorination works. It is expeeted that the new t"llrnace will be at work in a few days, when we will be able to reduce about all the Bulpburets saved by the Ulill. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 29 ADDITIONS TO PLANT. During the year there were added to the mill 60 stamps of 1,020 pounds each, which now makes it a '120-stamp mill. There Willi 0.1110 put in place a new pipe line (for water power), size 18 inches and 22 inchcs, and about 2,600 feet long. To drive the mill it was also necessary to replace the old Pelton water wheel with a new one of larger capacity. The condensing plant of the mill engines was also replaced with a surface con­ densing plant, so that the water used for condensing can be used for amalgamating purposes. There was also installed one Berryman feed-water heatur for boilers. Two 100- horsepower Fraser &. Chalmer's tubular boilers also were added to the boiler plant. The addition to air-compressor plant was one 18 by 30 inch Reidler compressor, which now makes our compressor a duplex Reidler, 18 by 30 inches, driven by cross­ compound condensing Corliss engines 16 and 28 inch by 3O-inch stroke. This com­ I'reBBor is also connected by rope transmiBBion with 0. Pelton wheel, which enables It to be driven by water or steam at will. The water used for condensing is pumped back and used again for battery purposes. There was also installed iu the electric.light department one 22 kilo-watt direct­ current Westinghouse dynamo, wllich gives us ample light for all purposes. There were alao built four cottages (25 by 30 feet) for dwellings for employees, all of which are rented at a fair rent. In con,junction with the Alaska United Gold Mining Company, there was bought a new Baldwin locomotive to replace the one blown to pieces in the dynamite explo­ Ilion of last spring. GENERAL. The water ditch (or canal) for power has been kept in repair throughout the yellr. All of the macllinery llas been kept in thorough repair, and, while running, gives every satisfaction. . Fire hydrants have been placed on the ontside of the buildings, and fire hose llas been installed on the inside, both of which have been kept in good working order in Clllle of need. The water for fire purposes is continuously kept Ullder a pressure of 180 pounds to the square inch. LABOR. Labor was very plentiful, and the daily averq.ge of employees for the year was 85 white men and 30 Indians. Paid wages as follows; Oocupation. Miners ................................ . Laborers .............................. . Drillmen (in summer) •....•.•.......... DriUmen (in winter) .................. .. Indi .. ns ................................ . .Mlll men: Amalgamators ..................... . Feeders ...........•..........•..••. Concen trators ....•.••••••..•...••.. Crushormen ....................... . Holsters .......................... .. Engineers and mechanica •...•.•........ Blacksmiths .......................... .. B1aoksmlths' helpers .................. : Wages. $2.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 2.00 90.00 70.00 65.00 75.00 75.00 2.50-4.00 4.00 2.00 Remarks. Per day and board and lodging. Do. .10. Do. do. Per day and board and 1001ging, with bonuses. ror day, no board. Per month, board and lodging. Do. .10. Do. .10. Do. do. Do. do. Per day, hoard ami lodging. Do. .10. Do. do. In reply to a request for information concernin,:r the Berners Bay l\iiniog and Mil1ing OOIDI'll-IIY and the Nowell Gold Mining Oompany, the following has been received: The Berners Bay Mining and Milling Company properties are situated on tho 1Jor­ del'S of Lynu Canal, abont 55 milOll from ,Junoau. The town is named Seward in honor of Secr,:tary Seward, who concluded tlle purchase of Alaska Territory. This company was lDcorpomted throe years ago last November. At about that date oon· struction and development work for the company was commenced. The company have their own wharf and warehouse at the beach, where the Paoific Coast Steam­ shill Company lanl1 their supplies. A well-constructed railroad oxtends from the wharf to the milling plant, 21 miles. A to·stlWlP mill, eleotrio.lighting plant, air 30 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. compressor, 3OO-horsepower Corliss engine, warehouses, boarding houses, and other accommodations suffioient for 50 men, with well-oonstruoted buildings, surround the milling plant. A gravity wire tramway, 4,400 feet, extends to the Comet gronp of mines; a gravity tramway, 1,800 feet, to the Bear gronp of mines. This gravity tram­ way has a (laily capacity of 1,000 tons of ore, it being constructed ·to Uleet all the clelimnds of the company for futnre time when they increased their milling plant. The Bear mines have been opened np to the 500-foot level by a 1,200-foot tunnel. 'rhe Comet mine is opened lip to the I,OOO-foot level by a tunnel extending 1,875 feet. This is the lowest level any mine has heen develolled in Alaska, and dell1on­ stm.tes the fact t·hut lcdges of gold-bearing quartz that abouml ill this Territory extend to great depth, and the ores are as free-milling allll the ledges larger and richer at this I,OOO-foot level than at any other level above that has been worked in this mine. This company owns over forty mining claims-the most of them full size, 600 by 1,500 feet. The ore bodies ure from 2 to 50 feet wide. !\fa.ny of the ledges have been llevelope(l by crosscuts, adits, shafts, anll tunnels, and the ore has a milling valne in free goM nnd high-grade concentrates of good-paying quantity. Great possibilities seem to SUl'l"OlmU this company's properties. The management is in the hands of Mr. F. D. Nowell, general manager, and Mr. Willis E. Nowell/ super­ intemlent. The stockholders are from Boston anti New York capitalists, WIth Mr. Thomas S. Nowell, of Boston, president of the company. The Nowell Gold Mining Company mines extend from Sheep Creek, where the company owns its wharf, to Silver Bow Basin, some 4 miles. At Sheep Creek the company now have 30 stamps runuing, an (1 the building is of sufficient size to admit of 15 more stamps, making the milling plant 45 stamps. The milling plant is situated about 1 mile from the company's wharf. This company controls the entire water front at Sheep Creek, with a very valuable water power, which will furnish power for 50 to 100 st.amp8 the year around, nnd for eight months in the year any number of stamps that the company may wish to constl"llct. Large bodies of high-grade ore have been developed at Sheep Creek. A. system of tunnels has been inaugurated that will extend through the ore deposits to Silve. Bow Basin, and will tap the basin proper to the 500-foot level. This company owns Bome 200 acres of placer ground. The present bank where they nre hydraulicking is 100 feet deep. The hydraulic plant is operated from six to seven months in the year, and the reKuIts in its operation are satisfactory in net annual returns. It is estimate!! thnt it will take eighteen or twenty years to work out this large gravel cleposit. The company's quartz ledges are very extensive, the ore yielding nn average of $10 a ton, and Mr. F. D. Nowell, the manager, saY8 that the entire cost of mining and milling will not exceed $3 per ton; and when the milling plaut is enlarged to l00stampB-which it is proJ?08e!! to (10 in 1898-the cost of min­ ing anll milling will be mnterially rednced. It IS the opinion of good mining men, who express their opinions from a disinterested standpoint, that the Nowell Com­ pany's properties are destined to be of great importance to the Territory_The same management and OffiCCl'S aull stockholders have this company's mines in control as the Berners Bay and Mining Company. At Funter Bay, Admiralty Island, the Boston·.A.laska Gold Mining Company have a lO-stamp mill, which is operated by water power. There are 42 claims. This year they have been doing development wOI'k. At Silver Bow Basin a 400-foot tunnel is being run on the Persever­ ance by Wisconsin parties. The Ebner mill has 10 stamps, and is run the year through by water power. The Webater mill has 5 stamps, but is idle most of the time. The London Exploration Oompany bouglit out the Lane & Hayward Oompany, and are running 35 stamps, and turning out bullion at a profit. At the Yankee Basin is the Aurora Borealis, owned by S. P. Earle & 00. They are erecting a 5-stamp mill, to run by steam. Oonsiderable development work has been done, and the ore is very promising. Montana Oreek: Olaims held by Juneau people; development work in progress. There are more than twenty claims, and they are about 7 miles from salt water. There is a trail and wagon road. The ore assays well. In the Berners Bay district are the Horrible and Mexican claims, R}~POR'l' OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 31 owned by the Portland-Alaska Gold Mining Company. There are 300 feet and more of tunnelillg, several incliues, and a 10-stamp mill close to salt water. A wire tramway 10,000 feet long connects the mine with the mill. One hundred thousand dollars has already bee~ spent upon it. Another mine in this neighborhood is the Jualin, a word made up of the first syllables in the words Juneau, Alaska, alld Indiana. The own­ ers are" Hoosiers," and the old saying, "A greenhorn for luck," comes near the truth in this case. They have a 10-stamp mill. The vein is from 3 feet to 6 feet, and the yield in gold exceeds $10 per ton, and there is enough ore in sight to keep the mill going for a long while. There is no stock for sale, and the owners wear a, pleasant smile. The short history of the management of this mine is worthy of study. It is surely one of the neatest and cleanest pieces of work that has been done in Alaska. Claims have been located and houses built in the Mendenhall district, and a company organized to begin work. Many claims are undergoing development on Snettisham Bay, but no mill has been built. The Bald Eag'le is a noted mine. Nearly $200,000 was taken out with 11 months' run with a 4-stamp mill. Last year they cleaned up $96,000 in 167 days' run. One thousand seven hundred feet of tunnel has struck the ledge 350 feet deep, the mill ore running from $48 to $53 per ton. In the vicinity of the Bald Eagle is the Sum DuJU Chief. A 10-stamp mill is iu process of erection, to be run by water or steam. There is an electric plant to run the hoist and air compressor. They have 4,000 feet of wire tramway from the mill to the mine, along the side of the mountain, 1,500 feet above the mill. Mine is well developed, with tunnels and winzes. Owned by San Francisco parties. Three or four claims are under development near Shuck, where there was placer mining in 1874. Locations have been made upon Gravina Island and around Boca de Quadra. There were 380 mining claims recorded at Juneau last year. One of the largest enterprises in the Territory is the Apollo Consoli­ dated Mining Company, upon Unga Island, one of the Shumagin group, about 1,000 miles west of I:;itka. The company is composed of San Francisco people. They have spent $375,000 in development and con­ struction. They rut('a 40· stamp mill and concentrators. The month4r yield of gold is $30,000 and more. It pays the company to ship the concentrates rather than treat them on the ground, on account of the high price of fuel. So far but little silver ore has been found. Sheep Creek, near Juneau, is the only place where it is produced. Rich silver ore has been found north of Golovnin Bay, and attempts have been made to ship the ore, but they proved sadly disastrous. YUKON V ALLEY. Cassiar miners who would spend their winters at Victoria, Fort Wrangell, and Sitka, would often express a desire and a determination to prospect the head waters of the Yukon. The passes were held by the Chilkats, a tribe noted for its willingness to fight in order to maintam their monopoly of the fur trade with the interior people. They were extremely jealous of the white men going in, for they would cultivate wrong notions in the minds of the Stick Indians. In May, 1878, a party left Sitka with their outfits on a smnll steamer. These Ohilkats had many questions to ask, and were sancy. One fellow put on a miner's shoes and did not wish to take them off. These adventurers did not 32 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR. Ol!' ALASKA. deem it safe to take the risk, so they got up steam and left early in the morning, and retnrned to Sitka. Two years afterwards parties did cross, and went down a distance, but they came out in the fall. In 1882 larger numbers went in over the Dyea trail, and the same year Ed. Schieffelin a.nd brother built a steamer for the Yukon, a.nd with a party of five went up the river to NulukHt, where they wintered. The next season they prospected until August. They found coarse gold every­ where. A short distance beneath the surface they found the ground frozen. The miners wer.e well rewarded by working the bars on Stewart River and its tributaries before 1885. Franklin discovered coarse gold on Forty Mile Oreek in the fall of 1886. This is in Alaska Territory. There was a rush from Stewart mver to this stream and its branches, and they have been worked every year since. While Sixty Mile Oreek and Forty Mile Oreek pass over into the British soil, nearly all of the gold diggings are on the American side of the line. Oircle Oity was founded in the fall of 1894. It is the depot for supplies to 'the miners upon Birch Oreek and its forks. Gold was found the previous year, 1893. Thus, year after year, the field has been widening and more men have been attracted, and they go in expecting to remain several years. But the miner is handicapped. The want of supplies and trallsportation facilities is what discourages him. If he waits till the river opens and the boats come up, his time is con­ sumed. If he starts out with a dog team, he knows that his grub will last so many days and no longer, and to go farther and trust to his gun would be tempting fate. This is the grea.t problem for the Yukon, namely, how to get supplies there and sell them at pr9fits not akin to robbery, and how to distribute them to any river, creek, or gulch where men are at work. Capital put into enterprises with such ends in view will be rewarded richly. KLONDIKE. The discovery of gold upon this branch of the Yukon in August, 1896, by George Cormack, was no doubt largely by accident. However that may be, it has stirred up the world. The shipments of gold by the steamer told the story. Thousands started at once, and thousands more are waiting to be more certain, and it is well that they have done so. i;hipload after shipload of gold· seekers and their freight has been rushed to the extreme limit of salt-water navigation, and there they have been literally dumped upon the beach, some above high water and many below, as they learned to their sorrow when the water covered them as they slept. Miners' meetings were held upon the ships on the way up and about every two hours after they were piled upon the beach. Some said Dyea was best, many held out for Skllgua. It may be well to explain that there are three passes over the coast range of mountains ill the neighborhood of Lynn Oanal, which is the extreme limit of salt water in a northerly direction. The one which has always been used by the OhiJkats, and by the early prospectors and miners, and who aro now looked upon as old timers, is the Chilkoot Pass, or, as it is more frequently called, the Dyea ,Pass. West of this the Ohilkat River is ascended, and on this route is the Obilkat Pass, or Dalton Trail. Now, about 3 miles below whe:.:e the Dyea water~ e~pty, and 011 the east shore, is another stream WhICh has filled up a bIght of the coast with sand and gravel, which forms a fiat between the mountain walls. The natives call this stream Skugua. This name has been in use since the crow made the earth and the Thlingits. A woman was drowned in REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR 01 ' ALASKA. 33 this river, and ber name was Skngua. On tbe banks of this river lived a man, Ken-noo-goo, or North Wind, by name. Skugua came to him and became his wife. Sbe told him that ber name was Koot-kay-too-oon­ du-cbin. No doubt those who stay there this winter will find out bow close the relationship is to tbe cold north wind. Parties from Victoria bave been seeking for a pass to the Northwest Territory, and Capt. William Moore, who has been a pioneer in every camp since 1888, espe· cially in steamboatiug, persuaded these people to take hold of this pass. Moore's son located 160 acres under the law of 1891. A company was organized and they wQre proceeding to build a sawmill and a wharf, and intended to opeu a trail, but when the ships arrived with gold­ seekers, they were simply overwhelmed. The miners paid no attention to former locations, but went ahead and laid out a town and elected a recorder. More than eleven hundred locations have been made, and now the tOWll of tents is giving way to the town of frame houses. The trail was not open, and even the correct distance was not known before the eager throng were crowding' with horses, goats, oxeu, and mules, hitched to ca,rts, wagons, and drags, and carrying pack saddles loaded with flour, bacon, beans, dried apples, and hay. Already the saloon and dance hall were up and ready for patrons. Tons of stuff were scattered over the beach, and shiploads strung along the trail. These men have had a terrible time, but they are brave and started out to endure hardships. Take them as a class, they would rank far above the average manhood of the country. By hard work and bull-dog tenacity and perseverance some outfits went over the Skugua trail and White Pass to the lakes and dowu the river. If this pass is improved aud kept opeu during the winter, it may be possible to llut over hundreds of tons of provisions and have them ready at the lakes for the break-up ill the spring. Skugna is being built up rapidly. Lumber is in demautl, and lots are selling as high as $1,500. No natives were at work on this trail. Those who took the Dyea trail had no hindrance. The price of packing weut up to $40 per hundred ii'om salt water to the lake. Most of those who got in weut over this trail. The Chilkat, or Daltoll trail, is the most westerly. It avoids tbe lakes, canyon, rapids, etc., by keeping to the left, and comes out far down on tbe river. It is over this trail tbat they drive ill borses and cattle. Americans are anxious to secure a route to the Yukon which shall be entirely upon United States terri­ tory. Different parties are now out, and are carefully examining the mountains between Yakutat and Cook Illlet. It is to be hoped that they may- succeed and report their discovery yet this fall. This is the third season of the work in Cook Inlet. The excitement over the Klon­ dike bas drawn many away from that district; nevertheless, the output of gold this year will be no llltan Bum. The possibilities of th_e whole region bordering upon this Inlet and upon Prince William Sound will draw crowds of adventurers in the near future. . COPPER. . But little more can be said of copper than bas already been quoted from the early navigators. The Copper River natives bring bullets made ofit. A numberoflocatiolls have recently been made upon Prince 'William Souud, and representatives of the la.rge copper-producing plants are 011 the ground, but there will be no development before another season. 6734-3 34 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. MARBLE. This is found in mallY loca.lities, but heretofore but little attention has been given to it. The Russiaus at Sitka nsed to make excellent lime from marble obtained on Halleck Island, about 14 miles north of town. This year a number of locations have been made and parties are exploit­ ing it in the East .. IRON. Nobody is looking after this metal just now. In a mineral way, the people are going to take desert first course, and corn beef and cabbage after a while. OOAL. The best that is in print on tbis subject is the report 011 coal and lignite of Alaska by William Healey DaH, Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Charles D. Wolcott, Director. Mr. Dall has for years stood bravely up for Alaska and her resources, and it is a matter of regret that he had but a few brief week!'! to devote to this important subject iu the summer of 1895. His report, however, will show how well distributed the coal croppings are and how little development work has been doue. Alaska is becoming a large COll­ sumer of coa.l, and nearly all tllat is lIOW used comes from Vancouver Island, Britisll ColulUbia. Tllis increasing demand will cause more attention to be given to the coal fields ill the near future. COAL OIL. It has long been known that coal oil has been floating upon the waters around Prince William Souncl. Parties have now taken this matter in hand, and it will doubtless be well inquired into during the next year . . Enough has now been said to convince a skeptic that Ala.ska is the most promising mineral field tbat is in the pmlsessioll of the United States, or within tbe possession of any other country. The Ynkoll and its tributaries are the ideal diggings for poor men. Tbe gold is all frozen, and it takes muscular power to get it out. In fact, a new kind of mining has been developed. Tbe best work is done in tbe winter, wben fires are kept going upon the frozen eartb. As it tbaws it is scraped up and piled in beaps, wbere it remains until washing time in the spring. The individual miner has his chance to make a stake as well as any company or corporation. The. \ laska miner wants plenty of tbe best grub and good-trails; be will attend to the rest; trust him. POPULATION. The enumeration of the inhabitants of Alaska is no easy task, and has ueVel' been accomplisbed witb nny degree of accuracy. Tbe cen­ sus of 1880 is not accepted as correct; and tbat of 1890, while it is better, is largely a JIlatter of guesswork so far as the native!'! are concerned. In 1887 tbe total was estimated at 39,800, and in 1891 at 33,000. In the neighborhood of Juneau and other mining centers, fam­ ilies are coming in to stay. This is even so at Circle City, wbere the Government has opened a public school. Tbe white population has increased during the past year, and will increase more rapidly from now on. It would be approximately correct to estimate the natives at 30,000 and the whites at 10,000. REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 35 MISSION ARIES. During the Russian occupation a few good men were ~ent out. Bishop Veniaminoff worked zealonsly in behalf of the Aleuts. Bnt such men were few, and tile examples of every day life as exhibited by a majority were not edi(ying. The Russians had suffered a massacre at the hands of the Thlingits, or Kolosh, as they called them. Sitka was protected by a stockade and many cannon, all trained upon the native village. For ten years the people of the United States seemingly never thought of these native races. In 1877 a cry for help went even from the military officers. It was responded to, at first feebly, but more earuestly and generously year by year for the past twenty years. Everywhere these devoted missionaries have found the natives practicing witchcraft in all its cruel forms. Almost every manifestation of human depravity met their gaze as they went among them. This has largely changed, aud where the missions have been well conducted the ehange has been from darkness to light. This uplifting work is in progress DOW. When an Argona.ut puts his load on the scales at Dyea, he finds that the native, if a yonng man, can read the figures and make his reckoning as quickly and correctly as he cau him::;elf. The early miners 011 the Yukon found that the natives could read· and write. The work of instruction and preaching had been going on quietly and almost unknown to the rest of the world for years under the London Missionary Society. These natives are interesting people. No fair· minded man can study the Hydas, Thlingits, Tsimpseans, and Eskimos without forming a very favorable opinion of them. They are self· sustaining, and will cOlltinue to be if they only have an equal cha1lce with the white man. They are, beyond question, of Mongolian ol'igil1, and have notions about Illany things that the Anglo-Saxou will not tolerate. So many white men coming to the country as sailors, fisher­ men, and hunters, without wives, have wrought nothing but misery among these people. The missionaries have found this the worst draw­ back to their work. They have found it difficult to preserve the trained and educated young women as wives for tlle young men. Their parents ale often willing, yea even anxious, to sell them for a few years to some leeilerous villain for a few hundred dollars. This evil is recognized, -and is being battled with, and improvement has been made. These people are ueeded for the development of the country. The missionary should be encouraged instead of sneered at in his efforts to build them upmentally alld spiritually. Allowing {-or all criticisms of their labors, both just and unjust, they need not be ashamed of the work which has been established by them. COAST SURVEY. This work has been in progress for several years, and the inside channels for steamers in the southeastern part have been praetically completed. A number of the openillg·s or approaches from the ocean have been surveyed, but a vast work remains yet to be done. The coast from Cross Sound to the mouth of the Yulwll is almost untouched. Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet will demand immediate attention, for there will be a large increase in the number of vessels frequenting those places during the coming year. Particular attentiou should be given to the mouth of the Yukon. The officers of this department are to be commended for the thorough and conscientiolls manner in which they do their work. It is real hard 36 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. physical work for those on the surveying vessels, but they go at it with a will and persistency tha,t is cheering. MOUNTAIN CLHIBING. It is worthy of special mention that Luigi, Prince of Savoy, success· fully ascended nfount St .. Elias to its top on the 31st of July. The success of the Prince is the more noteworthy by reason of failure of a number of parties who have attempted the same feat within the past few years. LOCAL INSPECTORS. At.tention is called to Alaska's need of a board of local inspectors of hulls and boilers. At present it is joined to the Pug-et Sound district, and the inspectors arrange to come up on a summer trip of the excur­ sion steamer and do the work. But the business is increasing', and they are not able to keep up with it. The captain of the cntter Perry reports that a number of the steamers in connection with the canneries have not been inspected according to law. Some new steamers were built and launched upon the banks of the Yukon this season, and no doubt many more wilJ be next year. All these vessels should be thoroughly im~pected and made to live up to the requirements of t.he law. It will keep two men well occupied to do the work in Alaska. CHANNEL DIPROVEMENT. It is believed by many that the channel around the north end of Douglas Island could be deepelled and made Ilavig'able at no very great expense to the Government. ThiR would be ft, great benefit to Juneau and to all points north of it. It is recommended that a Government engineer be sent to examine this channel, and that he report as to the feasibility of the improvement desired. INSANE. If all insane persoll can be turned into a criminal he can be taken care of, otherwise lIot. A number of sad cases have already occurred. The marshal of the District should have a special fund to draw UpOll whell insane persons come UlHler his care. PUBLIC BUILDINGS AT SITKA. At tlle time of the trmlsfel' the Government received a number of log buildings, and these lmve been used for publicpurposes,3nd residences of tl1e officials ever since. Some have elltirely decayed and have been removed. The most Ilote~l one of them, ]nlowll as The Castle, was , . burned to the gTOUlld after several tllOusalllis of dollars lJad beeu spent iu repairing it. Thejudge and district attorney lost their libraries and papers. These log houses are not healthy. The lower courses of logs are decayed almost entirely away. Enough has already been spent iu repairs to build better anel more suitable strnctures. As Sitka is the most accessible point in southeastern Alaska when taken in conllection with all point" west, as it is possessed of a fine harbor, is unsurpassed by any 111 ace 011 the Pacific. CoaRt for the grandeur and beauty of its scenery, as it is the historic point, and as it is a healthy and de"irable REPORT OF THE GOVEHNOR OF AI_ASKA. 87 place to live iu, it is altogether' likely that it will remain tIle seat of government while Alaska remains under the control of Congress. The judge, district attorney, clerk, commissioners, register, receiver, sur­ veyor-geueral, collector of customs, and governor, alllleed proper and safe quarters ill which to transact the business that comes before them and in which to preserve their records_ It is, therefore, recolllmended that Congr'ess 1 e asked to appt'opriate $100,000 for proper 1 uildings, to be erected under the supervision of tile Government architects. THE WAY TO HELP ALASKA. Alaska can get help only at the llands of Congress. We know that it has a vast amoullt of work to do, and, as we are far away and have 110 mouthl}iece in that body, we are yery much afraid tlmtonr (!ries will not be heard duriug tIle cOllling session. 'We, l1ere in Ala!!ka, believe that the simplest and most intelligent way would be for Congress, as soon after it meets as possible, to pass f\ law creating a commisl'lion of five, two of whom shall be Members of Congress, one a Senator and oue a Representative, and the remaining three bona fide residents of Alaska for at least two years-un to be appointed hy the President. They shall meet in Alaska anrl rlraw up a code of laws which shall be suita­ ble for governing us, and shall report back the same witllir. four months for final action by Congress. An appropriation for tbe expense or such work should be liberal enough to have it done well. In the mean­ while tbe time of Oongress call be saved by referriug the many bills which are sure to come before it to this cOlllmission for its consideration. Suppose that this commission were here at work, and t,bat they bad come to the topic of fisheries, they could llave the reports Qf Captain Mosier of the Albatros8 and Oaptain Phillips of the revenue cutter Pm'rY for this year, and the verbal testimony and suggestions from thel'le officers. Uepl'esentatives of all the fishing interests would be on hand to give careful statements, for they have'millions involved in tbe correct framing of a law. The natives could be brought to tell how they feel about the cam1eries taking salmon. What good things Britisb Columbia bas wrought out, for the value of its pack- is as great or greater than tbat of Alaska. WlJat would the cannery men propose in regard to hatcberies and tbeir maintenallce~ It might take the commis­ sion a week to get all the side lights upon the subject; but, ifit did, they surely would be able to present a law that would be just, and at the same time tend to preserve the fish. The hllpor.tance of this question can hardly be overestimated. Its present money valuation is many times more than tbat of the fur seals, about which we are so concerned. It is a food question, and should be carefully lool,ed into. We helieve that such a commission could in such a space of time draw up a code of laws that would meet l1ecessities uutil such time as Alaska became numerically and financially strong enough to be organ­ ized into a territory. We earnestly hope, Mr. Secretary, that this plan may commend itself to the approval of tbis Administration and to Con­ gress, a,nd that before its session closes Alaska will have a code of good laws. THE YEARLY CRUISE OF THE CUTTEn BEAR. The service of this vessel has been going on for years, and it haR been a constant blessing to all who have anything to do in Bering Sea :llld the Arctic. It has kept run of the whaling fleet and has l'enderell every possible aid when any vessel has been wrecked. She has bronght 38 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. out over 1,500 of these wrecked nlltriners. Wherever she calls her physician is always besought to administer treatment to the sick. The missionaries always lool.: forward to ber annual trips with gladness, for she brings tbeir mails. The officers have kept after evil.doers, alld especially after those who wish to peddle fire· water to the .Eskimo. At tlJis mOlllent of writing, her pl'esence at St. Michaels is all tbat pre· sel'ves order among 1,000 allgry men who see that they are doomed to spend the winter 2,000 miles from Klondike. It is to be hoped, there· fore, tllat such valuable service will be contiuued, and that the ve~sel sball be kept up to the highest possible standard of efficiency. HUN'rING OF SEA OTTER. In consequence of the large numbers of' white hunters, who use supe­ riol' arlllS aml vessels, these animals are decreasing' very rauidly. :For many ;years the Aleuts have depended upon the results of the hunting of these fine furs for their living. X ow they are beginning to face star­ vation before they can adjust their lives to any other occnpation. If the white mall is not shut off at once, these people will have to ue cared for by the I~overlllnent. ~Ir. H.udolph Neumann, gelleral agent of the Alaska Oommercial Com­ panyat Unalaska, while answering inquiries about furs, writes, under date of September' 20, 1897: . The low prices prevailing in the London mal'ket, a.nd the constant nud rapid decrea8e of the sea-otters, has made that branch of the trade unprofitable, lnd has force(l n~ to abandon, in thi~ district, the following stations: ,\Voznesensky, Belkof'­ sky, Norzhovoi, Sanak, Akutan, Buvka, Naknshin, Kashega, Tshernoisky, and Vmllak, , The llutivcs of these ten settlnments supported themselves entirely by hunting selL­ otters, but, in consequence of the disappearnnce of these animals in the localities aboye mentioned, had to be transported ill schooners during the last few yearll to the remaining sea-otter ground/.;.in the vicinity of Kadiak Island, which now havc, also, cea~ed to he profitable, and the l)eople will eventually be' forced to rely on (tovern- ment aifl for their subsisteuce.· l) A.s the Secretary of the Trea.sury bas the authority to confine the hU1lting of these animals strietly to the natives, it is recommended that he issue the Jl('cessary orders to secnre this end. Very respectfully, yvur obetlieut servant, JOHN G. BRADY, GO'vernor 0/ A lcI8ka .• The SlWREl'ARY OF 'l'HE INTER LOR , lVaskington, D. C. ApPENDIX A. Outfit for two '/lien .for fOltrteen ?ItQ'nthB, food and clothing, Sitka (Alaska) priceB, A IIguBt 1, 1897. 4, barrels best fiour, at $6.... . .••... ...... ...... ..... . .................... . 200 pounds granulated sugar, at 6 cents ..•.................•................ 200 pounds navy beans, at 4 cents .......................................... . 100 pounds eOI'll meal' .................................................... .. 250 pounds breakfast bacon, at, 12t cents ................................... . 75 p01l1lcls islanllrice, 6 cents .................. , ........................ "" 2 cases Eaglemilk .................................................. "" .. .. 20 pounds salt ............................................................ .. 25 pOllnds best Mo('hn and .Java coffee .................................... .. 10 pouuds best torr ........................................................ .. 8 pounds soda ............................................................. . 20 pounds baking powder ................................................. . 25 pounds clrictl apricots .................................... _ ............. . 25 pounds dried peaches .: ............................................... .. 25 pounds drie l apples ................................................... .. 2 boxes candles .......................................................... .. 1 box pepper, 25 ceuts; soap, $1. ......................................... .. 3 boxes yeast, 25 cents; one· half tin matches, 50 cents .................... .. 1 Ynkon stove, complete ................................................. .. 3 h~lf~sp;i~g shovel!! ..................................................... .. 3 mIners pIcks ............................... "," ........................ .. 1 110uble·blacled ax, complete ............................................. .. 13 oil sacks, 50's and 100's ... ' .............................................. . 2 gold pans, $1; 1 coffee mill, 35 cents ....................................... ' 12 pounds condensetl onions .............................................. .. 10 pounds evaporate 1 spuds .............................................. .. 40 pounds rope ........................................................... .. Toilet soap ........................................... , ................... . 6 tin plates, 50 ceuts; 3 granite cups, 50 cents ............................. .. 1 coffeepot, 40 ceuts; whetstone,20 ccuts ................................. .. Awls, shoe thread, wax, bristles, etc .. ~ ..................................... . 2 fry pans, $1; ii.sh line a~J(l hooks, 50 ccute ................................ . 2 -- extract ot beef ...................................... , .............. .. 6 assorted files, 60 cen ts; oil blacking, 50 cell ts ............................ .. 1 package chocolate ...................................................... . 2 minere' candlesticks .................................. : ................. .. 1 iron brace and bits ............................................ __ ....... .. 24 pounds raisins, 10 ceu ts ................................................ .. Outfit for boat: 30 pounds uails, $1.50; 5 pounds white lea.d, 60 cents .................. .. Candle wicking, 20 cente; 1 2·inch auger, $1. 25 ..................... : ... Oakum,25 cents; pitch,25 cents ...................................... . 1 handsaw, $1.50; 1 jack plaue,75 ceuts .............................. .. Paint brush, 25 cents; 4 caudle wicks, 40 cents ......................... . ~ pairs oars, $1. 75; oarlocks, 40 cents ................................. .. 3 pail's he:1vy wool blankets .............................................. .. 2 pairs pack strnps, $3; 1 ham! :~X, $1. .................................... .. 21)ai1's hip 1'. boots, leather soles, $6 ....................................... . 2 pairs high t.op lace shoes ................................................ .. 4 paire Germau eocks, 75 ceuts ............................................ .. 2 l ah'slulllberman'erllbber" ............................................... . 2 pairs suspeuc1ers ........................................................ . 4 suitR heavy wool nnde1''''ea1' ............................................. _ 4. la.rk·blue flannel overshirts ............................................ .. 4. pa,jr .. Mackinaw T'ants .................................................. .. 2 paire Mackinaw coats .................................................. .. 39 $24.00 12.00 8.00 2.75 31. 25 4.50 17.50 .35 8.75 4.50 .70 9.20 2.50 2.50 2.25 5.00 1.25 .75 6.00 3.00 3.00 1.50 7.55 1. 35 5.00 2.50 5.00 .50 1.00 .60 1.00 1.50 1.00 1.10 .30 1.00 1.75 2.40 2.10 1.45 .!'i0 2.25 .65 2.15 20.50 4.00 12.00 7.50 S.OO 3.00 .75 12.00 8.00 11.00 6.00 40 'REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 2 blanket coats ~ ..................................... __ .............. __ ... . 12 pairs socks, wool.. __ ............................ __ " ....... __ ........ __ ' 6 pairp. wool mittens ........ __ ............................................ .. 40 yards mosquito netting ........... : .................................... .. 11 buckskin pouches ..................................... __ ...... ' ...... __ .. 1 magnet, 50 cents; 2 pairs goggles, 50 cents ... __ ... __ .... __ .. __ .... ____ .... ~ pairse~~~~~fl~rb:ef: ~ : : .- .- : : .- .- : : : : .-.- : : .- .- : : .-: :: ::::.-.-::::: : : : .- .- : : .- .- : : : : : : :: 1 dozen bandanna handkerchiefs ....... ____ ........... __ ................. .. 1 lot spoons, kn ives, and forks .. __ .. __ .. __ ................ __ .............. .. 1 butcher knife __ .... __ . __ ' .......... __ .............. __ .. __ .............. __ 4 oil blankets ................ __ .. __ .................. __ .... __ ............ .. 1 lot buckets, pans, cooking utensils, etc __ ................................ .. 2 sou'westers, $1; tent, $12 ..... __ .............. __ ........................ .. 141 Colt's revoh'er and ammunition __ .. __ .... __ .. __ .... __ ................ .. 1 Winchester rifle and ammunition. __ ..... __ ...... __ ................ __ .... .. 2 fur caps __ .......................... __ ............ '''''' ...... "" ...... .. 1 whipsaw ............................................................... .. $8.00 4.50 8.00 1.00 5.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.35 .75 6.00 8.35 13.00 15.00 18.00 2.50 5.50 TotaL ................................ __ .. __ .. .... .... .... . .. ... . .. ... 372. 60 Prices at Su.nri8e City . . i:~~~ .".~::~'.~: :~'~'~'.: ~'~'.:~'~'.'.:::.:. :'.:.:.: ~.~.~ .. :~.: :'::'.: :.: :'~':'.: :.~.: ::'.'. :':!~~?~.~K~~:: Butter .... · ____ .... __ .... ____ .... ____ ...................... per roll .. ¥:~~:~~'.':'_.'.'.''-'_.'.' .''-.' .......... .-._. ''_.' ......... '.'.-.. ._._ ...... .-....... '::. '::'_:.~~~ ~.d~n.~.-: Lard ...... __ .... ________ .... __ ............ __ .. per can of 5 pounds .. Rico ..... , .............. ____ .... '" __ ......... __ . __ . __ .. per pound .• Rolled oats ............................... __ ................ __ do .. __ Rest rubber boots ................................... , ..... per pair .• Shovel. ....... __ ......... __ . __ .... __ ........ __ ........... __ ... __ ...• Picks ..................................... "'''' .................. .. Pans ............................. , .............. __ .... __ '''' __ .... .. $2.,00 $0. 12,1. 1-0 .15 . OS' to .09 .60 to .75 .03 to .04 70 ':70 .OJ .OJ 10.00 1.50 1. 75 .75 to 1.00 ApPENDIX B. Distance8 front Juneau. Miles. Haines Mission (Ohilkat). ...•.. . ... 80 Dyeu ..... , ......................••. 100 Head of canoe navigation. .... ...••. 106 SUllImi t of Chilkoot Pass. ... .. . .... 114 Head of Lake Lindeman... . .... .... 123 Foot of Lake Lindeman.... .... .... 127 Head of Lake Bennett .... . .... .... 128 Foot of Lake Bennett .............. 153 Caribou Crossing ................... 156 Foot of Tagish Lake...... . . .. ..... 173 Head of Lake Marsh ............... 178 Foot of Lake Marsh ................ 197 Head of Canyon .................... 223 Foot of Canyon ..••.. ~ ...........•. 224 Head of White Horse Rapids ....•• , 225 Tahkeena River.~ •••........•...... 240 Head of Lake Le Barge ...... , ..... 256 Foot of Lake Le Barge. .. . ...... ... 284 Hootalinqua River ................. 316 Cassiar Bar ........................ 342 Big Salmon Ri\"er .................. 349 Little Salmon River.... ... ... ...... 3!j5 Miles. Five Fingers Rapids ............... 444 Rink Rapids ....................... 450 Pelly River ........................ 503 White Rb'er ....................... 599 Stewart River .............. : ...••.• 609 Sixty Mile Post .........••......... 629 Klondike .............. , ........... 678 Fort Reliance.... ... ... .... .... .... 682 Forty Mile Post .................... 728 Fort Cudahy ....................... 728 CircleCity ....•...•...•... , ........ 898 Forty Mile to Diggings ..•...... "" 70 Circle Cj ty to Diggings. ..•... ...... 50 Mouth of Cook Inlet ............. c •• 7()1) Turnagain Arm .. -' ................. 800 Six Mile Creek ..................... 825 Fnnter Bay ................... , .... 47 Berner Bay... ....... ... ......... ... 50 Sitka .............................. 140 Suettishnm .... . . . .. . .. .. . .. . ...... 32 Sum Dnill...... ...•.. .... .... ...... 50 'NraDgell .......................... 160 Di8tance8 via Victoria, Briti8h Colum,bia. FROM SEATTLE. Miles. ' Mllr)'1l Isllin l ....................... 655 Met,laknhtln ..................... : .. 683 Loring ....... ' ..................... 718 Fort WrangelL... .... .... ...... .... 808 Jnnenn ..............•............ Berners Bay .................... .. Dyea, ••......................••.. Miles. 960 1,015 1,060 ] 'ROM SITKA. Miles. Miles. Killisno"............. .... ...... .... 70 Kadiak. • • ••• .• • • •• . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 550 Juneau ............................. 160 Hoon[~ ............................. 120 Sunrise City, Cook Inlct.. .... .... 785 Karluk...... ...... ...... .... .•••. 610 Dyea ............................... 193 Yakutll,t ............................ 220 Nutschk (Prince William Sound, di- rect) ...••..............•...••.... 450 Sandpoint...... ...... ...•.. ... .•.. 880 Unglt ......•.....••••.....•.... _.. 874 Belkofsky ............................. . Unalaska ..••••••••••••••••••••.. 1, 150 'FROM UNALASKA. Milo.. I Miles. Seul Islauds .. """ ............... 240 I St. Michaelll ........................ 850 41 ApPENDIX C. Schedule of "ates, PacifW Coast Stea1n8hip Company's steamers. Cabin I Steerage passage, ' pftRsn,ee, sinj!:le i sinj!:le fare. : fare. ~:~ ~:~~l:~~ ~ ~~,:~e~~:::::::::: ::::::::::::: :::::::::::: :::::: :::::::: :::::: San Francisco to Sitka. ___ . _ ............ __ ••• __ .... __ .............. __ .. __ ....... . Pug"t Sound porta to W ranlteU ............................. ___ ........... _ .... .. Puget Sound ports to Juneau .......................... ___ .................... __ .. Puget Sound ports to Sitka ................. _ ..................................... , $3i.OO : 44.00 I 52.00 I 25.00 a2.00 40.00 $19.00 23.00 28.00 1a.00 17.00 22.00 For information, etc., appl;y- to Goodall, Perkins & Co., general agents, 10 Market atreet. San Francisco; J. F. Trowbridge, Puget Sound superintendent Pacific Coast Steamship Company, Ooo .. n Dock, Seattle, Wash. [Circular A.] Pacifio CoaBt Steam8hip Company, Ala8ka rOll.tefre;gltt ,·ate8. [Sub.iect to change without notioo.] To Wrangell (wharfa,!!:e additional-an imnla designat,ed below, about $1 each; mer­ chandise $2.50 I' e r ton). To Juneau (wharfa e I additional-ani",a;. I To Dyea anchorage or designated below, S!mgn wa~- Bay and about $1 ench; mer- SItka." chnudise $2 per ton). , '" . I.~ ;; !.:ll_ ;; :!~ ~ - - -From- -a ~ ~ 5 !og S c:t • i: ri 03 • ,= . ri ~~~.! ~ -a ·~rf.~i.g~f.~ ~ i ~-al a a t ~"a t ~-a 8 a· 3 §'1 l;; e'~!: IE'~§' ... c;EiG:1 ~ r.iJ • "d!::; ...... E IIl ;. to;! ~ ~ E: iii ~ e EO:P.-: ~Itoe t- ~ e t • R = ~ J..I J..i bO ~ '"' I bfI '1=1 = C!:S 1= = as - .., ft. ~" .. ~ &l A ~ ~'~I~ $=~"=~ ~ 8 ----------.i- p - er - -;;- Per Per I Per Per :--;::-i Per I ~er -;:. Pc;· Per SanFranoieco(viaPnget ton.t head.. head. head. head. head. head. fon.t ton.t head. h""d. head. Sound) .......... ___ ... $11. 00 $27. 50 $19. 50 $7.50 $30. 00 $21. 00 $7. 50 $12. 00 $12. 00 $30. 00 $21. 00 $7. 50 Seattle, Port Townsond, I' Tacoma,'Vaeh., or Vic· 1 I torla, British Col urn bia I (wharfage additional, ,. 25 to 50 cents per ton I an.l per hoad on mer· I I chandlR.e and anlmale, " respectIvely) .... __ .... 8.00 20.00112.00 5.00 22.50 13.50 1 5.00 1 9. 00 {IO.OO}22. 50 13.50j 5.00 Portland, Oreg. (wharf. t9. 00 I alte additional, 50 cents I I I ~:r ~~~c~::dl~~r ~'::'~ 1 animals, respectively).. 8.00 20.00 12.00, 5.00 22.50 13.50 5.001 9.00 {IO. 00 }22. 50 13.50· 5.00 1 I 19.00 I 1 * Freigbt rates to Dyea cover only to the anchora,!!:e, at which pomt the company's responsibility cenaes. Tbe company assist. the passengers to land and also assists in tbe landing of the freight without extra charl!'e. Live stock have to 8wim ashore. tForty cubic feet or 2,000 pounds, carrier's option. tSitka. 42 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 43 Minimum charge on merchandise and miners' supplies, $1.50 from San Francisco; $1.25 from other points namcd. Freight cllarges on merchandise and live stock for Skagaway Bay or Dyea must he prepaid; also, on live stock for Juneau or Wrangell. Live stock taken only at carrier's convenience, as accommodations for same are limited. .Stock, except dogs, to he shipped under the company's live-stock contract, and valuations to be restricted to $40 each for horses or lUules; $25 each for burros. Feed to be furnished hy shipper. Sufficient for 11se of stock while on hoard will he carried free, hut any excess delivered at destination willlH) charged for. GOODALL, PERKINS & Co., General AgelltB. SAN FRANCI9~O, AII.g1l8t 18, 189i, U. S. jllail Stealller Dora, 1'lIlming fronl Sitka to Unala8ka, Ala8ka, and conneotill!l at ~it/,;a 1vith the Paoifie Coa.st SteamBhip Company'8 8teamer City of Topeka. SCHEDULE OF RA'.rES, ETC, [Sitka and Unalaska mail r~nte, Leon Sloss, contractor, 310 Sansorne street, San Francisco, Cal.) Sitka to or from- Freigh't, per ton. Cabin passage, single fare. Steerage passage, single fare. ----~-------·-------------~-------------------I·------------------ yakutat ....................................... _.· .. : ............. :...... $d.50 Kayak ......................................................................... .. Nutchik.................. .............................................. 9.50 Orca ............................................................................ . Honler. __ . __ ._. __ .. _. __ .. ___ ...... __ ....... __ '0 _ •• ___ •• ____ ••• __ •• ____ 0 • __ • _. ___ _ Anchor Point .................................................................. .. Kodiak (St. Paul)...................................................... 10.00 Karluk.................................. ................................ 12.00 i~Hff~1 ~~~~;.~~~;;~: ~~ ~ ~~: :~: :~: ~:::::~ :~~:~~ ~ ~: :~~ :~~::: :~::~:~ :::::: .... !~~:. $1(.00 23.50 ~7. 50 30.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 39.50 53.50 54.50 58.50 70.00 9.50 15.00 18.50 21. 50 22.50 22.50 22.50 25.50 35.00 35.50 38.50 45.00 Stopping also at Odiak, Saldovia, Chignik, and other points whcn 'Warranted, Allrnerchandise received a11(l delivered at ship's ta.ckles. Shippers to pay all tolls, wharfage, hoating, Rud cartage. All merchandise ta.ken at owner's risk only. Mer­ chanuise on which freight has not heen paid will he stored, as well as conditions will permit, at the risk and expense of tile sllipper. Freigllt will oe taken either hy measurement or weight, at tile option of master or purser of the Sllip. Perisllahle goods only taken with freight prepaid, aU(l at owner's risk. . In all cases when the vessel can not land at any of the dliferent statiolls the ship's master reserves the right to land passengers and freight for such stations Oil the next return stoppage at same. Sailin.!! day8.-From Sitka, on or ahout tile 8th day of each month from April to Octoher, inclusive, Intermediate ports at prollortionate times. Regular connections for passengers to Cook Iulet will he made during the season. For fllrtller particu­ lars see Sitka papers, or apply to Pacific Coast Steamship Company, or any agent of the Alaska Commercial Company. . For information, etc., apply to agent Alasklt Commcrcial Company, 310 Sansome street, San Francisco, Cal.; or Unalaska, Alaska; or to Kadiak, Alaska. Fortickets, freight, ete., apply to Edward De Groft·, agent for steamer, Sitka, Alaska, or to purser of steamer for intermediate ports. . For information regarding connections with other points in westeru Alaslm and the Yukon River, allply to Alaska Commercial Compauy, 310 Sansome street, San Francisco, Cal. The North Americllu Transportation and Trading Company runs the ~teltmships POI'Uand and Clevelan.d from Seattle to St. Michaels, near the mouth of the Yukon. From St. Michaels they Vly the river hoats P. B. Weal'e, Cudahy, Hami.1ton, P01VfW, and Klondike. For particulars write to the agent at Seattle. . The Alaska Commercial Company, of San Francisco, sends the. steamshIps Bel·tlla and Exeelsiol' to St. Michaels, and the river steamers Alice, Arctw, Mm'gal'et, Bella, and Yukoll from St. Michaels. For information, etc., apply to company's headqnar­ ters, San Francisco. Tile steamhoats RU8tlel' and Seolin run from Skugua and Dyea, and charge $10 for each miner and his outfit, The tug Raranoff carries the mail once a month from Fort Wrangell to plu,ces on the onter coast of Prince of 'Vales Island as far as Jackson, aud return. ApPENDIX D. NmV8papers. The Alaskan, publisheclat Sitka, weekly. North Star, published at Sitka, monthly. Alaska Mining Record, publiAhed at .Juneau, weekly. Alaska Searchlight, published at Juneau, weekly. Alaska Miner, published at Juneau, weekly. Northern Light, published at Fort Wrangell, monthly. 44 o 7 '..------ " ---- " , , { Horses hal' PASS e crossed fhis wilh 75 pass pounds pacK b I milK u do nal e i1 habit of it. "'---~~oS'~ ?rrS ,,~ \~~. :i~ ~\ \ ~'rl,} " ~'- \ \~ ~ I?@."" ! . "\'~( 5KETCH OF THE ~ DYEA AND SKAGUA TRAILS Sept -1897 C by . B. TALBOT S ~ AI' ITKA ... ~ 0.0(0. asl\a. . ~~ ~e,;/- .A 0.;. "' .. ~ "" , , /G / / I ~ / / I i. t 0' / / / 0 . ", " ....... , "- ' .. p I!: /i I , / / / ~~ / \l- I o 0· -· . s ),72 J' 13 /!: ~ I Jr I J s ~ I "" .Qe"aI i / I / / .st,PQ~l C;P;", l"ribilo.,. ids. ~ , \ St. Gt!~";!1f-\ 1 0 140 136 1 \ 1 2 \ 1 • .z: ", Sketch Map of ~ c · ~if 0" 011- A L A S K A pO fltef~) ]i.e,. ~1P- ~ t(o.-o~~" a. ] Lef're-Jl to accompany Annual Report of the Governor of Alaska. \ 18 97. \ ~ R I c \ } ...... \ \ \ - ... ----- \ Stnu.te Wiles .. .,:;-a"'_""''''""'.,,IIIIII • o · l5Z· \ .