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Dawson Daily News : [special edition], July 21, 1909.

Author:Dawson NewsPublished:1909Type:Yukon Newspapers (Special Editions)MARC Record:PAC MARC RecordDownload PDF:DDN-Jul-21-1909.pdf (82346 KB)
Frc-- -, I I I CONTENTS I I Cover Design, Percy Sharpe "Dawson," Poem, Robert TY. SenJ ice Scenes in the Yukon Mining Possibilities in the Yukon, Hon. Wm. Templeman - Frontispiece 3 Yukon Constitution and Government, Alexander Henderson, K.C., Law and Order in the Yukon, Major Z. T. Wood Brief History of the Yukon, Clement B. Burns The Yukon as a Field for the Prospector, Guy A. R. Le'Wingt01~ Evolution of Mining Methods, A. f. Beaudette Opportunities of Yukon, Franll f. N olan - Liberality and Safety of Mining Laws in the Yukon, F. ' X. Gosselin Mining Title in Yukon, C. E. Senlder, K.C., Treatment and Marketing of Gold Dust, f. Stanley Long Mails . of the Yukon, 1. f. Hartman Encouragement of the Prospector, Alfred Thompson, M.D., Health in the Yukon Territory, W. T. Barrett Yukon's Gold Yield $150,000,000, George F. fohnson Transportation in Yukon, William Ta)Ilor Scenic Wonders of the North, British Columbia's Quartz Lesson to Yukon, f ohn Grant A Word About the Yukon People, Rev. A. G. Sin clair, D.D., Forestry and Coal Areas in the Yukon, D. D. Cairnes,, M.E., Goods Yukon Territory Needs, f. T. Rosman Land Titles Office, N apole01~ Laliberte Public Schools of Yukon T~rritory, T. G. Bragg Fire Protection in Dawson, lames A. Lester N ew Ways in the Klondike .,. Flowers of the Yukon, Marth(l Munger Blacll Copper and Silver Fields of the Yukon, Robert Lo'We Railway Building and Operation in Yukon, Eugene Murphy "The Dawson Curling Club, Philip M. Ray . Yukon Sports and Pastimes, f. M. Eilbe~il Stewart River District, A. W. H. Smith ·Southern Yukon, E. 1. White .. .Game in the Yukon, fack Lee ·Outlying Creeks Tributary to Dawson, Amold F. George , Y'lukon's Great Amusement Place Aerial Tramways, 'C. W. Stancliffe Dredging on the Stewart River I The Dublin Hydraulics Timber in the Yukon, Gus fohnson -Quartz in the Territory, Frank Lo'We Klondike's Big Ditch Northern Coal Fields, Captain C. E . Miller Furs in the Yukon, f. S. Barron Sixtythile District, Arnold F. George Agriculture and Horticulture in the Yukon, W. S. Paddocll How ['0 Outfit for Prospecting, Robert H enderson 'Oldest Klondike Placer Creeks, Dr. G. M. Faulkner Beneficent Government, Otto F. Kastner Yukon's Bright Future, G?-eer 1. C. Barton Churches of the Yukon .Power in Yukon, W. f. Rendell Roads in the Yukon 'Glorious Climate of the Yukon, H orace M cKay "Go North," T. A. Riclwrd 'The List of Dredges Within 75 Miles of Dawson Poultry Industry in the Yukon, William l. Anstett Burton Holmes on the Yukon Klondike Discovery Scientists on Yukon , Developing the North, Chas. R. Settlemier 3 4 5 5 6 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 - 20 21 - 21 22 - 23 - 23 24 - 24 - 25 27 - 29 30 32 - 36 38 - 53 - 54 - 54 55 - 58 58 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 64 64 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 71 ( Dawson Daily DAWSON YUKO.' TERRITORY J U L Y 2 J, 1909 DAWSON CITY, YUKON TERRITORY. I DAWSON I (WdltelJ Sprcially fOl' the D.twsotl N~w.,) (By ROBERT W. SERVICE, Author of Songs or a Sourclough ancl Ballad of a Ch.~c:haeo.) News F ROM the Iwart of the FrozclI T'i."iJiglit the strollg lalld spake Iter WHS: Tlzer(' Olf the flat by tile YI!ko1t, ril/g('d by inviolafe S'IO' 1.'S, Care-free Gltd comely to look Oil, gold-bom tlte ci(v (lros(', "Loner are 11l.\' 'C' llIc).,t sileu/-seek them, :ve fe(l1'icss ones; Haste, oh mm of m)' JJI('Gsllrc! Ricllly the freasure rzms." ThCIl up rh, r anti ",'alley strealllcd the host of the bru'l-'e; Then 'with Otl-rush and raily flooded fhe humall -;:,m:'e, ;I./C'C'('Y-a-OJIC 71GS -;:veaklitlg; fiercely they fook and gU1)e, Rippe l they tire (reeks a.wllder, "oufed hardship and pain: Then dO'WiI-laden 'wifh I'lltlfdcr. 7,','urv from stress alld straill, Sick to de{lth of lite balflc, came illto camp again. City of homes alld hearth-fires fhe hcart of the Norfhmall klloms. He spellds of the valle/s treasure ill (Ill the ports o' the sett; Far in the cfrase of pleasure he'rang s rager mId i,'ce: Yet H)'C to the Gold born City fhe 100'C of Iris heart tIIusl be. City the srlll Yt'joices, Slll'~'S of lIlidnight agio,(', Babble of childish voic('s, gardt'lls 'whrre poppies b/on', Cabins 'with eurtailled n'illd07('S, SIlUr.:(V l1estlil/:; low. Y ca, tllOrlgh the stress be Otlcr, the [,and halh il$ trt'ClSrtrt' stirl. Dream of it, 'iC'orld-~ 'ide rover, tire old tOH'1l u1Ider the !till; Bllte at it.~ fut tile ricl er, skies opalescent above, Hom!!s and gardens alld c/tildn!1l, peace aud pll'lIt)' and /t)';.'C. • .. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. 3 Q .... t .... t ............ t .... t ... tt..,...t.~.t~.t.!::Q.t ........ t .......... t ... tt ... tteoe.t .... O ................................................... tOlClle ............................... n t Mining Possibilities in the Yukon I I By HON. WM. TEMPLEMAN, Minister of Mines I Ot ... t ..... t ........ tt ... t .............. t~++ .............. t ... f ....... t .................. tO· ... •• .............................................................................. +6 A s a result of his exploration in the Canadian Yukon Dr. George M. Dawson, late director of the Geo­ logical ~urvey, was able in 1888 to state that "when means of access are impl·oved important bar-mining will take place along all these main rivers and there is every reason to anticipate that tbe result of tbe examination in detail of the smaller streams will be found and worked quartz mining will doubtless follow and the prospects for the utilization ot this great mining field in tbe near future appear to be very promlslllg. It is not likely that th is great inland country will long want some easy means of connection between the coast and the great navi­ gable lake ana river waters, and when this is afforded there is every reason to believe that it will support a con­ siderable mining population." Daw­ son's optimism has been fully justified, his predictions are in large part al­ ready realized or about to be fulfilled. Transportation has been provided, towns have sprung up, a large mining population has been supported, and more than $125,000,000 in gold has been produced. The "cxamination in detail" is still in progress and while new creeks are being staked each sea­ son rich auriferous ailuviums still await discovery. On the older creeks the inuividual miner is being replaceu by the large company with its hydraulic and dredg­ ing plants, so that a continued large production of placer gold may be ex­ pected for many years to come. Quartz mining has ;t1ready commenc­ ed, is growing rapidly and it is be­ lieved that a great future lies in store for this class of mining in the Yukon. Shipments have been made from the ';Yhitehorse copper deposits to Pa­ cific coast smelters, and these deposits will probably in the near future sup­ port a local copper smelter. Copper ores appear to be widespread. Valu- able gold and silver properties are also being developed on Windy Arm, on the Watson and Wheaton rivers, and elsewhere in the district. Large areas of lignite, bituminous and anthracite coals have been found in different parts of tbe Yukon, and coal is now being produced. The climatic conditions especially in th e Southern Yukon have been found to be adapted not only to mining of all kinds but to agriculture and stock raising as well. 'VI[llOut being fed, horses generally winter safely in the valleys. The vegetation of the Nor­ denskiold valley has been found to be very similar to the highly favored Ed­ monton and Prince A.lbert districts. With present knowledge concerning the conditions in ·the Yukon and with the demonstrations of its wealth of resources furnished by the last de­ cade's development flOt only in the fabulously rich Klon·dike but through­ out the Yukon country, Dr. Dawson's optimism regarding its future rests on firmer ground, and men with less pro­ phetic vision can now foresee for this district an era of broad and success­ ful development. Cost of transporta­ tion still hampers the rapid progress of mining but T look forward to im­ provements in this respect in the near future. With this accomplished a stimulus will be given to the industry that will result in increased activity in the creeks and substantial advances in lode mining for which the Yukon offers a wide field. The spirit which met the fancied terrors of what was thought to be sub-Arctic waste and transformed it into one of the foremost mining camps of the Dominion may be counted upon to carry forward the complete develop­ men t of its natural resources. In this great work the Yuk"n may count on my interest and support and that of the Department which I have the hon­ or· to represent. j'-"-"-"-"-"-'-"-c"-'-"-"-"-":--"-"-" 7 "_ tO '-"-"-"-'-G"-"-"-"-"-"-"-"-"-"-"-"-'j I Yukon onstltutlon and overnment i o • I By ALEXANDER HENDERSON, K.C., Commissioner of Yukon Territory I Q ............................................. u .................................. • ......... a ....................................................................................... 6 T IlE Yukon Territory act, passed. by the parliament of Canada, provides for the appointment of a chief executive officer t~ be styled and known as the commissioner of the Yukon Territory. An administrator may also be appointed to execute the office and functions of the commis­ sioner during his absence or illness or othe!· inability. The commissioner shall administer the government un­ der instructions from time to time Tiven him by the governor general of Canada in council or the minister of the interior. The Yukon Council is composed oE ten members elected to represent the electoral districts in tile territory, of which there are five, and two members are elected for each district. Any Per­ son who is qualilied to vote is eligible for election as a mem"Jcr of the coun­ cil. All natural born or naturalized British subjects or the full age of 21 years and who have resid~d in thc territory twdve months prior to. the date of the election shall he .ell~!tled to vote. Formerly the commiSSioner sat as speaker of the council, but a recent amendment provides that the council shall sit scparately from the commissioner and shall elect a speak er. All bills passed by the counCil shall be presented to the commissioner for his assent and he may appro\·e or disapprove of any of such bills or re­ serye them for the asscnt of the gov­ ernor in council. Every council shall continuc for three years trom the ciate of the re­ turn of the writs for the general elec­ tion, but the commiSSioner may dis­ solve the council and caus~ a new one to bc elected. The council shall be convened at least once in every year after the first session thereof. The il~­ demnity to each member of the counCIl shall not exceed $600.00. The commissioner may divide or change the boundaries of mining dis­ tricts by proclamation. The gold c~m­ missioner shall have jurisdiction \\"Ith­ in such mining districts as the com­ missioner directs. }.Iining recorders shall be appointed in each mining district and shall possess all the pow­ ers and authority of a mining inspec­ tor, who shall also have jurisdiction within such mining districts as the commissioncr directs. Provision is made for the appoint­ ment of boards of arbitrators to settle disputes between owners of claims Alexander Render.on, Commi'$ion~r of Yukon. with respect to Ca) the distribution of water: Cb) boundaries of claims; (c) dumping privileges, and (cl) over­ flow of water upon adjoil1i~g prop­ erty. The board of arbitrators is ap­ pointed as follows: One arbitrator to be appointed by each of such own­ ers, and in the event of the total number of arbitrators so appointed being an even number, then an ad­ ditional arbitrator to be selected and appointed by all of such arbitrators appointed by the owners. In the e\'cnt of the arbitrators appointed by the owners being an even number and being unable to agree upon the addi­ tional arbitrator, the gold commis­ sioner, upon being requested so to do hy such arbitrators, or by anyone of the interested owners, shall appoint the additional arbitrator. The judg­ ment of the board s:lail be final as to facts, but may be appealed from to the territorial court un any question of law. The Sllpremc court of record is the territorial court, which is presided ovcr by a scnior judge and two other judges. It has appellate, civil and criminal jurisdiction. The teHitorial court en hanc has ayJpellate jurisdic­ tion in appeals fr0111 thc judgrrient of a police magistratc gh·en under . ec­ tion 785 of the Criminal Code, 1892. In relation to mining dispute an ap­ peal lies frol11 the decision of t.he tcrritorial court en hanc t.o the su­ preme court of Canatia. For the pur­ poses of Pan LII., criminal code and amendments, an appeal lies from the judgment of the territorial court to the supreme court of Canada, unless the judges of the territorial court are unanimous, when there shall be no appeal. The com111is:.;ioncr, members of council and judges of the territorial court. and every commissioned officer of the Royal :1\orth 'Vest Mounted Police, may exercise in the Yukon Territory all the powers of one or two justices of the peace, under any laws or ol·dinances, civil or criminal, in the territory. All persons possess­ ing the powers of two justices of the peace may act as Coroners. 4. DA WSON DAILY NEWS. lAW AND ORDJER IN THE YUKON , By MAJOR Z . T. W O OD, Assistant Cpmmissioner of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police of Canada, in charge of Yukon Force T HE enforcement of law and or­ der in the Yukon is in the hands of the Royal North West Mounted Police, a semi-military organization whose mcmbers have the powers of peace officers. The force in the Yukon is kept up to the required strength by drafts from the head­ quarters at Regina, Saskatchewan. Two divisions, or troops, are station­ ed ill the territory with barracks at Dawson and Whitehorse. The com­ manding officers of these divisions are re­ sponsible for the effi­ cient policing of their respective districts, one of which extends from the British Columbia boundary to Minto, and the other from that point to the United States boundary below Fortymile. All assistant commis­ sioner, commanding the whole Yukon force, is stationed at Dawson, and is answcrable for law enforcement and law observance in the t err i tor y generally. Each division has sev­ eral detachments con­ sisting of one or more non-commissioned offi­ ccrs or constables sta­ tioned at the centers of population in the outly­ ing districts. "H" di­ vision has now five de­ tachments ill the Whitehorse d i s t r i c t, namely, Car c r 0 s s, Champagne Landing, Livingstone C r e e k, Hootlalinqua and Tan­ talus. "B" division has six o.tposts, namely, Grand Forks, Quartz Creek, Granville, Sel- kirk, Fortymile ;lnd Stewart River. The non-commissioned officer or constable in charge of a detachment patrols his sub-district, reports any breach of the law, making an arrest if necessary, and teh:phones, writes or wires his divisional headquarters for a magistrate to deal with the offender. Each commissioned officer of the force has the powers of two justices of the peace, and can deal summarily with any petty crime. In more seri­ ous cases the police officer must, if the evidence suffice, commit to a higher court for trial. The officers of the force are also ex-officio coroners, and hold either enquiries or inquests into all cases of death from unknown causes, from violence or from acci­ dent. The police guard rooms are penitentiaries and common jails, and members of the force perform the duties of wardens, jailers and guards. They are also charged with the care of the insane from the time of arrest until sent to the asylum at New West­ minster, or cured. In former years the duties of mem­ bers of the force were so numerous that a large number of men were re­ quired. In addition to acting as peace officers the police have, at various times, performed the duties of mail carriers, agents to mining recorders and to Dominion land agent, post­ masters, customs officers and tele­ graph line repairers. Of late extrane­ ous work has been gradually stopped, as the force has been reduced in num­ bers. The. members of only two de­ tachments now act as agents to the mining recorder, and ollly one acts as CLlstoms outpost. All persons leaving the territory, either via Fortymile or \Vhitehorse, are searched by the police for gold on which royalty has not been paid. The immigration officers at both ports of entry are assisted in their efforts to keep undesirables out of the territory. A register is kept of all boats and scows leaving Whitehorse for Daw­ son, and the names of the occupants. Copies are forwarded the police in Dawson, who check up the arrivals as ments, to outlying districts, and the whole territory policed as far as pos­ sible with the few men remaining. Fort Macpherson, on the Peel river, is visited by one of the patrols every winter. The trip takes about thirty days each way, with dog teams, over a trackless stretch of country. The headwaters of the Pelly, Stewart and Hootalinqua are visited in summer by steamer and canoes. One of the chief duties of the police Members of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police. Hootchiku Police Station. each boat reaches its destination. This register has been of great service in keeping track of suspects, and in pre­ venting crime on the long stretch of river between White horse and Daw­ son. Patrols are made from Dawson and Whitehorse, and alsu from detacli- is to stop the sale or bartering of liquor to Indians, to provide medical attendance and medicines to the sick and food for the destitute. The na­ tives, as a rule, give no trouble except in the vieinity of towns. If at all pos­ sible to procure liquor they will do so. Cril1le nel" r has been vre\"alell~ ill the Yukon. When the first detach­ ment of police arrived in 1894 and established themselves at Fort~mile, they found the population, though far from civilization, law abiding, ;lnd the prineipal duties of the force were to collect the revenue. At that time the strength numbered twenty of aU ral1ks. In 1897, shortly after the dis­ covery of gold on Bonanza, twenty more were added, and as the popula­ tion increased in numbers so did the police, until in 1900 upwards of three hundred officers, non-commissioned officers and constables were stationed in the territory. Today there are but seventy-five of all ranks, including specials. The cost of keeping the lat ler number in the Yukon is $112,500.00 pet year. Barracks Square, Dawson. As before staled, the population al­ ways has been law abiding notwith ­ stal1ding the heterogenous mixture of the multitude of gold seeker in the rush of 1897 and 1898. There have been 1 wel ve murders committed in a period of thirteen years, all the murderers being convicted and hanged but one, who died be fore the day set for his execution. In the early days, from 1897 to 1901, Dawson was a "wide open town." Gambling was carried on in pub­ lic places, and dancc halls were numerous, in fact it was typical of mining camps the world over except that it was never lawless. In 1902 the bar was put on gambling, and slow­ ly but surely the char­ acter of the town changed, until today it is as quiet, orderly and respectable a place as the most exacting could wish to see. The dance halls no longel­ exist and open gam­ bling has ceased. We have had re markably few hold-ups and gun-plays, and it has always been claim- ed that the streets of Whitehorse and Daw­ son are as sa f e for pedestrians at all hours as tho e of Ottawa, Montreal or Torpnto. As for the alleged immorality in the Yu­ kon, of which so much has been heard outside. I have 110 hesitation in stat­ ing that the people here are as moral as those of any city, town or province in Canada. " .. DAwsbN bAtty N~WS. 5. Brief History of the Yukon By CLEMENT B. BURNS Territorial Secretary '[ HE first record of any white man visiting that portion of Canada now known as Yukon Territory is that of Robert Camp bell, who went down the Yukon river in 1838. He was an employee of "The Ancient and Honorable Company of Adventurers trading into Hudson's Bay" now known as the "Hudson's Bay Com­ pany," which was organized in Great Britain in 1698 and carried on its op­ erations in the North and North­ western portions of Canada, extending down as far as the present States of Washington and Oregon .. From this date on, various parties of white men visited the territory. They were al­ most invariably servants of the same company. In 1842 the Russians came in by the Lower Yukon and proceeded up as far as the present Canadian border, establishing missions and trading posts. It was not until 1873 that any gold discoveries were made in the terri­ tory. Since that year a great num­ ber of prospectors, in small groups, HBob" Henderson. and singly, have operated to a greater or less extent in various parts of the Yukon. Some ascended the Stewart river, a tributary of the Yukon enter­ ing about 70 miles south of Dawson, and prospected the bars, with consid­ erable success. The most important camp was situated in the Forty-mile country, in close proximity to the in­ ternational boundary between Alaska and the Yukon. In 1894 Robert Renderson pros­ pected at the mouth of the Pelly river and got good values. He also in­ terested several parties to go up the present Hunker creek, which is a trib­ utary of the Klondike river and to locate. On August 16, 1896, some of these parties who were hunting on the present Bonanza creek, near its junction with Eldorado, made the famous discovery which electrified the world and caused the stampede to this country, which has been un­ rivalled in history. Although this dis­ covery of George Carmack is usually regarded as the beginning of Klon­ dike placer mining, yet many others consider Henderson as entitled to the honor of being the real discoverer. Since Carmack's discovery, no less than $125,000,000 has been taken out of this country, in gold. Almost simultaneously with the ad­ vent of these early pioneers came the representatives of law and order. The Royal North West Mounted Police' were first sent in about 1893 to the Forty Mile country, chiefly to act as -customs officers. Aner the discovery of 1896, when hordes of people canle from every quarter of the globe, ad­ ditional forces of police were brought in, together with a large number of permanent troops. The police officers acted as magistrates, and a supreme court judge was transferred from the North West Territories to try the more serious offences. In 1897 the first commissioner (or governor) of the Yukon arrived, in the person of Major Walsh. He was succeeded shortly afterwards by Wil­ Iiam Ogilvie, a pioneer of the govern­ ment survey staff, who first visited the country in 1887, when he accom­ panied Dr. Dawson-after whom Dawson City is named-on an ex­ ploration expedition. Mr. Ogilvie ap- pointed an advisory staff, or council, of the chief officials of the govern­ ment service. In 1900 two elective members of this council were granted to the people. This number was in­ creased to five in 1903, which, with five appointed members, gave the commissioner, who presided at the council, the controlling power. How­ ever, a great agitation had existed for many years for a wholly elective co ttn cil and finally in 1908 the gov­ ernment authorized this further con­ cession. The first election under the new order of things takes place this summer. This wholly elective coun­ cil will hold office for three years. So far as federal representation is con­ cerned, the territory also has been treated liberalIy. 1n 1902 the first member of parliament for the Yukon was elected in the l,,:rson of James Hamilton Ross, now a federal senator. The member for the Yukon, unlike the federal delegate from Alaska to Congress, has all the powers and privileges of the other members of the federal house. The judiciary of the territory orig­ inally consisted of a single judge, with an appeal to the supreme court of British Columbia. In the year 1902 an appeal court of three judges was established to hear all appeals from the decision of a single judge. Since this date all judicial matters have pro­ ceeded exactly as in the various pro­ vinces of Canada. The Yukon As a Field for the Prospector By GUY A. R. LEWINGTON, Mining Engineer for the N. A. T. & T. Co: O UTSIDE, one frequently hears the statement that the Yukon is a country of immense difficulties. From the viewpoint of the prospector, this is far from true. The idea re­ sulted from the many hardships at­ tending the opening up of the coun­ try, at the time of [Jle big rush over Chilcoot Pass in 1897. At that time the public press was filled with weird tales of privation, hardships and even death. Scarcely any of the difficulties ex­ perienced in those early days have to be overcome at the present time. Then there were no supplies here, and every man had to bring with him whatever he needed, and had literally to pack his outfit on his back in his search for the hidden treasure. Now all is changed, roads have been built in all directions, transportation facili­ ties have been developed to such an extent, that one can without unusual difficulty travel to within striking distance of any part of the territory. Trading posts capable of supplying the ordinary wants of the prospector are scattered throughout the country. In short the prospector who really means business need no longer fear that he will not be able to reach any desired section, or that it will be impossible for him to get his outfit to his place of work. The troubles experienced by the early day prospector In overcoming the conditions of a frozen country have also been dispelled, ~his has been brought about by the development of, methods suitable to the economic working of the gold bearing gravels of the North. These methods readily can be picked up by the prospector, and in a very short time he finds him­ self in possession of all that it has taken many years, much money, and no end of hard work to develop. So with the difficulties of the first days disappearing, the prospector may now feel, that he can come and go, do his work and get results with no more hardship than he would have to face in any mining locality situated where climatic conditions are supposed to be nearly perfect. The Yukon Territory offers to the energetic and inteIligellt prospector a field of immense area, the possibilities of which can only be guessed at. Up to the present time we have been busy working our placers and have given little thought to the more per­ man~nt and valuable mineral deposits that assuredly exist within our bor­ ders. It is safe to say that in years to come, many valuable quartz mines will be turning a stream of wealth southward, just as our placers have done in the past. There could be no better time for the intelligent prospector to come North than right now. The field is new and practically untouched. His opportunities are great, and there is developing in the camp a healthy in­ terest in quartz mining and all that goes with it. The prospector who comes to this country should be a man of ability and determination, for he will find many conditions that are foreign to him, his patience at first wiII be sorely tried, he may even be inclined to throw up his hands in disgust, but let him persevere and become accli­ matized. let him see the ice come and go, and' thereby earn the time hon­ ored title of "Sour Dough" and he will begin to see things differently­ gradually he will get his bearings, and that confidence in himself and the country that is essential to the success of any undertaking. The Yukon needs this class of men great­ ly for there is no doubt that intelligent prospecting will develop many valu­ able mines. Let the prospector come here and bring his family with him. He will find this country a pleasant place in which to live. He can send his chil­ dren to as good schools here as can be found anywhere. He can have a home as comfortable as in any mining camp on earth. He will find a gov­ ernment ready to help and protect him, and a community anxious to have him here, and w!lling to help in any honest endeavour. A country rich in mineral lies open to him for ex­ ploration, a country that today is re­ cog~ized by some of our best engi­ neers and financiers as a good place for investment. It is hard to conceIve of a country offering better inducements to the prospector of the right sort than the Yukon Territory. White Pass Summit-Last Days of Rush in '98. b A W SON D A I L Y N:E W S. Evolution of Yukon Mining Methods By A. J. BEAUDETTE. Territorial Mining Engineer G ENER LLY speaking, there is a greater fluc­ t\lation of conditiolls in placer mining camps than in districts whcr' othcr classes of mining arc carried on. There an' vcry kw discoveril's in alIuvials in comparison with other cJa,-scs of dis­ coveries oi mint!ral "in situ." and the length of time betwccn the former class of discoverics is so great that the methods employed have not had a chance to develop themselves in the samc proportion as those employed in other cJa~scs of mining which are of a permanent nature, lL is truc that valuable information i invariably obtaincd as a re suIt of the experiences in every placer camp, hut th conditions change so very materially that many Qf thc methods employed at onc place cannot be employed at another and for that reason the recovery of gold from the alluvials by the gravel mining methods of the prc cnt day, are comparatively re­ ccnt. \Vith thc exception of Sihcri:l, the Yukoll is the only territory where p~rpct\lal1y frozen gravels have been encountered ill placer diggings. Similar con­ ditions had not been ellcountered in any of the sec ondary deposits, which had previOllsly been llis­ covered on this continent, and con~equel1tly from an economic standpoint the cxperiences of the pa t were of little ayail. All the methods th;lt h"" ' hp·"" ,,,1,,,,,1 :., ,v territory to recover gold from the alluvials are still in use but the essence of this paper is to show what methods were employed to cope with the conditions as they changed from one period to another from the first day the gold was discovered until the present time. It must not be understood that, where the ground is being operated by a dredge or some other large scale method at the pre ent day, that it could not have been operated by the same method in the early days of the camp or by other methods of min­ ing already in use, The conditions, quality and extent of thc ground available are the factors which determine the method to be employed. In general a gold di eovery will cause a .star:1J?ede with the ultimate result that a pay streak IS dIVIded into hundreds of elaims held by separate individuals, who will work these claims to the limit of profit that can he obtained by manual labor. This mode of operation will last about five years and the amount of gold remaining in tlch a small area will not jnstify an expensive plant. The claim is then designated as being in a "transition stage" a period peculiar to all placer camps, Until an indivi.dual or company acquire .a sufficient number of cl~lll1lS that have reached thIS stage, to justify the installation of a mechanical plant, property of this nature must of necessity be Ilon-productive. During the initial stage of development in any locality the conditions arc studied and ('ach method is improved upon from year to year until the tenor of the gravels will ju tHy 110 fUrlher excavation by manual labor. 1t is at this point that the methods change entirely in respect of operation and cost. I have classified the first stage :lS "The Ordinary Placer 1\1 ining 1\1 ethods," and the last as "The Gravel Mining Methods." The ordinary placer mining methods have, from the very beginning improved every year but it has not been possible, according to the present scale of wages, to reduce the cost lower than $2 per cubic yard, ] n some districts the cost has been as high as $5 per cubic yard but in the more developed one', where tran po.tation is easy and the condi tions arc most favorable, the minimum cost to re 1110ve a cubic y:lrd of material by manllal labor is $2. The mechanical methods have also improved very much but as each method requires certain e.·isting conditions, totally independent of one another, the cost fluctuates every year. CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODS, Fir t-The first expeditions in the Yukon Terri­ tory, commencing in the year 1837 and extending to the year 1884. Second-The first bar-diggings opcrated on the Fortymile and Stewart dyers in the year 1884 and the first coarse gold found in 1886, On Line of Klondike Mines Railroad, gOB Bonanza. Third-The discovery of the Klondike gold fields 011 the 16th of August, 1896. First-In common with the discovery and open­ ing up of every unexplored tcrritory, the first ex­ pedition into what is known as the Yukon was undertaken by private enterprise and for commercial purposes. The lludson's Bay company leased from Russia in 1837, the "coast strip" which now belongs to the United States-conducted its operations from the coast stations at Wrangle and Fort Simpson 011 the west and from its trading posts on the Mac­ kenzie on the east. In 1839, Robert Campbell, an officer of the company, entered the Liard and Fin­ lays on rivers and three years later established a . trading post at the Pelly banks. Fort Selkirk was established by Campbell in 1848 at the confluence of Pelly and Lewes. Instead of prospecting, how­ ever, Campbell seems to have directed his energies to the prosecution of the fur trade, and up to this period there is practically no record of any prospect­ ing having been carried on. It was not until ]869 that "minute" specks of gold were reported to have been found by some of the employees of the com­ pany on the gravel bars of the Yukon. Shortly after the discovery of the Cassiar gold fields and between 1873 and 1884, numerous small parties of prospectors made their way into the Y lIkon prospecting on the Mackellzie, the Peel, the Liard, the Yukon and its tributaries. Second-the first bar-diggings were found in the year 1885 on the Stewart river, and in the follow­ ing year Cassi:lr bar on the LeVIes was discovered :lnd actively worked the same summer, At this time the Alaska Commercial company was trading along the Yukon river. and with the discovery of gold the Xorth American Transporta­ tion and Trading company also established posts on the river. These companies carried into the country the supplies required by the miners and dealt in fur trade, In the year 1886 coar"c' gold was discovered on the Fortymile river. and it was estimated that during the following year 200 miners were working 011 the har of the Fortymile and tewart river , Third-Although many small streams were ex­ plored and successfully worked for many years ill both the Fortymile and Klondike di tricts it was not until the year 1896 that the big discovery on Bonanza creek was made. Several miners were prospc('ting on Gold Bottom and Quartz creeks. situated in the Klondike district, prior to 1896 but the pay found was nothing unusual-at least' not more than Iwd already been discovered in the Forty­ mile district. In the month of August, 1896, Gcorge Carmacks located a discovery ci:lim on R:lb bit creek, now known as B0nanza creek, a tributary of the Klondike river, at a point about ten miles from its mouth. He at once went to Fortymile Post, where the recording office was situated, to record his claim and incidentally gave out the news of the discovery. This information created quite a stampede and in a few months all Bonanza creek and its tributaries were staked from one end to the other. Following this discovery, during the same year and the fol1ow­ ing, all the neighboring creeks were located. It was not, however, until two years later that the hills and benches were located, CLASSIFICATION OF THE PLACERS . Creek Placers-Alluvial deposits situated in the beds of valleys of small streams known as creeks or gulches, which seldom exceed WOO feet in width. Hill Placers-AlIuvial deposits situated at high levels and adjoining the creek placers. Bench Placers-AlIuvial deposits situated on plateaux and adjoining the hillside placers, Bar Placers-Accumulation of gravels in the beds of rivers which are entirely covered at high water uut exposed at low water. Creek Gravels-Detritus from a few feet to 125 .. feet il) thickness composed of moss, frozen decom­ posed vegetable matter and gravels. Hill Placers-Detritus from 50 to 300 feet In thickness composed of a little silt and gravels. Bench Placers-Detritus similar to those on hillsides. Bar Placers-Washed gravels in which the pay seldom exceeds a depth of 25 feet. CLASSIFICATION OF PLACERS AND THE METHODS OF WORKING THEM, AC- - ­ CORDING TO EVOLUTION. Bar Placers, Open Cutting-Thawing with stones, hauling with wheelbarrow and rocking. Thawing with wood, hauling with wheelbarrow and rocking. Thawing with wood, hauling with wheelbarrow and sluicing. Ground sluicing. Dredging. Creek Placers, Drifting-Thawing with wood, hoisting with windlass and rocking. Thawing. with wood, hoisting with windlass and sluicing. Thaw­ ing with steam, hoisting with windlass and sluicing. Thawing with steam, hoisting with self-dumper sluicing. Creek Placers, Open Cutting-Stripping by ground sluicing, shoveling-in into sluices. Strip­ ping muck by ground sluicing, waste by steam scrapers, shoveling into wheelbarrows, hoisting with self-dumper. Stripping by ground sluicinp'. waste by horse scrapers, scraping pay into sluices. Steam-shoveling with separate washing plant. Steam­ shoveling with washing nlant on the shovel. Ste l:m- shoveling and dumping into sluices. Dredg:l11g without thawing, motive power steam. Dredgl11g, thawing ahead with steam, motive power steam. Dredging, thawing ahead ~itl: steam, motive P?,:"er electricity. Elevators, stnppl11g by ground SIUlCl11g and hydraulicing in sump-hole. Hill Placers Drifting-Thawing with wood, hoist­ ing with windlass, rocking. Thawing woc; d, hoisting with windlass, sluicing. Thawl11g w.lth steam, hoisting with windlass, sluicing. Th l; ":l11g with steam, hoisting with self-dumper, SIUlclng. Adit level, wheeling to sluices. Hill Placers, Open Cutting-Ground sluicin.g sluices. Ground sluicing overburden, shovehng-In. Hydraulicing with gravity water. Hydraulicing with pumped water. Bench Placers-The methods employed in bench and hill placers are the same . . EVOLUTION OF THE METHODS. First-Bar Placers-As the discovery of gold in alluvial deposits is mostly made by prospectors. or men of limited means it is obvious that the hrst method employed is of a primitive nature which does not require any more than a pick, a shovel and a few other tools to enable a man to recover gold from shallow diggings. This was the case with the first operations conducted on the bars of the For~y­ mile and Stewart rivers during the first years of mIn­ ing in the Yukon Territory. The prospectors were from divers parts of the world in which alluvial deposits had been found al!d operated; such as in California, B.ritish Columbia, Australia Mexico and South Amenca, but none of them had' ever been confronted with the great stum­ bling block known as "the frost." Many, no doubt, had seen frost but it w~s in all cases only local and could be dIsposed of \11 the early' spring of the year. In this territory tJ1.e frost reaches bed rock, no matter how deep, l;nd It cannot be disposed of unless the overburden IS r,,­ moved and the gravels exposed to Ihe sun or some artifical means are applied to substitute the sun's heat. . As a rule bar-placers are covered at hIgh water and nothing can be dO,ne until the 'Yater recedes and gets low enough to permit excavatIOn. . On the Stewart river the bars are above high water mark and it was possible to operate all through the year but as those situated on the Fortymile riyer are covered at high water nothing was done dunng the summer months. Before the water became low enough to permit any excavation a certain amount of ice was formed on top of these bars. The only initiative, therefore, was to devise some ~ethod whereby the material could be taken out dunng the winter months. In this case the method employed to recover the gold from these bars was as fol­ lows: . . I An area of 50 feet square was cleared of Ice WIt 1 the pick and shovel. A space 20 fe~t in ~ength and 6 feet in width was thawed at a time, be1t1g an area just large enough for one man to excavate before it could again be attacked by the frost. To thaw this, kindlings were made and placed, for the width of one foot for the whole length of the 20 feet then a layer of dry spruce wood was placed on top of these for the whole width of 6 feet all(~ the length of 20 feet; on top of this another"layer of dry wood was placed, cross-wise, and then a third layer of green spruce and the whole covered with rocks tin or sheet iron. The green wood kept the fire b~rning as long as possible and the tin or sheet iron confined the heat within the area to be thawed. The kindlings were placed in the middle of the wood pile for the whole length of the 20 feet for the purpose of conducting the fire through the whole mass. The fire would continue to smoul­ der for 14 or 16 hours and thaw to a depth of 18 inches or about 6.5 cubic yards. After the material is thawed it is excavated with the pick and shovel into a wheelbarrow and placed on the shore of the river in the shape of a dump ready to be washed when the water is liberated. In 'b A W S () N )) A I L Y N ~ W S. many instances the material is washed at once il a rcicker instead of sluices. At points on Stewart river where the bars are situated above the high water mark and not .frozen there is no thawing required and work can go on during the summer months. The method employ­ ed to work these bars was very original and de­ serves some mention being made. The first operations on these bars consisted of open-cut work, the material was excavated and con­ veyed by wheelbarrows to the rocker, every load be­ ing washed before another was excavated. By this method the output was so small that some means had to be devised to handle more. As no water could be obtained under pressure and pumps were out of the question, the water was elevated to the bar in the following manner: A paddle wheel, of about 15 feet in diameter, to which was attached small tin cans at intervals of about two feet around its circumference, was set into the current of the stream. As the wheel was made to revolve by the current these small cans wO,uld fill and empty themselves automatically into a trough or box connected with a hose high enough above the surface of the bar to give pressure. This water was used to ground sluice the material into the sluices or to furnish enough water to sluice material which '/1S excavated and shoveled-in. The two operations above described were the first employed in this territory. You will notice that they were on the most primitive scale neither one requiring capital to enable to recover gold. These operations went on for quite a few years until coarse gold was found on some of the small streams tributaries of the Fortymile river. It ap­ pears that the miners stampeded these small streams and bar digging grew less every year while creek digging came into prominence more and more until the year 1896, when the Klondike gold fields were discovered and bar digging operations became ex­ tinct. The importance of these bars was not re- the frost was a distinct advantage because there was neither seepage water to contend with nor had the miners to timber the drifts. Up to this time, 1896, the methods employed to operate the alluvials were the open-cut, ground sluic­ ing and drifting; thawing was done with wood and the hoisting was done with the windlass. All the methods above mentioned were introduced in the Klondike mining district but as the conditi(')ns were somewhat different in respect to the depth of the ground, the gradient of the stream and the wa­ ter supply only the drifting method was employed. During the year 1897 steam thawing was intro­ duced but as there was no iron available with which to make pipes, over 300 rifle barrels were used in­ stead of pipes and actually employed for thawing the gravels. With the introduction of steam the number and the scale of operations increased to such a degree that the windlass, which was the only hoisting ap­ paratus at that time, was entirely inadequate to hoist the quantity of dirt which, with a more suitable ap­ paratus, it was found could be handled. To meet these conditions cages were introduced but these were soon discarded as they required too much labor. Amongst the many miners in the territory at that time some were acquainted with alluvial iron or coal mining methods in connection with which self-dumping devises were used. Some experiments were made with the idea of employing the same to hoist the material, from either a shaft or an open-cut, into sluices. The apparatus was devised but the manner of tripping the bucket automatically required considerable thought. This was finally accomplished and the first self-dumper was manu­ factured in Dawson in the year 1900 at the Mc­ Donald iron works. About this time the thawing with wood was re­ placed by steam and the hoisting with the wind­ lass was replaced by the self-dumper. All these Drifting and Hoisting by Machinery. cognized until the year 1901 when the first dredge was installed on Bonanza creek. Many foresaw the possibilities of operating them with a dredge and it was only a short time afterwards that all the gold bearing streams were covered by dredging leases. CREEK PLACERS. It was not long after the discovery of bar gold that coarse gold was found in some of the tributaries of the Fortymile river. As far as the records show it appears that the first coarse gold was found on a tributary known as Franklin creek entering the river at a point 80 miles from its mouth. As this was the first coarse gold that had been found it was proposed to allow every man to locate a claim. As this stream was short, only 300-foot claims could be obtained, this scheme did not prove successful as the congestion of claims prevented each man from doing the work he wanted to do as the tailings from the operation of one claim would interfere with the operations of an adjoining claim and compelled each one to either drift or open-cut by hand. With the discovery of Franklin creek it encour­ aged prospectors to look for other streams and it was not long afterwards that Davis, Miller and Glacier creeks were discovered. Ground sluicing and open-cutting were the methods in use at this time, but these methods could only be employed in shallow ground of not more than 10 or 12 feet in depth. In many instances the ground was too deep to be profitably worked by the open-cut method and the gradient of the stream was too low to allow ground sluicing. It was therefortl necessary to remove the pay without disturbing the overburden; this is known as the drifting method. It was contended that much trouble would be ex­ perienced with the frost but it was soon found that improvements in thawing and hoisting were Ct.I1- sidered ample to keep up with any excavatiofl that could be done with the pick and shovel and the evolution of the method of drifting was, therefore, considered. completed. MODERN DRIFTING METHOD. It is very interesting to the layman to know how the primitive methods of mining in this territory were conducted but it is equally interesting to 1 he technical man how the modern methods of today are being conducted and for that reason I shall give two examples taken from actual operations; one when the windlass is employed to hoist and the other when the self-dumper is installed. Much information is necessary to determine if the ground in question should be drifted rather than to employ another method. It is necessary to know the thickness of the "muck"; the thickness of fine sand and barren material; the thickness of the pay and the condition of the bed rock. If the ground is found to be less than 20 feet in depth to bed rock one should consider the advisability of employ­ ing t'lhe open-cut method. If there is a large quan­ tity of muck and barren material and the pay is shallow, drifting is cheaper than any method where­ by the overburden is removed. This information is gathered by prospecting; either by sinking shafts or drill holes. As the biggest cost in all placer mining opera­ tions is the transportation of the pay material from the shaft to the sluices it is of prime importance to consider the scale upon which the operations are to be conducted; whether by the windlass or the self-dumper. Generally the quantity of ground and the size of the pay streak will determine the position of the shaft or shafts, as the case may be. and the scale of the work. If the pay streak is found t~ be 200 feet in width one shaft will serve to mine 40,000 square feet of bed rock and that will justify the in­ stallation of a steam hoist. If, on the other hand, the pay streak is only 100 feet in width, two shafts will be necessary to mine a similar ar('a and again, if the pay streak is still narrower more shafts will be necessary for the same area or the laborers will have to wheel the gravels a long distance to the shaft. In the latter case windlass hoisting should be carefully considered. It is apparent that the lack of area adds to the eost of mining in sinking shafts, handling barren material and the setting up of the hoisting rigging every time a shaft is sunk. In this latter case the average area drifted out of a shaft is 20,000 square feet. DEAD WORK. This term is commonly employed by the miners of this territory to mean work which is necessary to be done from which no revenue is expected; in other words it is considered preparatory work for whatClver operations are to be conducted. This work consists of prospecting, building cabins, cl.ear­ ing the ground and erccting the plant. SINKING SHAFTS. There llre many methods employed to sink shafts; each one ehiefly depends on the condition of the ground and the finances of the operator. When one undertakcs to sink a shaft he must expect to find the following material: 1. From the surface to a depth of from 6 to 15 feet, moss and muck in a frozen condition. 2. The next layer underneath consists of gravels from 3 to 8 feet thick and all frozen. 3. Bed rock material, frozen, about 4 feet thick containing the best pay. The Iilluck consists chiefly of decompo. ('cl vege­ table matter and ice, while in other localities it is mixed with sand. The grav Is are fine; the largest houlder does not exceed 24 inches in diamet1!r and does ntilt, therefore, impede mining by any method. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. hetter to have two shafts, as the material is being thawetl in one while the material is being hoisted out of the other. On the other hand if there is only one shaft available the men have nothing to do when the thawing goes on. THAWING IN DRIFTING OPERATION§ .. In all modern plants only steam is being used to tha w the gravels; althoug h wood and hot water are both employed they are not, by any means, univer­ sally used. The wood is used in small operations where transportation is difficult and hot water is used in certain localities where the composition of the gravels permits it. THE POINTS. The points used to thaw the gravels are mostly 6 feet in length, made of extra hydraulic pipe and have a bore of I y;i to 3-8-inch diameter. They have solid standard heads which wIll sland the blows of a 6 or 8 pound hammer. These points are connected into batteries of 4, each 11aving a separate steam hose, usually y;i inch steam valve and each battery is con­ nected with the main line ~ inch steam hose and valve. To do efficient work each point requires steam equal to ly;i h.p. boiler capacity. Much time is saved when the boiler capacity is equal lo ly;i times the number of points used, i.e. it would require a 30 11,p. l oiler to supply steam to 20 points. If a smaller hoiler is employed much trouble will be ex­ perienced in keeping it supplied with water and fuel. DUTY OF A POINT. Owing to the different conditions of the gravels it is difficult to state exactly the amount of steam required per point or the average amount of ground each point will thaw. The conditions of the gravels, both 011 the same stream and 011 the same claim, aTe so different that accurate results or estimates, to apply to all cases, are almost impossible to be ob­ tained. The best results of thawing, however, are accomplished when the muck reaches to within 5 . Drifting Method Underground on No. 1 Below Hunker. COST OF SINKING SHAFTS. The size of a shaft to work the alluvials depends on its particular use and varies from 4 by 5 to 7 by 8 feet respectively. Prospecting shafts are gen­ erally 4 by 5 feet while the working ones are 6 by 7 feet. The muck, which forms a part of the over­ burden, is generally picked by one man at the rate of two feet in three days. When the shaft gets too deep for a man to shovel the dirt out by hand, the windlass is set up and an­ other man is required to hoist the material out. When the gravel or bed rock is reached the steam points 'are employed. The gravel is usually of sufficient depth to re­ quire two thaws; even if the first thaw penetrates the bed rock, a second thaw will be necessary to open the bottom of the shaft. Shafts are not tim­ bered unless they are kept for working purposes. A shaft 4 by 6 can be sunk at the rate of 4 to 5 feet in a day. Taking ordinary labor at 6 per-day, mechanics at $7 per day and cost of wood at $10 per cord the cost of sinking shafts of different dimen­ sions is as follows: • A shaft 4 by 6 feet for a depth of 30 feet costs $3.11 pcr running foot. A shaft 4 by 5 feet for a depth of 30 feet costs $2.80 per running foot. A shaft 6 by 6 feet for a depth of 30 feet costs $4.40 per running foot. When it is necessary to sink two shafts on the same claim it is better to sink them at the same time, as the man at the windlass can hoist from both shafts, thus avoiding the cost of one man at the time of sinking. When windlass operations are contemplated, it is feet from the bottom of the pay. As a rule the gravels are sufficiently opened and the muck acts as a blanket to the steam which penetrates through the gravels. This, I must say, is the most favor­ able condition for thawing. On the other hand deep bodies of gravels are liable to be very compact and full of sediment. This class of gravels will not admit steam as readily and therefore do not thaw as rapidly and care must be takcn to avoid thawing the high barren gravels as they have to be removed by hand and, therefore, the cost of excavation is increased. In the former case, above mentioned, where the ~ravels are porous and do not contain much humidity and sand, 6 foot points placed 3 feet apart, driven their full length and steamed for 8 hours will thaw to a depth of 9 or 10 feet or 4.68 cubic yards per point. In the latter case where the gravels are tight and full of sediment, points are driven 2y;i feet apart and steamed slowly for 16 hours and thaw on an aver­ age 3 cubic yards per point. It will be noticed that in the latter case more fuel is used; more expense incurred in point-setting; much barren material must be removed and the duty of the point is less. COST OF THAWING. The cost of thawing in eonnection with modern drifting operations can be summed tip as follows: 1st. Labor ......................... $13.00 2nd. Fuel, wood at $10 per cord ..... $17.50 3rd. Number of points used... . . . . . . 20 4th. Total cost for 20 points ....... ,. $30.50 5th. The duty of 20 points,........ 75 cu. yds. 6th. The duty of each point.. . .. . .. . 3.75 cu. yds. 7th. The eost of thawing, per cu, yd. .40,7 The cust above given must not be confounded. with the cost of thawing gravels when other methods are employed. In open cuts and dredging the points used are much longer, there is more room to work and there is less care taken in point setting, therefore the duty of each point would be greater and the cost, per cubic yard, a great deal less, MODE OF DRIFTING. After the shaft is sunk to bed rock a drift is run up or down str('am to the end boundary of the claim, thcn a crosscut is run at right angles, then the ground is blocked out ready for excavation. The ~team points are set-in for about 10 hours to thaw the gravels after which they are shoveled into wheel­ harrows and dumped into the bucket, ituated at tbe bottom of the shaft, ready to be hoisted. The excavation of the material COl1lmences at the end of the claim and proceeds towards the shaft so as to leave all danger of "cave-ins" behind the lab or­ ers. Considerable management is necessary to sce that the laborers do not interfere with one an­ other when dumping into the self-dumper bucket; each man- should make a wheelbaT\'ow to every sccond bucket IInd do his share of handling the waste material. CAPACITY OF MAN IN DRIFT. The work of a miner in a drift consists of pick­ ing and shoveling the thawed gravels into a wheel­ barrow and wheeling the same to a bucket situated at the bottom of the shaft. Under the most favorable conditions one man will pick and shovel and de­ liver the same ready to be hoisted about 337y;i cubic feet of material; but the output of the laborer varies with the distance he has to wheel the material to the shaft. In localities where the pay streak is narrow and there is a shortage of ground to work, the conditions arc le s workable and the output of the laborer will not average more than 270 cu.ft. The capacity of a miner underground varies with so many conditions that a general average, only, can here be given. CAPACITY OF A PLANT. A modern plant has a capacity of 150 cubic yards per 24 hours. It is, however, only advisable to install a self-dumper plant when there are six shovelers or over underground as the expenditure above ground is too great to cope with the ou~put. of the men in the hole. A modern plant of thIS kmd consists of a 35 h.p. boiler, a steam hoi t and a 48- pan bucket traveling on a Ys-inch cable. The boiler is larger than is needed to hoist, the extra capacity being to furnish steam to the points in the drift. Each point requires I y;i h.p. or a trifle less and the hoisting requires 8 h.p. If the shovelers can supply the plant it is possible to hoist, up a shaft 30 feet in depth, one bucket a minute. COST OF DRIFTING. I here give concise data as to the cost, including the deaci work and the upkeep of the plant, of drift­ ing an area of 20,000 quare feet when the pay averages 40 feet in thickness. One shaft, 30 feet in depth ......... $ 130.00 Timbering shaft and some distance in drift ......................... 170.00 Fuel, 112 cords of wood at $10 per cord ............................ 1120.00 Labor, 10 men ..................... 3696.00 Cost of dead work and upkeep .... 1534.80 $6650.00 ;\lumber of days in operation...... 56 Daily capacity of plant ...... ,... 60 cu. yds. Cost per cubic yard ........... " . .. 2.00 Cost per sq. ft. of bed rock....... .33.?5 This is cost of excavating the matertal and placing on the sufrace in the shape of "dump," ready to be washed when the water is liberated. From 60 cents to $1 per cubic yard must be added to cover the washing. WINDLASS PLANT, A windlass plant consists of a windlass, a rope and a small 8-pan bucket and a small boiler to fur­ nish steam to thaw the gravels. In many in­ stances the gravels are thawed with wood. All these operations are generally conducted by men of limited means, in pairs, one at the wind­ lass and the other in the hole. \Vhen the pay is thin both men, for the most of the time, work in the hole as there is much waste to be disposed of. CAPACITY OF PLANT. The capacity of a windlass plant depends on the thickness of the pay. On a pay streak of two feet in thickness not more than 120 buckets, or about 7 cubic yards, can be hoisted per shift. On a 3y;i foot face the average will be about 200 buckets which is equal to 67y;i square feet of bed rock or 235 cubic feet of gravels per day. As it is not advisable, in all windlass operations, to carry the dirt more than 60 feet, shafts are sunk every 100 feet or less. COST OF WINDLASS DRIFTING. I herewith give concise data as to the cost of drifting a piece of ground 30,000 square feet area, when the pay averages a depth of 40 feet. 4 shafts, each 30 feet in depth .... $ 380.00 Timbering ................ ,...... 120.00 Labor, 12 men at $78 per day for 112 days ....................... 8736.00 Fuel. 1 y;i cords per day at $10 for 112 days ...................... . Dead work ..................... . Daily output ................... . Cost per square foot of bed rock .. Cost per cubic foot ............. . Cost pcr cubic yard ........... ". 1680.00 1637.00 $12553.40 270 sq. ft. .41,8 .11,9 3.22 .. . 'fhe cost above given is for the actual work necessary to place the material into a dump ready to be sluiced as soon as the water is liberated in the spring time. The cost of washing this material adds from 60 cents to $1 per cubic yard. MODE OF SLUICING. · The washing of the gold commences about the latter part of April and continues until the 15th of October of each year. In many localities the only water available to wash the material is seepage and snow water, which last not more than two weeks, it is of prime im­ portance that all preparations should be made to receive the water as soon as it is liberated. In this case the sluices are placed in position and covered with small battens and the excavated mater­ ial is dumped thereon in the shape of a dump. A few days before the opening of the season this material is thawed with steam points after which the battens are removed one by one and the mater­ ial drops into the sluices by gravity and aided by picks and shovels. in some localities the material is hydrauliced into the sluices by means of a small hose, the water being furnished by a small pressure pump. In other localities, when the con­ dition will allow it, the material is scraped into the sluices with steam or horse scrapers The method of washing is dependent on the scale of the operations, the water supply and the dumping ground for the disposal of the tailings. OPEN CUT METHOD. The open cut method, which consists of recover­ ing the pay by means of removing the overl:)l1rde~, is not only the oldest method employed 111 tlns camp but one which has received the most atte~­ tion in the Territory. It has caused many faIl­ ures but that cannot be compared with its successes and 'the incalculable value it has been to the camp in solving a means of operating the poorer gravels of the Territory. There are many open-cut methods in use, each one being employed to conform to the existing con­ ditions, and I have divided them into two great classes, based on the manner and the cost of op­ eration, as follows:- First,-All the open cut methods in which tl~e excavation of the material is by manual labor IS known as ordinary placer mining methods or prim­ itiv.! methods. Second,-All open cut methods in which the ex­ cavation . of the material is done by mechal11cal means are known as modern methods or gravel mining methods. . . In the following, hereunder, you Will fm.d the several methods in use, subdivided and belongmg to class 1 or 2. as the case may be. First,-Ordinary Placer Mining Methods­ Ground sluicing. Stripping by ground sluicing, shovelling the pay ;nto the sluices. Stripping, with either steam or horse scrapel, vr both, shovelling into wheelbarrows, wheelmg to bucket and hoisting to sluices. Secolld,-Gravel Mining Method­ Hydraulicillg with pumped water. Hydraulicing with gravity water. Steam shovelling. Dredging. Elevators. OPEN CUTTING BY ORDINARY PLACER MINING METHODS. Ground Sluicing.-Thi s method is employed to recover the pay in certain localities where the water supply is ample; where the gravels are .s~allow ~nd where the gradient of the stream is suffiCiently h~gh to move the material. It consists of concentratmg the stream as much as possible on the gravels which ai·e moved by the water without pressure. In every mstance laborers are employed to pick the gravels into the stream. When the whole material from the surface to bedrock is removed in this manner, the method is known as "ground slucing"; when it is only em­ ployed to move the overburden it is known as ·'stripping." STRIPPING BY GROUND SLUICING. In many cases when the gradient o! the strealll will not permit the whole of the matenal. from top to bottom to be removed by ground sluicing, only the overb~rden is removed and the pay is shovelled into sluice-boxes. This, however, can only be done III moderately shallow diggings when there is no barren material between what is possible to be re­ moved by ground sluicing, and the pay. If there .IS, besides the moss and muck, some barren matenal to be removed before the pay is exposed, it bec0me~ necessary to strip it with either a steam or a horse scraper. . ~TRIPPING. PICKING AND HOISTING. The method of open cutting a piece of ground of not over 20 feet in depth consists of three distinct operations: (1) stripping the overburde.n by ground sluicing, (2) stripping the w:!.ste matenal by mea~s of a steam or horse scraper, and (3) the pay IS shovelled into wheelbarrows, conveyed to the self­ dumper bucket and then hoisted to the sluice. COST OF OPEN CUTTING. The cost of mining by ,this method varies In 'every locality in accordance with the conditions. At places there is a good water. su~ply, plenty of grade for stripping ani! the water IS diverted from a near­ by stream for sluicing purposes, while in otl:er cases much scraping mllst be done and the slulc(l 1: AWSON DAILY NEWS. water must be pumped up; therefore, only an aver­ age cost can here be given. The stripping of the overburden by ground­ sluicing costs between 15 and 25 cents per cubic yard; the cost of scraping the "waste" by steam costs between 50 and 60 cents per cubic yard, and by horse scraper from 60 to 75 cents per cubic yard. The cost of shovelling in the pay into the bucket and hoist it on to the sluices costs in the neighbof' hood of $1.75 per cubic yard. Taking the average on a number of ~perations I have found the cost of open cutting to be $2.25 per cubic yard washed. OPEN-CUTTING BY MODERN GRAVEL MIN- ING METHODS. Hydraulic. This hydraulic method consists of directing a stream of water under pressure against a natural bank. During the . early days of this cart;lp the population included many miners from British Columbia and California who were well acquainted with the method, but on account of the perpetual frost il) the gravels many were of the opinion that it could not be employed. After the conditions were investi­ gated it was soon found that the frost was not the objection, but it was the lack of water and dump- 111g ground. Another objection was that the area of an individual claim did not justify the installa­ tion of a plant of any magnitude. The method of hydraulicing requires an abun­ dant water supply, plenty of grade and sufficient dumping ground for the disposal of the tailings, without anyone of these three conditions hydraulic­ ing is impossible. It was not until the best pay was worked out of the placer claims that the meth­ od was introduced and it required a larger tract than the area of one claim to justify any expens· e in that line. . .ln the years of 1899 and 1900 many groups of operate the whole seaSon. The cost of the removal of a cubic yard of material is increased by what­ ever expenditure is incurred during the dry sea­ son when there is no work going on. When there is an abundant supply of water the cost of the removal of a cubic yard of material has been as low as 14~ cents. The quantity of water available was 200 inches, the height of the bank 40 feet and the duty of the miner's inch 5 cubic yards in 24 hours. This is the actual cost only and does not include the interest on the money invested. The same work, done under the same conditions with a pumping plant costs upwards of 25 cents pel: cubic yard. MANNER OF HYDRAULIC. It was first thought that the frost in the gravels would be a severe disadvantage to accomplish hy­ draulic operations. This, however, was not the case as the sun's heat supplied as much thawed material as the water could handle. The method of procedure consisted of exposing as large as possible a f~l';e of the gravel bank to the sun" and to place the monitor at a point whereby the stream can be directed onto any part of it for a length of 200 feet. One portion is being operated while the other is being thawed by the sun. When the face of the bank is too large for one monitor, two are installed, but only one is used at a time if the gravels do not thaw quickly. In all cases, if only the frost is considered, the method is a thorough success. STEAM SHOVELING. The steam shovel has been very little used in this Territory. In no instance have I known of any plant of this kind being successful. An experiment of this method was made on a moderate scale and is, therefore, of little importance. I have no data as to costs. Six-inch Giant Under 450 Feet Head on Potato Patch Group. claims were formed and ditches, from near-by trib­ utaries, were constructed; but as the water supply was so meagre and the seasons so short, very little headway was made. At the time the method was introduced there was such a congestion of claims, both 011 hillsides and creek beds, that only a small quantity of water could be diverted by the ditches, the water being required by the individual miners in the creek bed. The next obstruction was the lack of dumping ground and to overcome this difficulty the tailings were cribbed on the side hills in order to avoid encroaching upon the adjoining claims in washing the deposit into the creek bed. To overcome all these difficulties it was pro­ posed to install pumping plants in the creek bed to pump the water for hydraulicing purposes. In this manner the water was returned to the stream above the point of diversion of the pumping plant and thereby causing no friction between the hydraulic and individual mining operators. On account of the cost of fuel this method was not successful and was abandoned. The decrease in the number of individual min­ ing operations in the creek bed permitted the di­ version of a larger quantity of water and in con­ sequence larger ditches were constructed, and large groups of claims were formed, including many creek claims, the latter being used to dump tailings resulting from the operations on the hillsides. The scale of these operations has been increasing every year since 1904. COST OF HYDRAULICING. The cost of hydraulicing depends on the quan­ tity of water available, the duty of a miner's inch and the dumping for the disposal of the tailings. Thf' pressure with which the water is being used is also a great factor. ' Up to the present time no hydraulic company has been able to obtajn a sufficient water supply to DREDGING. The first dredge in the Territory was installed on Creek Claim No. 42 below discovery on Bonanza Creek. It was a Risdon close connected bucket d~edge of 20 cubi.c feet capacity, of the old type With steam as motive power. The ground was cleared and stripped of moss and muck and a pond y,as made in which to place the bo~t1 .and op~ratlOns were conducted without any artiflclal thawl11g. It was, however, soon found out that there was too much frost and the bed rock could not b.e reached. The experience derived by the work of thiS dredge convinced the management that the method would be a success, even if conducted under. the sam~ conditions, with the advantage of the expenence ga111ed. It was foun~ that thawing was absolutely ne­ cessary before dlgg111g could commence. To do this a ~eparate plant was installed to furnish steam IQ P0111tS. ThiS plant consisted of two 50 horse power boilers and 65 poi~ts. Thawing began one month ahead of the dlgg111g so that the thawing plant could supply the dredge for the remainder of the season. ... The te1"!or of the gravels at this point was suf­ !Iclently high ~~ jus.tify this work. It was a mat­ ter of econ.omlS111g 111 fuel and increasing the duty of each P0111 t. The records show that the cost of thawing ahead of a dredge was 30 cents per cubic yard and the actual cost of digging was about the same This dredge is still operating on Bonanza Creek but with greater efficiency than before. ' The ~ost expensive part of the operations is the thaWing ahead of the dredge. This cost has been .decreased very materially since the work has been done on a large scale. The chief cause of the decrease being cheaper fuel and improvements in the method of point-setting. Since electric power, penerated by water, has • t AWSON DAILY NEWS been introduced the co't of digging ha. been greatly reduced. It is now nearly a 'ured that the a tual cost of digging will not be over 10 ccnts a cubic yard, Therc is. howcvcr, one drawback to the hydro-clcctric transmission in that the point of di­ "crsion of the water to gcnerate the power is much type; capacity,S and 6 cubic fret. Lewis River D. Company, Bonanza Creek, Ris don typc; capacity, 20 cubic fect. Yukon Gold Company, 1111llker Creek, Bllcyrus type; capacity . .5 and 6 cubic fect. Canadian K. G. M. Company, Klondike Ri""r, All the dredges of the Yukon Goid Company, , in !lumber, excavated 1,500,000 cubic yards during the season of 1908. The other dredges, being one in cach ca:;c, averagcd bctwcen 100,000 and I SO, DiD cubic yards each. ELEVATORS. Dredging Method. Open-cut Method. At points where the gravels arc shallow, the bed rock is hard, cracked and slab by and thcre is not cnough grade in the crcck hed for the removal of the mo ttrial, or thc g-old cannot be recovered by a dredge, a new met hod, known as "electric elevators" is ill usc. This mcthod can be cia. ified as a hy­ draulic method in which the grode is substituted by the elevator. ·A short description of the mcthod .3 as folio\\'. :- A sump hole is 1llade, about 30 fcet in depth. over which is placed an upright. \Vithin this upright is placed, ot each cnd. two tumblers, similar to these employed on dredges. over which on endlcss chain uf buckcts rCI·-.l .. n • These bucket are made to reach 1 he hot tom of the sump hole and elevate the ma­ terial which Il lS been hydrauliced in. The buckets have a copacily of 3 cubic feet and revolve with a velocity of over 20 per minute. colde. than the point at which the operations arc being conducted. If the power were generated by ;team it would lengthen the season obout on" month. :-1arion Shovel type: capacity, 6~, cnhic fe :t. Bonanza Basin G. D. Co .. Klondike River, AlIis Chalmers type: cal'acity 60 cubic feet. Yukon Ibsin G. D. Co., Stewart River, Risdon type; capacity. 20 cubic feet. These elevators ha\'e been installed on Bonanza Crec·k by the Yukon Gold Company after a design made by the gcneral manager, O. B. Perry. The cost of thc operations hove not yet been ascertailled but 1 am of opinion that it will com­ pare well wit h that of the dredge. There are 12 dredges operating in the Yukon Territory, as follows:- Yukon Gold Company, Bonanza Creek, Bucyrus Davison Bros., Forty-mile River; Allis Chalmeri type i capocity, 60 cubic feet Therc are three installcd. two of which have al­ ready bcen operated. About 66,000 cubic yards of matcrial have been treated with these machines. OPPORTUNITIES OF T HE Yukon offcrs opportunities for t hc alllas~fng of wealth to men of all stations in lifc, to the in­ dividual miner and prospector, and to the capitalist inter~sted in the de­ velopment of the mining indu try. It offers inducements unequalled in any country in the world. There is no bet­ ter field for untold wealth to the faith­ ful prospector who is po sessed of the nccC sary pluck and determination to per evere. Thousands of acres of placer ground are stfil available for the individual miner and prospcctor. Some of this ground has bcen suffi­ ciently prospected to Ascertain the pre ence of gold in paying quantities, but the larger portion however hos never had a prospcct hole put dowll upon it, and consequently its value is as yet unknown to the world. llull­ dreds of claims are held by miners who offer splendid inducements to the individuol, that is the miner of small capital, to be worked under the "La/' system. Most of tilese properties have been pro poctcd and the pay stre;lk defined, but owing to the lack of ufficient means the owners arc 110t able to opcrate their p.'opcrties. Un­ der the lay system the owner of the property practically leases his pro­ perty to the miner on a basis. The lessee receive the entire Qutput of the mine Ollt of which he pays all operating expenses and the percentagc to which tile owner of the property is entitled under the "Lay." The balance remaining represents the profits of the laymcn in the "peratiOll of the claim. Frequently these lays have been found very profitable to the laymen and the greater percent­ agc of them poy bettt.r than wages. Remuneration for worK, or wages, is figured at a much higher. rate . tl~an is paid for the ame work 111 mmmg centrcs that are located in closer prox­ imity to the markets of th~ wo~ld. The farther from the market ll1 whIch the miner obtain his supplies and t', e more remote from civilization, the hi-'her the wages. \Ve find, there­ fo~e, that the rate of wages va~ies ac­ cording to the district in which the miner and layman is working and that it is rated from $4 a day and board to $12 a day and board and in some in­ stances to $15 a day and board. The usual rate of wages, however, p~id to the miner working at placer 111111- illg in the Yukon is $4 a day and • By FRANK J. NOLAN, Manager of the N. A. T. & T. Co. board. Owing to the greol possihili­ tics of the country and the last oppor­ ttlllities it offers, the man coming into the country at the present time, pas· esscd of the qualities necessary to be come a prospector and who has the grit to persevere ha~ cvery chance in his favor of making. it not a fortuIH·. at least a more comfortable com­ petence than hi con~rere on the out- Frank J. Noian, Manager N. A. T. & T. Co. - Phot( U} Duclos. s id .'. )"fany men have not only done well but have left the country in ab­ solute independence. In order for the pro. pector to de­ crease his chances of failure and to relltler succe 5 more certain, it is necessary in additioh IO the qualities heretofore enumcrate for him to po sess sufficicnt means to provide himself with a suitable outfit or grubstake to last at least one year. This can be procured at an average cost of $500 a man per year, and there shoultl never be less than at lcast two mt'n, working as pann 1'5, on a lay or pro pecting vcnture. There is an enOi'1110US territory available containing vast deposits of placer gravcls which will yield hand­ some returns to. the capitalist and heavy invcstor. These propcrties must be worked on a large scalc by modern and improved methods in ordcr to be profitahle. )"fuch capital has been in­ duced to in\'est in the Yukon during the last fcw ycars and there is every indication that when the returns on their im'estmt:nts begin to comc in there will be an eagcrness on the part of capital to increase their holdings. The fuel intlustry glvcs employment to a large numbcr 01 men. An enor­ mous quantity of wood is consumed ill this country, out of proportion to the population if compared with similar districts outside. Tile mines demand their quota, and a large quantity is demanded for household u c. At pres­ ent there is a sufficient number of men interested in this industry but the opportunities in this line will doubt­ less improve with renewed and in­ creased mining activity. The roads and trails of the Yukon arc as good as can be found in any mining country elsewhere. The Cana­ dian government cannot be given too much credit for the excellent work it has done. Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been expended in per­ fecting the system of roads and trails and it has ever been the policy of Yukon River. YU KON the government to follow up the pro - pector and trail blazer and provide roads wherever found necessary. The commercial conditions of the territory at the presel.t time do not warrant the encouragement of a single individual; every line of busine s is represented and in fact many arc overdone. This condition, however, will doubtless improve with the in­ crea e of investment of capital in placer mining and the development of quartz and the renewed activity of the prospector. It might be of intercst to those con­ templating a change of residence to know that in the City of Dawsoll churches of all denominations are represcnted and that the school sys­ tem i of a very high urder. The city also has two well equipped hospitals which would do credit to outside cities of much greater importance. Telegraphic communication is to be had with the outside, via Canadian and American lines and also with aid of the wireless system with many parts of Ala ka. Mails are received regularly by steamer during the open season of navigatioJ( and by stage during the winter months. This lat­ tcr is a tri-weekly service. Moil ser­ vice is also maintained betwcen Daw­ son and '\(askan points. In conclusion the Klondike gold fields offer inducements to the sturdy prospector who has the means to pro­ vide himself with a suitable outfit that cannot be surpassed in another spot on the globe and it a lso offers in­ ducements for investment to the cap­ italist that will prove as remunerative as investments of a similar character in the other mining centers of the world. .. D A W SON D AlL 'y N ~ W s. 11 Lilb)(erallity aundl Safety of Mining Laws in ~he Y ulkon T HE mining laws in force in the Yukon Territory are of three kinds: First. Those regarding placer min­ ing, which are embodied in an aet of the parliament of Canada passed in 1906, entitled the "Yukon Placer Min­ ing Act," and in several amendments. Second. Those regarding quartz mining, which are embodied in an or­ der of the governor general in council. dated August 13, 1908, which came into force ~eptember 26, 1908. Third. Those regarding dredging, which are embodied in an order of the governor general in council, passed on May 14, 1907, which came into force on June 22, 1907. Under the said Yukon placer mining act and its amendments, any person over, but not under, eighteen years of age, whether a British subject or not, may acquire, by stakinll and applying, placer mining claims of the size de­ scribed therein, namely, "Any person or party of persons lo(:ating the first claim on any creek, hill, bench, bar or plain, or locating a claim on any creek, hill, bench, bar or plain upon whiGh there is no recorded claim, is entitled to a claim or claims respec­ t.ively of the following sizes: One • loca tor, one claim 1,500 feet in length; a party of two locat, ' rs, two claims, each of 1.250 feet in length; a party of more than two locators, two claims, each of 1,000 feet ill length; and for each member of the party beyond two, a claim of the ordinary size only, namely, 500 feet in length. Creek claims are two thousand feet in width, and all other claims are one thousand feet in width. Any person having recorded a claim (creek, hill, bench, bar or plain) with­ in a valley or basin, has the right to locate another claim within the said valley or basin within sixty days of the date on which he has located the said claim. The grants which are issued for placer mining claims are only good for one year from the date of issue; but they are absolutely renewable from year to year, provided the gran­ tees thereunder, or their assigns, do or cause to be done thereon at least two hundred dollars worth of work during each year of the said period, in accord­ ance with a schedule prepared by the gold commissioner and approved by the commissioner, and file within a prescribed time with the mining re­ corder, or his agent, an affidavit stat­ ing that such work has been done, and setting out a detailed statement there· of, and pay the required renewal fee. Placer mining claims adjoining one another, not exceeding ten in number, may be grouped together by the min­ ing recorders, for the purpose of per­ forming on anyone or more of such claims all the work required to entitle the owners of same to renewal grants therefor. . By F. X. GOSSELIN, Gold Commissioner of Yukon Territory Any number of claims adjoining or not adjoining may be grouped to­ gether for similar purposes, if it is shown to the satisfaction of the com­ missioner of the Yukon Territory that the lIlterests of the locality in which these claims are situated will be ma­ terially benefitted thereby. Under the quartz mining regula­ tions, any person over, but not under eighteen years of age, whether British subject or not, who discovers rock in place, is entitled to stake a claim measuring 1,500 feet in length by 1,500 feet in width, and to receive a record for the same, on making ap­ plication within the time specified in these regulations; but he may not locate more than one claim on the same vein or lode, or within a dis­ tance of one-half mile. Quartz claims, not exceeding eight in number, which are adjoining one another, may be grouped together for the purpose of doing the required amount of assessmeftt work called for by the said regulations, namely, one hundred dollars worth per annum per claim. The records which are issued for quartz claims entitle the holders thereof to obtain crown grants for The Race for Fortune-Lake Lebarge in 1898. these claims, upon performing at least one hundred dollars worth of work per annum for five consecutive years, or live hundred dollars worth of work during onc or two years, or more, and having a survey made thereof and propcrly advertised and posted, and paying the surface rights at the rate of one dollar an acre. There is not the slightest danger of the holders of such records losing the claims covered thereby, if they perform, or cause to be performcd, the required amount of work, and file with the mining recorder, within the specified delays, proper affidavits giv­ ing an itemized account of such work. There is not the slightest danger of the holders of such records being re­ fused crown grants, if the provisions of the regulations are complied with. Both as regards placer mining and quartz mining, if any person satisfies tl1.e mining recorder that he is about to undertake a bona fide prospecting trip, he may receive written permis­ sion from the mining recorder, allow­ ing him to record a claim within his mining district at any time within a period not exceeding six months from the date of his staking such claim; and if any person satisfies the mining recorder that he is about to undertake a bona fide prospecting trip, and files with the mining recorder a power of attorney from any number of per­ sons, not exceeding two, authorizing him to stake claims for them, in con­ sideration of their having enabled him to take the trip, he may stake one claim in the name of each such per­ son upon any creek on which he makes a discovery, As regards dredging mining regula­ tions: Leases to dredge for minerals in the beds of rivers in the Yukon Territory are issued ror periods of fifteen years for stretches of river, not exceeding ten miles in length, and those leases are renewable from time to time, at the discretion of the min­ ister of the interior, provided it is shown to his satisfaction that the leasehold has not been fully mined, and that the lessee has, during the term of his lease, efficiently operated the leasehold, and that he has other­ wise fully complied with the provi­ sions of the regulations in that behalf. The rentals called for by these dredging regulations are one hundred dollars a mile, for the first year, and ten dollars a mile for each additional year. The lessees under said leases are required to instal on tileir leaseholds and put in operation, within three years from the dates of said leases at least one dredge, and to keep s~lch dredge in operation for not less than forty days, of ten hours each, in every year, after the third year from the date of the lease. The foregoing synopsis will satisfy anyone who is acquainted with the mining laws of other countries, that the mining laws in force in the Yukon Territory are more liberal ans as safe, if not safer, than any other min­ ing laws. MHNHNG THTLE HN YUKON By E. C. SENKLER, K. C., Legal Adviser, Former Gold Commissionc_r. F ROM the discovery of gold on Bonanza in August, 1896, until the summer of 1898, creek claims only had been staked, and although there was no means of perfecting title to a placer claim during tilat period, there is not a case where a bona fide prior locator who complied with the regu­ lations was deprived of his ground. The greatest trouble arose at the time of the big rush from the outside in the summer of 1898, as it was found about that time that the benches of Bonanza, Eldorado, Dominion and Hunker contained gold. Owinr.:- to the large number of locators, and the dif­ ficulty of describing precisely the posi­ tion of claims, there: was much over­ lapping that brought about litigation which could not be disposed of for more than three years. This litigation caused considerable dissatisfaction, and, in some cases, miners suffered in­ justice. Until March 31, 1900, the holder of a grant to a claim was alw~ys subject to attack by holders or' previous loca­ tions and it always was necessary that claim holders should be in a position to satisfactory prove the precise position of his location posts. On the date mentioned a regulation came into force whereby a claim holder could have his claim surveyed, and on ad­ vertising the survey three weeks, if 110 protest were entered, the survey would mark absolutely the boundary of the claim. On a man taking ad­ vantage of this amendment, his duties were reduced to set:!ng that the re­ presentation work was done and that the claim was renewed each year. The government also gave general assist­ ance in this regard by having all the principal creeks-Bonanzo, Eldorado, Hunker, Dominion and Sulphur-sur- veyed, giving precisely the position of each creek claim. In Yukon Territory, as in all other placer countries, the rocator of a placer claim always is in danger of attack up to the time he has complet­ ed the advertising of a survey of the claim. This, owing to the difficulty of finding and fixing precisely the location posts of other locators, is un­ avoidable, and a knowledge of the ex­ act position of adjoining claims can be obtained only by a proper survey. A mining recorder's office, especial­ ly as regards placer mining, must necessarily be somewhat different from the ordinary registering office, and must be perfected gradually by the experience of those who have its conduct. From 1897 until 1900, when the great rush was at its height in staking and recording, the recording office was at a great disadvantage, es­ pecially in the fore part of that period, in not being properly equipped in re­ gard to space and material. There are many cases in the recorcl of the early days where bills of sale of valu­ able property were written on wrap­ ping paper. Since the new adminis­ tration building was completed, in the summer of 1901, no fault can be found with the gold commissioner's office or the supply of material. The placer mining act, under which placer mining is administered at pres- Governor's Residence, Dawson ent, became law in August, 1906. The act was compiled largely from regu­ lations formerly in force, but includC'ls a number of changes that were adopt­ ed by the commissioner of the Yukon council appointed for the purpose af­ ter consultation with the miners at a number of meetings held for the pur­ pose of discussing proposed changes. A few amendments were added in 1908, and today we have as secure and as workable a compilation of laws as can be found in any community. rr 0 husband the resources of a country and convey its industrial commodities from their place of pro­ duction into chaunels of usefulness i~ the work of a complicated mcrcantile system. The centralization and dis­ tribution - the marketing - of any specific product in cases where such product is the paramount industry of a community obviously involves the entire economic mechanism of that community. Facility in production is invariably commensurate with the means of distribution, and where these are well organized the benefits accrue directly to the producer. Thus industry is stimulated when distribu­ tion i established upon a sound economic basis. The actual conveyance of the gold of the Klondike from its mines to the refinery or mint has been conducted almost entirely through the medium of the Dawsol1 banks. Each bank has its trained gold buyers who, by dint of constant handling, acquire a pre­ cise and accurate knowledge of the values of the various grades of dust, and are able to differentiate the gold from the different creeks by the pecu­ liarities of its formation, size, color and lustre. The banks' currency is always available to meet the demands of the industry. The gold dust of the Klondike dis­ trict varies in value not only on the differen t creeks and on differen t parts of the same creek, but frequently 011 different parts of the same claim. Such variation is caused by alloy with varying proportions of silver. The proportion of base metals-iron a11d copper-is almost inappreciable. 111 certain districts the dust is coated with a dcposit of iron sulphide, a re­ sult of volcanic action. In this COIl­ dition it has not metallic lustre. It i~ quite black in col or, and in the pro­ cess of melting the loss is generally much in excess of that of gold of a natural color. Gold is brought to the local banks by the owner or his representative in thc form of dust, or-in cases where Cjuick-sil\'er has been used in the pro­ cess of "cleaning up"-dry amalgam. I n the former case the dust is thor­ oughly blown and cleansed of any black sand which may be present. It is thcu weighed in the presence of the vendor and either purchased outright at a rate established by previous as­ say, or left for assay, in which case a receipt for the weight is given and an advance approximating the value made if desired. Final adjustment is made when assay value has been as­ certained. The Dawson value is ar­ rived at by deducth,g from the full assay valuc the government export tax of two and one-half per ccnt. (370 cents per ounce), and the bank's charge, which is approximately 26 to 28 cents per ounce. The dust is then melted in thc bank's assay office, and the base metals-iron and copper-are f1uxcd off in the process. it is poured into moulds of the required size, allowed to cool and thoroughly cleansed of all slag. The bar is then weighed and thc difference between the original weight of the dust and the bar weight represents the loss in meiting. The average loss in the case of clean, bright dust is about 2 per ccnt. The bar is then chipped or bored, the chips or borings being takcn from both top and bottom of bar at diagonally op­ posite corners, and assayed. The re­ sults are reported in points of fine­ ness-I,OOO fine representing pure gold at $20.67 per ounce. Gold is the only metal which is not subject to varia­ ~ions of price with market fluctuations. bAWSON nAtLv NEWS. and Marketing of Gold Dust By F. STANLEY LONG, of the Bank of Briti h North America tion of gold and silvcr by the East India Company, which in the year 1600 obtained permission to ship an­ nually coin or bullion to the extent of thirty thousand pounds, subject to stringent conditions, was the occasion of much conclusive testimony against a system wholly antiquated and im­ practicable. In the evolution of the science of cconomics gold bullion has taken its place among the articles of merchandise. Gold shipments between nations are controlled by rates of ex­ change, which in turu are governed by the balance of trade; gold, valued as bll11ion, being the only medium for payment of international balances. Rates of interest on loans also exert a powerful influence on the movement of gold, as money always moves to the point where it can be most profit­ ably employed. A large exportation of gold is stjll regarded by many as a loss of national wealth, whereas it is but one or a multitude of ex­ changes of commodities which are constantly taking place between coun­ tries. Dwellers in a remote mining country can at least appreciate the necessity for such exchanges. An allowance of ten points in one thousand is made for base metal. By way of ilIustration: When the result of an assay of 100 ounces yields gold at a fineness of 800, silver, being the only other metal in the alloy, with the exception of the 1.0-1000 of base al­ ready referred to, will constitute the difference betwecn the gold fineness and the 1,000 points representing pure gold. Thus the fineness of the silver will be 190-base metal (nominal) 10 -making the total of 1,000 points. Gold at a fiueness of 800 is worth $16.54 an ounce, silver at a fineness of 190 (supposing the market valuation per standard ounce to be 50 cents) is worth 90 cents an ounce. Hence, in the caSe in point, we have 100 ounces gold at $16.54 per ounce, and 100 ounces of silver at 90 cents per ounce. A certificate is made up ac­ cordingly, giving all particulars of the assay, and the deductions from assay value, and is handed to the party at MARlS OF THE YUKON By 1. J. HARTMAN, Postmaster at Dawson A LTHOUGH the remotest point of any considerable population in the Dominion, Dawson is supplied • Three Tons of Gold Bricks in Dawson Bank. whose request the assay was made. Almost the entire output of the Klondike gold fields has been shipped directly to th e assay offices and re­ fineries of the United States, where, after refining, it has either been placed on the markct as an article of mer­ chandise or has found its way to the vaults of the treasury of the United States. In earlier stages of civilization, in fact down to the sixteenth century, the exportation of the precious metals was frequently prohibited by the laws of different countries as being con­ trary to the first principles of politi­ cal economy. For a state to part with the "common denominator" was to impoverish itself in exact ratio. The controversy aroused by the exporta- with a regular and frequent mail ser­ vice the year round, and the other portions of the territory are given a good service in proportion to their population and distance from the main route of travel. In the first few months of the his­ tory of Dawson after the great rush to this region, mails were handled without adequate provision and everyone in the country had to come to Dawson to get mail. . But the force and the facilities soon became adequate, and everything was straightened out, and today Dawson has one of the best systematized post offices in the Dominion and miners or others from a distance are given the unusual accommodation of delivery of their mail at the office any time day or night that the gen­ eral delivery may be closed. For a time the Dawson office was the first in rank in the world in the amount of money handled through anyone office. That was caused by the great sales of money orders to those making homestakes and send­ ing them out of the country. With the changed conditions, Dawson still makes a splendid showing, and the office here ranks among the leading offices of Canada in volume of busi­ ness. The Dawson summary for 1907 follows: Money orders sold, $337,625.95; commission on. same $2,575.51; de­ posits in Dawson post office savings bank, $109,627; money orders paid, $48,879.71; box rent, $2298; postal notes sold $11,325; stamps sold, $12,- 39B. The following is a list of the post offices in Yukou Territory, together with the postmaster of each, and the indication of what service is given at each office, it being understood that postal savings bank, money order or postal note service is given only where stated: Dawson-Postmaster 1. I. Hart­ man; money order, savings bank, postal notes. Last Chance-Postmistress Miss Kate Kennedy. Dominion Post Office at mouth of Caribou Gulch-C. Sandquist. Paris at No. 7 below lower discov­ ery on Dominion-Frank Brock. Lower Dominion post office, at 33 below lower-George Murray. Granville, 244 below lower . dis­ covery on Dominion-I. N. Spence; money order and postal note. Hunker .... ost office at mouth of Gold Bottom creek; I. A. Peppard. Kluane-Phil Holliday. Radford, on Quartz creek-A. D. Ross. Sulphur post office, at No. 2 below discovery-John Rourke. Bonanza post office, at Grand Forks of Eldorado and Bonanza-A. J. Peck; money order. Stewart River post office, at mouth of Stewart river-Mrs. W. H. Smythe. Pelly post ofi'ice, town of Selkirk, at mouth of the Pelly river-J oseph Horsfall. Carmack's, near Tantalus coal mines. Whitehorse - Dr. Fred Cane; money order and postal notes. Carcross-Mrs. N. Chambers. Conrad-James M. Murray. Log Cabin-To Tugwell; postal notes and money order. Fortymile-J. W. Wilkinson. Atlin-John WiIliams. Note-Atlin and Log Cabin are in British Columbia, but in the Yukon watershed. Glacier, Klaune, Big Salmon are supplied with mail occas­ sionally by special arrangement from time to time. Livingstone, in the Little Salmon counrty, has a summer office only. The complete postal staff at Daw­ son follows: 1. J. Hartman, post­ master; G. D. Edwards, asistant post­ master; Ben Craig. Joe Wilson, Fred Hartman, N. C. Caron and Walter Hamilton. DAWSON DAILY N E WS. 13 Encouragement of the Prospector By ALFRED THOMPSON, M.D., Ex-Member of Parliament for Yukon I T is safe to assume that there have been very few mining camps es­ tablished which have not been made possible by the pre-arrival of the prospector. The prospector is a specimen of the genus homo whose habitat is any­ where on the surface of this globe where gold, silver or precious stones are likely to be found. His home is in the wilds, a tent, cabin or even the forest primeval sheltering him in his hours or rest. He is buoyed up and led on by hope-hope that he will strike it rich; and he often does, but rarely reaps the benefits of his dis­ covery. As a rule he is not a good business man, and he suffers for his lack of knowledge of the ways of the business world. His business is to find. Others develop. But he is a man without whom it is almost im­ possible for a new country to develop, for he is the great, lone philosophical persevering pioneer. Many mining countries recognize his worth and their need of the pros­ pector by offering inducements la this empire builder in the way of free claims, exemption from taxes, in­ creased area for a discovery, and in some cases a cash bonus. Why? Be­ cau e they know of the benefits which follow in his train. He makes a find, stakes a claim; others follow, and soon a stampede is on. Towns spring uP. new romes of transporta­ tion are opened, a new territory is exploited, people pour in, commerce is given a new impulse, old centers of supply get more trade and new ones are created where none were before. The government receives revenues from a new source, and a place that was barren has been made to blossom like the rose. Dana, in his "Two Years Before the Mast" was in the harbor of San Fran­ cisco, trading for hides with the Spaniards 20 years before gold was discovered, when California was prac­ tically a waste. The discovery of gold in the '40's brought the prospec­ tor and civilization. Other discoveries on the Pacific slope followed, notably Cariboo and Cassiar, with the result that in 60 years over seven millions of people make their home on this side of the Rocky mountains. Robert Henderson discovered gold in the Klondike in 1896 and as the re­ sult of his and other prospectors' work, this territory has produced near ISO millions of gold since. What then can be done to encour­ age this important individual, the prospector, to make new finds, per­ haps discover new Klondikes? First make the inducement big enough to get him out in the hills by giving him a large claim for a dis­ covery if he makes onc. In the Yukon he gets 1,500 feet for one locator, and 2,500 feet if there are two in the party. Then, make his title to the ground secure. Our new mining code has done this. As soon as his ground has been proven, cut a trail to the location so that he can get his sup­ plies to the scene of operations at low cost. Make him a partner of the gov­ ernment by giving him a percentage of the renewal fees after the second year. The first year the creek may be stampeded but the owners will not re­ new their claims unless values are found. The prospector has made it possible for the government to get any revenue from this ground, and it is not unreasonable to ask the govern­ m'~J't to zhare WIth the man \Vhf) cre­ ated this asset-this in liet! of a cash bonus. As soon as possible after a new find is made and proven, have his claim surveyed free; send a geologist to make a geological examination of the country in the vicinity, and have a reliable map made showing where gold is likely to be found, and where not. Have a contour survey made by a topographical Sltrveyor showing altitudes, water supply and timber available. If the prospector has located a quartz claim, have a free assay office where he can get reliable assaying done. Put the machinery needed for milling quartz on the free list, and if necessary pay a portion of the cost to have a mill test made. I hope soon to see a hydrographic sur­ vey made in this territory showing the rainfall in the different sections, the quantity of water in the different streams at different tImes of the year, and also the power to be generated from some of the well known water powers. There are in this territory great op­ portunities for the prospector. We arc right in that belt of gold pro­ ducing ground which stretches from California to Cape Nome. Our min­ ing laws are sound and the area of a claim ample. To t,le placer pros­ pector wc give 1500 feet up and down stream by 2000 feet wide for a dis­ covery claim; to the quartz prospec­ tor we give a claim 1500 feet square covering over SO acres of ground, and after he has done a certain amount of work on it we give him a crown grant to the ground, so that he owns it in fee simple. For the quartz prospector there is here practically a virgin field, a field that is attractive because of the un ­ certain origin of the placer gold in which the country abounds. For the prospector of copper there are vast ledges of this mineral still unexplored. These abound in that section whic;h lies between the boundary between the Yukon Territory and British Co­ lumbia and the head waters of the White river, and are said to contain every variety from pure native copper to gray copper. As a prod of this, enormous slabs of native copper can be seen in Dawson and Whitehorse, and many varieties of copper ore are annually brought down from the cop­ per region. The climate here is most salubrious and for six months in summer cannot be excelled in any part of the world for prospecting. The days are long with very little rainfall; the nights cool but not cold. There is an abun- dance of grass for horses or mules. ·Wild berries grow in profusion, game is plentiful, and the streams supply whitefish, greyling and salmon. Fuel is plentiful in the valleys, and the tim­ ber line is between three and four thousand feet above sea level. Above this the hills are bal·c except for the shrubs, mosses and wild flowers, which make a Yukon landscape a panorama of beautiful colors when the wild flowers bloom. We have then in the Yukon ideal conditio~s fo; prospecting-climate, pasture, water, fuel, game, fish and frUits, a territory that although it has produced ar.out l50 millions in gold is practically un­ touched-good laws, sound title and a country where life and property are -afc. \Vhat mc·re can a prospector ask. Health in Yukon Territory By W. T. BARRETT, Medical Health Offic r for Yukon Territory. L IKE many of the interesting features of this country, the question of health and the relation of health to the extremes of tempera­ ture never have been sufficiently in­ vestigated and published so as to im­ press favorably the intending pros­ pector, farmer or capitalist, who wishes to exploit the mineral or agri­ cultural resources of the Yukon. Canadians know that extreme cold at intervals during the winter is in­ convenient and annoying, but not in­ jurious to health, provided of course the necessary precautions are taken to protect the body with suitalJle cloth­ ing. On the contrary, wc know that St. Mary's Hospital, Dawson. a Canadian winter acts as a tonic 011 people who arc not afraid to move about and take open air exercise­ even during our coldest weather. The people in thIS territory who seem to suffer most from the extreme cold, are, generally speaking, those who remain in overheated. poorly­ ventilated homes for days at a time, because the thermometer registers be· tween 30 degrees and 60 degrees be­ low zero. Fahrenheit. The climatic conditions here during the spring, summer and fall are ideal for perfect health. We have the maxi­ mum of Sllnshine with the minimum of variations in temperature. Labrador is fast becoming famous for the beneficial effects phthisical patients experience after spending a summer there. Much more favorable for consumptives are the climatic con­ ditions in this territory. We have practically three months of continuous sunshine, a more equable temperature throughout the season, and less mois­ ture In the atmo phere. The official health records for the Yukon during the last decade, show a remarkable f,reedom from all COI1- stitutiou"al and zymotic d:seases. Scurvy, the disease dreaded by the early pioneer and prospector-due to an impoverished condition of the sys­ tem, for want of vegetable food-has disappeared from our hospitals com­ pletely. Better and quicker methods of transportation, and home gardening, supply all the vegetable food neces­ sary at the present time for our pop­ ulation. Onc of the greatest surprises I ex­ perien ced during a recent visit to the British Isles, with several other Klon­ dike friends, was the real astonish­ ment displayed by many people there at the healthy appearance of our party -coming as we did from a country whose very name is synonymous with hardships and privations of the mos' startling kind. I was very glad te. inform them that there were many more at home like us, and that if they wished to get the best this world can produce-a good, sound, healthy con­ stitution-the Yukon climate possesses all the elements essential; all, in fact. that is necessary to the production of a strong vigorous race. The hospitals of the territory are three in number-one at the town of Whitehorse and two 111 Dawson City. All these institutions are liberally assisted by the local government and I think they can boast of giving as good service to their patients, a~ any similar institutions any~vhere through· out the world. The native Indians of this northern country are sharing the fate of their southern brothers, only in a les er de· grce. Tuberculosis is making notable inroads into the vi\.rio\1s tribes and it will 110t be long before the North American Indian will be as rare as the buffalo. 1-1 D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. Yukon's Gold Yield $150,000,000. 00 By GEORGE F. JOHNSON, Treasurer of Yukon Miners' and Merchants' A sociation Most of this magnificent howing made the last ten years---Low tide has been reached and output a~ain swelling- ew methods and modern mining appliances bring low grade placers to the front---Great vir~in fields heretofore impossible to work brought into the sphere of extensive and profitable operation by capital and progressive genius. O KE hundred and fifty million tllle other minerals now in sight. mean was a dollu ullder the real average dollars-such in round num- t lat the Yukon has a bright future ill value. bers i the yield in pure gold bv mineral. R .. I J eturns given In t le statistical year Yukon 'rerritory and the smaller The hundred and fifty million ' men- book of Canada, and taken from the neighboring camps closely affiliated tioned a uroduced to date has come reoorts of the mining section of the with this territory. chiefly from Bonanza. Eldorado, Hun- Dominion geological department of Within a radius of one hundred ker, Dominion. Sulphur, Gold Run, Canada. and figures from other equal . miles of Dawson the magnificent S\1m Quartz and other sl1ch well known ly reliable sources are given here­ of one hundred and twenty-five mil- cree1(s and tributaries within 50 miles with in showing the aggregat(' S\1111 - lions or more has been produced, and of Dawson. In triking thi total mary of the yield so far a there is about $25.COO.000 is allowed for at the any record obtainable respecting the conclusion of the statistical total to yield of Yukon Territory: cover the randtlm cr-:eks of the Forty­ mile, Eagle, Woodchopper and Circle and such streams which in earlY clay were open cd by men toiling in this re­ gion and who are part of the backbone of this reR"ion today. and who have exploited this field as a whole from Year. 1885. 1886 ................ $ 1887 .... . ... . ...•...... .. 1888 ...............• . .... 1889 .. . .. . ........ . ..... . 1890 ................... . . Amount. 100.000 70.000 40.000 175.000 175,000 George F. J ohnsorl. . ' . . - Photo by Duclos. within fifty miles of Dawsol1 morc than 90 per cent. of that sum has been recovered. The showing made to date is trifl ­ ing compared to the future mineral yield which will tand to the credit of this region when the 1llal1Y enter­ prises already heing inaugurated for the thorough opening of tbe region in way of traJ1sportation and de­ velopment of resources arc COil summatecl. Already has the tide turned even in the Klondike platers. and the lowest ehb in gold production near Dawsoll. which was reached last year. is he­ coming lost to view in the returning large output. The early production was due to the energy of the pros­ pectors who came and wrested the gold from its ancient beds by crudest proce ' es. They took the cream. and it was left to the ingenuity of engi­ neering men and the expert hydraulic and dredge miners to get the re111ain­ lng gold. Government geologists sent to J)aw~ol1 under special commission to Stl1-vey and estimate the sum total to be derived frc m the gold of the i11l­ medillte Klondike camp. calculate that there arc in the gravels fullv a much gold as has been taken out. One concern alone has . pent ten million dollars preparing to open a portion of the creeks .• and will spend .seven to ten more. Tt started operatlO11s last year, and by the fall of 1910 hopes to be going at a lively clip. and a year later to be running at full capacity. alone takinJ out l11illions annually. Several other concerns of magnitude abn are opening extensive hyraau\ir and dredging properties, which hy 11.;!t time sho!lld he producing extensivt"I:r. The howing of these properties, with the opening of tluartz and copper and Circle City to \Vhitehorse. A ' icle frOI11 this general summary th e hand ­ some round um of one hundred and twenty-five millions ha ' been pro­ duced within the border - of th e Yukon Territory "roper-that is the hritish Y\lkon- and the greatcl· part has been turned out within the last ten years. E\'en this is a magnificent ~howing-. and the awvregate wealth i~ suificicnt to build a fleet of a score of Dread­ noughts. The official figures of the retLlrDS secured for the British Yukon are ba ed chiefly on the royalty returns, which were collected in early days by crude methods, and dependent large­ lyon the affadavits of claim owners as to their yield. Even then the gold was estimated at the low valua­ tion e f $15 an ottnce, which probably -=-~.-~- --. 1891 ............. . .. .... . 18~2 .. . .... .. ........... . 1893 . . . ........ . ........ . 1894 ........ . ........... . 1895 .. . ........... .... .. , 1896 . . .. ....... . ........ . 1897 . .. .. . .. ......... . . . 1898 ... . . . . .. ........... . 1899 .. . .. . .............. . 1901l .. . ..... . .. .. ....... . 1901 ..... . .. . ........... . 1902 ...... . ............. . 1903 .. . ..... . ..... . . . ... . 1904 ... . .... . ........... . 1905 ........ . ........... . 1906 .................... . 1907 ....... . ........ . . . . . 1908 .............. . ..... . Supplementary .......... . 40,000 87.50Ll 176.000 125,000 250,000 300,000 2.5OO.0C O 10,000.000 16.000,000 22.275,000 18.000.000 14.500.000 12.250.000 9,413,074 7.162,438 5.258.874 2.896,173 3.282,684 24,923,257 'rotal ... •.. ~ ... , . ...... $150,000,000 The um entered in the foregoing' tinder ·'Supplementary" is the sum referred to before in this article as fl:0111. other camps outlying in this tit, tnct. Many there are who arc thoroughly cOllvinced that the meth­ ods of royalty coIlection prevailing in early days did not begin to cover the aggregate produced, and that great sums were llluggler! out of the coun­ try unknown to agent of the Cana­ tlian or American governmen ts. It was l:cquired in tho e days by the Al:1er~can goveTl1menl that all persons slllPPl11g gold through the strip of American territory which it was neces- ary to cross to leave this territory should report to the American consul the quantity of gold carried but it is kn ?wn that often times gold' went out which evaded this requirement. The next best authority after that was the returns compiled at the United States mints, where the gold for many years was sent to be minted. These re­ tums have been referred to in com­ piling the statistical information in this article, and were collected and re­ vised through official Canadian chan­ nels. Now that the invc ·tmcnt of millions by capitalists of Canada, the United States and GTeat Britain in dredging, hydraulic and other mining methods has been initiated for the opening of the lo~ grade placers of this territory. there IS no reason why fully as much gold as already produc('d should not he taken Jrom the Klondike camp proper. lYing within a radius of 50 miles of Dawson, and fully a much llS. ha been produced in the Forty­ mile, the Eagle, the Circle and other such camps should be prod\lced there by the new method . The placer gold exists also in en­ couraging quantities 011 the Pelly r:ver. as the Big Salmon, in the T ..ILlane and other districts not so well known, but where immense bodie of I?w grade auriferous deposits have en­ tlecd prospector for years. In those re;;iol1s it is certain great yields will be ma?e. Als ? notable amon~ the big g-old field which have contributed in the past and are rapidly coming to the front under the !lew meth0ds are those of the Stewart river vallev which should not only yield as mucl~ a" in primative ways. but many times as much. In fact this should be the e:lse with many of the larger streams known to carry dredging value, here­ tofore touched sqrccly more than for grubstakes. The territory is so yast. and so little prospected it '~'ol1ld not be surprising to hear any time of the uncovering in remote quarters of virgin placers as rich and probably a extensive as those im­ mediately about Dawson. At any rate, the new era is here. It has d,\wned in Yukon immediately on the exit of the old era. The old methods became too expensive for profitable operation beyond a com­ paratively few daims. The jllc1ica tiolls that the gold yield. as shown in the foregoing table. turned last year to grow larger. is the indication of time. The fleet of large gold ships and the other exten ive apparatu will force the results. Then, the pro­ mise of quartz and of copper and sil­ ver in various pal-ts of the territory swell. the promise for Yukon. and the outlook is encouraging for Yukon to become as steady a produc('r of all kinds of minerals anu in as large urns annually as C;o!on\do, California or 1I1QlltalHl.. T o the stranger, whose knowledge of the country is gleaned from newspaper and magazine m·ticles, de­ scribing the perils and hardships of travel during the early days of lbe great Klondike rush, a trip to the Yukon at the present lime would be a revelation indeed. Nature has generously provided the territory with a magnificent water­ way, the mighty Yukon river, which, bi ecting the country from its south­ ern bounclary to the Alaska line ancl flowing onward to Bcring sea, acts as a connecting link with the outside world, and, with it" many navigable trihlltaries, provides unlimited means of interior or local travel. At the present time, Daw&on, the con:lI11ercial centre of the Yukon terri­ tory, no doubt enjoys unequalled transportation facilitfes, compared with any mining camp of the world, of its size and located ;;0 remote from the centres of trade. From Puget Sound and British Co­ hllnbia ports, the choice of two routes is offered, known respectively as the Upper river and the Lower river routes. DA WSON DAILY NEWS. type and sailing between Seattle, Vic­ toria, Vancouver and Skag'way, Al­ aska. This portion of the route is through the fa mOllS "Inside Passage" of Alaska, a tiistance of 1,000 mile, with the famolls H u Ison riyer steam­ ers. For light draft boats they have c 'ceptionalIy large freight carrying capacity. Barges are also largely used in the Summit White Pass. and for many years has enjoyed an enviable reputatioll as one of the most delightful tourist trips of the world. At Skagway connection is macIe with the White Pass (".l Yukon route, operating a railway line 110 miles in length. to Whitehorse, the head of navigation of the Yukon river. This railway, which crosses the Coast freight traffic between Whitehorse anti Da WSOIl. Powerful towboats handle cargoes varying from 300 to SOO tons according to the stage of water. At the ports of Skagway, "White­ horse and Dawson, large wharves and fr('ight sheds have been erected to facilitate the handling of cargoes and 15 during the current season of naviga­ tion, thus insuring a stability a I1d uniformity of freight and passenger rates. Practically a daily scrviee is given to and from the coast cities. Duriug the closed season of l1;lviga­ lioll on the Yukon river. which ex­ tends frolll November L1ntil May, a re lay stage line is operated over a gov­ ernment constructed road,' 330 miles long, from vVhitehorse to Dawson, on a tri-weekly schedllle, connecting at \Vhitehorse with the railway line and at Skagway with the ocean lines op­ erating all the year roullel. fhis is said tQ be the best equipped winter stage line in the world. Large stagcs are used carrying 17 passengers an l mail and express. The rigs are drawn by four to six horses with changes every twenty miles. At these relay stations comfortable hotels are main-­ taincd for the comfort of the passen­ gers. Freight rigs are run by the stage company, and during bJe Jast winter single pieces of machinery weighing six to seven tons each were tr:'ln port­ ed from vVhitehorse lo Dawson with­ out the least mishap. Shooting Miles Canyon in Days of '98. Windy Arm. The Lower river route is covered by various steamship companies operat­ ing splendid ocean liners from 3,000 to 6,000 tons burden. between Seattle and St. Michaels, Alaska, a distance of 2,487 mile. The boats connect at SL Michael with a fleet of well equipped stern wheel steamers, operated by the Northern Kavigation company and the North American Tlansportation & Trading C01111 any, and running to SI. Michaels, Fairballks and Dawson. The tyt)e of steamer operating 011 the Lower river is identified with the better class of boats and packets found on the' Missis ippi river, having superior passenger accommodations and large freight carrying capacity. Barge arc also employed in the freight traffic; large powerful tow­ boa ts, convoying several barges. fre­ quently move cargoes aggregating 2,000 tOllS. A pleasure trip from Dawson to St. Michaels, a distance of 1,601 miles Oil one of the superb Lo\,-er river packets, is the event of a lifetime and one to be long remembered. The Upper river route. 011 account of the shorter distance, i more largely llsed for freight and passenger traffic and is reached by the Alaska Steam­ ship company, the Pacific Coast Steamship company and the Canadian Pacific railway'S coast service. These lines operate fast and commodiol. oasting vessels of 2,000 to 3,000 tOI1S b\lr l~n al1d of the most up-to-date Range through the famous White Pass. is considered one of the great engineering feats of the day. The line passes through some of the granclest mountain scenery imagin­ able. From \Vhitehorse to Dawson, a dis­ tailce of 460 miles, the journey is com­ pleted on one of the fleet of ligh t draft ri\'er steamers operated by the railway company, the type of steamer t\ ed on the Upper Yukoll i similar to that employed in the Canadian Pacific railway service on the Arrow and Kootenay lakes. They are 170 feet in length, splendidly equipped and furnished and the passenger ac­ commodatiOl1s C01111~are favorably in addition immense eralles have been installed to handle the big shipments of dredge anti hydr.Ltllic mining ma­ chinery. The ease and dispatch with which thou5lands of tons of this class of freight have heen handled du1"illg the past three years, would prove an object lesson to mar,y transportation lines operating in older anti more thickly settled communities. Via either route, through bill of lading are issued from Puget Sound and British Columbia ports to Daw­ son, which is the distributing point for the outlying mining camps. t the opening of navigation e'teh year, througil joint tariff are issued by the various companies operatiL1g ()\'er each rOllte. These tariffs apply Steamer Gleaner 3 a. m. at Taku. So llluch for trunk lines connecting the country with the olltside but fully as important and equally adequate are the facilities for handling the interior traffic and distributing supplies within the borders of the lerritory. ::'mall light draft steamers operating on ~'he Yukon river and its tributaries, the Stewart, PelIy and Hootalinqua rivers. afford transportation facilities over upwards of 1.000 miles of navigable water, reaching a vast extent of Ollt­ lyillg territory. Th\' Yukon also h:1S 33 miles of nlilw;)}, extendillg to the creeks used solely for local traffic, or distributill£: purpose. within the borders of the Klonclike camp, as well itS over hUIl­ dreds of miles of splendidly COl' structed go\'erllll1ent wagon roads radiating from Daw 011 ill all direc­ tion '. The kao portatiOIl line now in op­ cralicn. both through and local, are entirely adequate for all traffic at this writillg and their equipmcnt can read­ ily be increa cd, on short notice, to • take care of three or fGur times the pre~enL volume of business .. However. with the rapid develop­ ment of the mineral re ource of the C'ountry. which is expected in the near future, direct railway connection with the outside may be looked forward to with a reasonable degree of certainty. ] n fact farseeing promoters are al­ ready laying their plans with Lhis end ill view. 16 DAW S O N DAILY NEWS. • Scenic Wonders of North Ideal Itinerary Into A H a lcyon Land I . Trip among the Fjords of Southern Alaska and Briti h Columbia and over the White Pass Route to the heart of the Yukon most exhilarating in the world-Nothing to equal this for summer outing--Grandeur of Chilkoot Mountains and Upper Yukon lake and rivers superb -Health for all--Splendid steamer and rail accommodations to the heart of the gold fields. C URIOSI'fY no longer leads the recreation and health-seeking world to face the torrid coun­ tries. Nature has kindly afforded more pleasan t and healthful paths. The wonder of the north­ ern countries with their mild summers have caught a great tide of European and American spenders. But to see the Yukon is a far more delicious treat, with no great..r ef­ fort, and with far more real profit to those who travel. Thosc seeking the Yukon in slIm­ mer escape not only the sweltering summers of the so-called temperate zone, but enjoy in the present and for all time in memory the delightful sea breezes of the north coast archi­ pelago, and the soft and equable con­ ditions of the Yukon valley-a rerrion as green and charming for months as are the spring days of California or Florida. Sailing through the many vernal islands of the stretch of thousand miles up the British Columbia and Alaskan coast, passing the endless scenes of mountain jutting into thc sea, the travener beholds forest clad areas tumbling in tumultuous charm on every hand. Passing interesting fi hing villages, mining towns and other quaint towns, Cantilever Bridge. then riding delightfully in the open observation cars or the modern day coaches over the \Vhite Pass Rail­ way, with the same soft coa t bt'eezes ever playing, one finds ones self in the heart of the upper Yukon valley only 10 hours after leaving the shores of the Pacific. And here in this strange, great valley, with a river that runs 2,000 miles to reach the Berinq Sea, it is found that the midnight sun is so constant, yet so free from the downright perpendic­ ular pour of heat. that all nature for those 2,000 miles smiles under the beneficent effect for weeks and weeks while, during the same period in the older provinces and states of the continent, scorching winds and a mcrciless downpour of heat pros­ trate the populace. Almost as steady as the earth's rotation itself is the even climate of the Yukon in sum­ mer, and this is why the route over the White Pas is becoming so famous. Here the vegetation and the foliage of the trees is grecn Ilntil 1 i?­ cned late in the Indian summer, and then nature hallows the whole with that ruddy glow and magnificence of color which quickens every sou.! to deep meditation and constant enJoy­ ment. The tourist, the big game hunter, the geologist, the scientist, the seek- in almost inextricable confusion there er of restored health, the lover of is now a well laid out city and COI11 - glimpses of pioneer life or virgin modious wharfs. \Vhen the trains nature, with here and there modern ;}rrive from the north or the steamers and metropolitan attributes to the rc- from the south, hotel porters jostle mote cities will here find the condi- each other in their noisy attempt to tions ideal. Those who desire in- attract passengers. Busses are in vestment in a new country, such a readiness, and pass('ngers are rapid- Vvhitchorse, Yukon Territory. country as affords ground floor op­ portunity, which yields the greatest profits from natural advancement, likewise find here an ideal field . A thousand miles from the PUQ"et Sound or British Columbia centres of to-day takes the travcllet' to ::'kag­ way. It is the trip par excellcnce of the American or any other continent. Travellers. who have vi ited all part, of the world and have admired scen­ ery rendered imlllortal hy poetic genius, have freely admitted that th t' scenery along thi· unparalleled inland voyagc not only equals but excds even the bea lttiful fjords of Norway and the wondrous beauties of the isles of Greece. Provincial Bulletin :0. 10 describes the trip along the coast of British Columbia as fol­ lows: "Free from the carcs and con ­ ventionalities of cvery-day life, and breathing . thc vet'y air of lIeaven it­ l'elf, you burst, like the ancient mar­ iner, into an unknown ea filled with untold beauties, and sail over a bosom of waters unruffled as glass: among myriads of islands; through dee~ . rugged, rock-walled channels; past ancient Indian villages, mediaeval glacje,s, dark, solemn, pine-clothed shore , snow-capped peaks, dashing cataracts, yawning mountain gorges, spouting monsters and sea-whelps­ away to the north a thousand miles almost, to mix with the icebergs that Iy driven to some of the well-equip­ ped hotels in the city. The pas enger train leaves Skag­ way at 9.30 a. m., and arrives at Whitehorse at 4.30 p. m. The jOllrney acros the White pas - is one of unique scenic grandeur. Quickly pass­ ing frol11 the railway yards at Skag­ way, the railroad follows the Skag­ way river, passing through the can­ yon, ant! then commences the ascent across the falTlOlIS \Vhite pass. The distance from the bottom of the pass (0 th e summit i 21 miles. and the altitude is 2952 feel. Clinging to the rocks the rail way winds its way up th e precipitous Illollnt lin sides; on one side a heel' wall of rock, on the other a yawning eha 111 through which rushes a mountain torrent. Across a high cantikvel' hridge, which was sllbst ituted for a switchback, and through s veral tUllnels in thi 1l1011n lain fatl1es~, the timber line is pass­ ed and the summit is reached. At several points on the road a splendid yiew is obtained of the Skagway val­ ley, and on either side of the pa s are scrriec1 and jagged rocky peaks, which stand out in bold defiance like the hattlements of some ancient fortress. From the summit there is a gradual de cent to the north and the scenery changes. Professor ] ohn Macoun describing this part of the route: says: "H ere we were ahove the tree line, Whitchorse Rapids. once floated under the sovereignty of the Czar of the Russias, but now drop peacefully from ancient glaciers over which the American eagle holds watchful guard-a continuous pan­ orama in which the purest, the rarest, the wildest, the most beautiful and the grandest forms of nature are re­ vealed, On the flats of Dyca and Skagway, which is reached in three or four days, the multitude of gold-seeker landed during the great rush. \Vhere shiploads of supplies were plIed up and bare mountain slopes, broken rocks, pools of water and a truly Arctic or high mountain vegetation showed the climate to be cold, while the stunted or broken trees lower down indicated the immense snow­ fall, which is characteristic of the whole coast region. "As we descended towards Lake Bennett the vegetation rapidly chang­ el, and stunted firs gave place to small sprllce and the high mountain shrubs and herbaceous plants began to be replacet! by forest spe~ies. "At Caribou crossing, twenty-four miles horn Bennett, without descend­ ing onc foot, the whole vegetation had changed and everything indicatet! a genial climate." Describing the tract of country bc­ tween Log Cabin and Bennett, a writer in 1899, says: "Here the val leys narrow and here they widen out. We begin to find the bogs; which in the fall of '97 destroyed 1700 horses engaged in packing to the lakes. Though years have passed since then, the winding trail is passed every now and again, and it has the appearance of having been used yesterday. Stick­ ing out of the bottomless mud we see forelegs and hind legs, with occasion­ ally the still bloated body of some poor beast who died in the service of man over a route which it was con­ tended would never be crossed in any other "'ay-a, time when any talk of a. proposed railroad was scoffed at 'llld regarded as a good trail joke." The railway follows the east side of Lake Bel1llett to Carcross, at the foot of the lake. From this point steam­ ers rUIl to Conrad, on Windy Arm, where there are valuable quartz mine~ from which large quantities of ore have already been shipped. There ig very little change in the character of Rocky Point. the country between Caribou crossing and Whitehorse. From Caribou crossing, the side trip can be made to the beautiful Atlin district, where placer mining in its primitive and all its most modern forms can be seen. Along the route some of the most extensive quartz camps in the Yukon will be passed. The ride from Caribou crossing to Atlin Cjty is a voyage of wondrous beauty through an ever charming series of lakes, in whose clear, blue waters is mirrored the snow-clad peaks and the pine clad hills. Many remain on deck all night to drink in the beauties of this enchanted land, so magnificently resplendant under the midnight sun. One portage is made before reaching AtIin City. Splendid fishing for Arctic trout is afforded on Takou inlet, and at Atlin too. Six miles froll] Atlin City the tourist will reach the big hydraulic, dredge and other placer mining scenes. The side trip to Atlin and back to Caribou crossing requires but two days, and is a treat of a lifetime. Resuming the trip by rail toward Dawson, Whitehorse is next reached, and there steamers taken for the re­ mainder of the journey. Whitehorse, a modern town, more fully described cl cwherc in this pub- lication, is on the left bank of the Lewes river, -at an elevation of 2090 feet and is the terminus of the White Pass and Yukon railway. It is also the head of navigation on the Yukon river, and the terminus of the win­ ter stage route from Dawson. Miles canyon and Whitehorse rapids are only a short distance from White­ horse and are the scenes of many a wreck in the early days. Manv lives were lost in shooting this turbulent portion of the Lewes, which is well worth a visit. "The distance from the head to tbe foot of the canyon is five-eights of a mile. There is a basin about midway in it about (50 yards in diameter. This hasin is circular in form, with steep sloj:!ing sides about 100 feet high. The lower part of the canyon is much rougher to run through than the up­ per part. the fall being apparently much greater. The sides are gener­ ally perpendicular, about 80 to 100 feet high, and consist of basalt, in some places showing hexagonal col­ umns." "The Whitehorse rapids are about three-eighths of a mile long. They are the most dangerous rapids on the river and are confined by low basaltic banks, which at the foot suddenly close in and make the channel about tbirt·· yards wide. It is here the danger lies, as there is a sudden drop and tbe water rushes through at a tremendous rate, leaping and seeth­ ing like a cataract." (Ogilvie.) The tourist who does not desire to enter tbe field of sport, will come direct from Whitehorse to Dawson. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. There is s~lendid scenery all along the river, and many picturesque and grand views; high benches, gravel terraces, partially bare rounded hills, bluffs of rock and bold rampart-like cliffs. Between Selkirk and Daw­ son the Yukon valley cuts through a high undulating plateau. From the causing a swell below for a few yards. The islands are composed of con­ glomerate rock similar to the cliffs on each side of the river, whence one would infer that there had been a fall here in past ages. "Six miles below these rapids are what are known as 'Rink rapids.' Lake Bennett. moutb of the :::itewart to White river tbe Yukon averages about a mile in width, and is filled with many beau­ tiful islands. "Five Finger rapids are formed by several islands standing in the chan­ nel, and backing up the water so much as to raise it about a foot, This is simply a barrier of rocks, which extends from the westerly side of the river about half-way across." Tourists and others who have vis­ ited Da wson are agreeably surprised on seeing for the first time tbe Golden Metropolis of the North. As the steamer swings around in the 17 stream, and gracefully steams along­ side the wharf, the visitor is at once impressed by the long line of wharfs and large warehouses. Merchandise is being unloaded from stealners, which may just have arrived from St. Michaels, on Bering sea, 1800 miles from Dawson, or from Whitehorse. Here, then, is Dawson, the enchanted, the great gold center, the city of in­ finite and multiplied charm, more fully described elsewhere in this edition. From Dawson it is but 15 minutes' walk to the nearest mining scenes, and beyond that onc can travel with stager automobile, cycle, or by train to ncarly every large gold producing creck of the famous Klondikc camp. The Klondike Mincs railway runs daily trains to King Solomon's Dome, where stops are made allowing op­ portunities to get a bird's eye view from the high elevation of the entire region. Far distant are the pearly snow-clad Rockies, a decided con­ trast to the endless sweep of green verdure everywhere prevailing in the Yukon valley in summer. The tem­ perature is ideal, and in shirt sleeves and with soft breezes playing, the visitor cannot but enjoy the trip. Splendid wagon roads, hundreds of miles in aggregate, run through the camp. The hotels of Dawson afford fine accommodation, with every modern convenience, and visitors are seized with keen regrets that they must leave the Klondike as they take the splen­ did steamers to plow bacK up the Yukon, homeward bound. British Co num1bia~ s Quartz Lesson to Y ulkon By JOHN GRANT, Member of Yukon Council, Former Mayor of Victoria, B.C. I T is astonishing how much truth Kootenay quartz mines was the sal­ there is in the aphorism "History vation of Spokane by virtue of the Repeats Itself." In British Columbia large amount of supplies that were fur­ placer gold was dIscovered in 1857, nished frolll that point, besides the which induced a great ru h from Cali- million in cash tha t many of its citi­ fornia in the spring of the following zcns receiycd on account of being year, culminating in the finding of owners in a number of the best pro- very rich ground on vVilliam creek, perties. For instance, Col. Peyton, Cariboo. The output of gold for the Col. Turner and Scnator Turner made men employed during the next few \'ast fortunes out of the celebrated years was immense. Among the men "Le Roi" which was sold for over were miners who had expericnce in six millions of dollars. In 1894 the mining quartz properties and who be- \lTiter met Col. Peyton at Trail. The lieved that in a country 'where tJiere colonel had with him a satchel full of was so much placer gold, that thcre Le Roi ore which he was taking to must be quartz ledges which would be ;:,pokane. Peyton, with his associates, profitably worked. The country had were the third parties who had taken at the same time an army of pessimists who asserted that no quartz that would be profitable to be handled would be found north of the interna­ tional boundary line. But fortunately there were in British Columbia at that time a modicum of optimists. I am pleased to state that 1 was onc. Thc optimists were satisfi :.d that the pro­ vince had a great future in hard rock production. It is true however, that it was not until the middle '80's th~t it was established that British Colum­ bia possessed vast possibilities in the way of profitable quartz mining. About that time the writer and others in­ vested many tens of thousands of a bond on the property, as the other dollars in quartz properties in the parties had given up their bonds. At Kootenay district of British Columbia. that time, one dollar shares could That district since has produced many have been hought at ten cents. Then millions of dollars, and is still contin- there was the Halls mines on Toad uing to do so. The production of the mountain, thc yery valuable ";)locall Star." Byron White, now interested in Southern Yukon copper, and brother were the principal owners. The other claims included "Noble Five," and the "Payne," which pro­ duced a $100,000 dividend a month for quite a long time, as well as many other properties that could be named. We have here with us several men who were illstruI11.ental in the devel­ opment of Kootenay. Among the early ones who packed on their backs a blanket and grub is W. J. dliot, who in 1889 discovered several valu­ able quartz mines in the Slocan coun­ try and who is engaged in the same line in this territory. Then, there is the great boundary country, immediately north of the in­ ternational boundary and lying he­ tween the mountains that skirt the Columbia river 011 the we t and those that bOllnd the Fraser on the east. J n that part of the province is located the largest smelter which is operated in Canada, its importance can be ap­ preciated when it is stated that the profits derivcd during the ycar before last through its operation exceeded $1,940,000. The value of the minerals produced in British Columbia from quartz, yearly, is many times that which was gotten from placers in the palmy days of the province. Having resided in British Columbia over thirty-cight years, and having traveled over the IllOst of it, I am firmly of the opinion that the condi­ tions existing ill the Yukon Territory arc as favorable for Illany great quartz camps as any portion of British Columbia. vVhat is needed in the Y \1kon to establish quartz values is money, money. Three or four decades ago, one could sell a quartz prospect for a large sum. Not so these days. One must show a capital­ ist that quantity as well as values are in sight before he will part with his cash. The very rich gravel mines fonnd in this territory called the attention of miners away from quartz, but just as sure as a quartz' era was brought into existence in British Columbia will history repeat itself in the Bntish Yukon, and in the near future the latent mineral bearing veins and ledges of this territory will again spread its fal11 ;! to every corner of the g-lobt;, 18 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. A Word About the Yukon People By REV. A. G. SINCLAIR, D.D., Ph.D., Pastor of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Dawson T HE editor of the Dawson News thinks that the good people of the "Outside," as the Yukoner ex­ pressively designates all the rest of the world, entertain some very queer and curious ideas about the life and character of the citizens of the Yukon. And so he has asked the writer to state fairly and candidly his impres­ sions of their moral, in!ellectual and social calibre. The "outside" reader may, perhaps. be pardoned these strange ideas. It is quite natural to think of the folk who inhabit an out-of-the-way place as out-of-the-way people. And the ideas that most of the world still has about the Yukon and its people have been gathered from pictures drawn by the newspapers in the e.arly days of the Klondike rush. It IS forgot­ ten what a great change a dozen years may make in a new country. The writer has more than once been asked by intelligent people with whom he corresponds, to describe .the ~ind of people among whom he lIves, Just as if they belonged to some st~ange and peculiar race. And sometimes. indeed, he has been asked to sen.d some snap-shots of them so that It might be seen what kind of animals they really are. He confes.s that he had these same Ideas until he came in and saw for himself. He expected to knock up against the raw­ est kind of life. He thought that a sweater would be of infinitely more service than a white-shirt, to say nothing of a dress suit; and that the last traces of culture and refinement would be left behind when he was out of sight of Vancouver. And as for the Yukon er himself, he thought of him as a man who, not content with the ordinary vices of civiliza­ tion had invented several of his own. B~t the visitor from the "Outside" soon finds that the people of the Yukon are not so very different from what they are anywhere else, and that they live along in the same old way. As far as their outward life is con­ cerned he finds this out at once. He soon begins to feel that the little town of Dawson lying up near the Arctic Circle, yet with all the con­ veniences of a large city, is one of the most wonderful places in the world. He finds that he can purchase almost all the luxuries of life as well as its nocessities in the handsome shops of the town. He finds that a Dawson home though it may be somewhat small~r on the average than outside homes, has its electric light, its tele­ phone, its city water. and in short conveniences which few, if any towns of its size in the rest of America can boast. And should it be his good fortune to be entertained in some of these homes, he would find them tastefully and often almost luxuriously furnished. and he would find every­ thing ma~aged with a grace and an elegance that would surprise him. He would be still more surprised, perhaps, to find many comfortable little homes out on the creeks where the mining is carried on. And when he learned to know the people he would find that they not only dressed as well as folk in any well-to-do place but that they were above the average in education and intelligence. In short. the life of Dawson would prove far more interesting and lively than that of an ordinary American town of far larger population, and more like that of a city on a small scale. Comparisons are odious, and the habit of making them none of the best; so the writer will not try to draw any elaborate comparisons be­ tween the people of the Yukon and those of the rest of the continent. But he would just like to say that, taking the Yukon people all in all, he has never known a finer lot of folk. There is a kindliness and as open­ hearted generosity about them that wins your heart. The gold of the Klondike has brought them in here but there is no sordid love of money in their make-up. "It isn't the gold Rev. A. G. Sinclair. they are after so much as just find­ ing the gold." Nor are they, on the average, a wealthy people, for nug­ gets are not to be picked up by the way-side even in the Yukon. and those who have struck it very ri~h are few and far between. But they are the most generous people in the world with what they have. They are a practical people, and they must be assured that any cause that claims their support is a good one; but once convinced of this, they give their money cheerfully and liberally. They will give you a five dollar bill while an Easterner would hesitate whether to give you five cents or a quarter. And about the women of the Yukon. There are a goodly number of them here to-day. Some of them came in in the early days, sharing all the hardships of the trail with their husbands; others have come in since at the call of husband or sweetheart. They are a brave lot and have the "right kind of stuff" in their make-up. To them the Yukon owes a great debt. They have refined and human­ ised the rough life of pioneer days and elevated and purified the social tone of the ,country. To know some of them and to be welcomed in their homes has kept many a young man. far away from home, clean and straight. They are women of whom any land might well be proud. If the test of any people is the respect paid to womanhood, Dawson and the rest of the Yukon need not be ashamed. It is saying little to say that a woman may traverse the streets of Dawson by night or day without even the suspicion of insult. There are to-day a large number of children in the Yukon. The climate agrees with them, and they may be seen out on the coldest day in the winter. They like the country and if they are taken outside for a visit, they never forget to tell you how glad they are to get back again. They are unusually bright, active and healthy. The mortality among them is extremely low. Winter and sum­ mer they are made happy by the fine f)utdoor sports of the country, and their education is looked after in the finest of public schools. They are, as a rule, frank and well-spoken, with attractive manners. and lacking in ~elf-consciousness or rudeness. They tell a story of a high standard of home life. Intellectually. the people of the Yukon need fear comparison with none. The average inhabitant of Dawson, and the average miner on the creeks is a man of force and of intelligence and of good education. There are many who have taken courses in higher institutions of learn­ ing. It has been as a rule men of vigor of mind as well as of 'body, who have f'elt the spell of the Yukon. The little town of Dawson. for in­ stance, has within it men and women of unusual talent. It might be thought that a winter in Dawson would be unusually long and dull. But this is not the case. Beside the fascination of our winter sports and The Dawson Cabin Home. numerous social functions, we have many concerts and whole series of lectures by local talent are unusually well attended and are of a high standard. In the wide amount of good talent that may be drawn upon for such purposes the writer believes that Dawson is quite unique. While a Dawson audience dearly loves to be amused, and in this it is not unique, it also shows a real thirst for anything in the way of culture and information. This is why they will turn out to lectures, one after another, in such goodly numbers. And they will give a speaker who has anything to say worth listening to as attentive and appreciative a hear­ ing as he can get in any town in the world. The people, too, both in town and on the creeks, are voracious readers. The handsome Carnegie library of Dawson with its well­ stocked shelves is well patronised. And though, as elsewhere, the great majority of the books read are fiction, these are generally of the best class. But the library reports also show that the books on science, literature. soci­ ology, etc., have a very wide number of readers. The writer might have mentioned many other good qualities of the people of the Yukon. He might have told how they rarely ever lock their doors, for they are a very honest peo­ pie; of their courage and enterprise, for these are moral qualities too. And. if he were in a less kindly mood, he might have said something about their vices. But he will only men­ tion in passing that they have some faults. For he does not want to give the "Outside" the impression that the Yukon is Heaven, and that its people have already succeeded in growing wings. If they had the writer would not be living among them. For one thing, he might not feel at home; and for another there would be noth­ ing in his line for him to do. There are many things in Dawson and in the Yukon that he would like to see changed. And. like a good citizen, he hopes to live for the honor of his city. and do some little thing to make it better. But take them all in all, as poor mortals go in this imperfect world, he never expects to work among a kinder, better, braver people. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. 19 F Olr estry and CoaR Areas of the Y uk:(Q)lI1l T elflfiit(Q)ry By D. D. CAIRNES, B.Sc., M.E. (By permission of the Director of the Geological Survey Branch of the Department of Mines of Canada.) , S O much has, of late, been said and written concermng the preser­ vation of our forests, and the rapidly approaching time when all the known deposits of coal will have become ex­ hausted, that in treating of the forestry and coal areaS of the Yukon, it will not be necessary to emphasize the vital importance of these natural resources for the welfare of the dis­ trict; as they are quite as es ential factors in the industrial advance of these northern and somewhat sparse­ ly settled districts as they are of the more poplllol\S portions of the con­ tinent. As extensive portIons of the Yukon Tcrritory, which embraces 207,076 sq. miles, are as yet but sightly, or al­ together, unexplored, Ollr knowledge concerning its timber Is very imper­ fect, but as far as is known, the dis­ trict is generally wooded and the forest consists of elevcn species which attain the dimen ions of trees. 'I'hese are white spruce (Picca alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), balsam fir (Abies subalpina), black pine (Pin us Murryana), balsam poplar (Populus balsanlifera), aspen (Populus tremu­ loides), three species of birch, and some species of willows (Salix). The white spruce is the most wide­ ly distributcd and most useful t~ee in the Yukon and is found of fair, to good quality in all tbe valleys and lowl~nds. It makes a fair grade of lumber and is well suited for purposes of construction generdlly. It is seen at its best on the isla.1ds and alluvial flats of the nnin rivers where it forms fine groves of easily accessible mer­ chantable timber. The groves are snlall, as a rule, but the aggregate amount of good spruce timber which they contain is considerable. Here trees measuring one to two feet in diameter occur in most places and, in a few localities, individuals have been noted which measured three feet, and logs 60 ft. long with a diameter of one foot at the smaller end can be ob­ tained. Up the slopes of thc valleys, the white spruce, under favorable con­ ditions, continues to be a fine forest tree, but decreases in size toward the heads of the rivers, wh.:re it generally does not exceed 8 inches in diameter. In the Klondike district timber only extends to 3500 ft. above sea-level, but in some other portions of the Yukon it reaches as high as 4700 ft. Balsam fir which is, in places, as large as 18 inches in diameter is next in importance to the white spruce and occurs only in high vaJley bottoms and on mountain slopes, and appears to thrive best at about 1200 ft. above the main valleys, Qecreasing in size above and below this elevation. Black pine is fairly abundant in cer­ tain localities in the southern Yukon and occurs chiefly in swampy portions of the valleys, on moss covered slopes facing the north, and, in thin groves, upon dry benches bordering the rivers at 40 to 300 ft. above the water. How­ ever, it is n0t an lmportant fore t tree, being generally only '" to 6 inches, and seldom over 9 inches, in diameter. The poplar grows on islands and alluvial flats of the main rivers and is seen in all stages of growth from a small shrub to a considerable forest tree. The aspen are found over a large portion of the Yukon Territory and are especially characteristic of the dry, open, grassy hillsides. Three varieties pf bireh have also been not­ ed two of which are in most places oniy poles, but the third (Betula resin· ifera) is sometimes 8 inches in dia­ meter and has supplied a con iderable portion of the fuel consumed in the Dawson mines. It is never tall, how­ ever, seldom giving a trunk that will produce two 16 ft. lengths for fire wood. The most widely distributed shrub is the dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) which oecurs chiefly on the higher hills and ridges above timber line. Along the river banks alder, willows, and briar-rose are abundant. So it will be seen that the timber of the Yukon is limited, but there is, however, considerable, practically everywhere, except in a few localities where there has been a heavy drain upon it, such as in the vicinity of Daw­ son and along the river banks from Whitehorse to Dawson. But nowhere are the forests of the dense nature encountered to the south as in British Columbia and in Eastern Canada. The thin growth is probably due to the permanently frozen ground just below the forest floor in nlost parts of the territory. Concerning the mineral resot1Tc 's of this immense territory our informa­ tion is of a very fragmentary nature, and this is particularly true regarding coal, which naturally has received much less altention at the hands of prospectors than the precious metals. However, anthracitic and bituminous coals and lignites have been found in the Jura-Cretaceous a nd Tertiary rocks of the Yukon Territory at numerous points along the Lewes and Yukon rivers and their tributaries, particularly the N ordenskiold, Klon­ dike and Indian rivers and Coal creek and three mines have been opened up, and a certain amount of work has been performed in other places. How­ ever, the known occurrences of coal are nearly all along the waterways, where the more detailed investigations have been made. In fact very little prospecting has been conducted away from the main lakes and rivers so that, in all probability, further exploration will show a considerable extension of the coal-bearing horizon. The Sour Dough mine is situated 12 miles up Coal creek from where it joins the Yukon river, 50 miles below Dawson. Here are a number of good workable seams of lignite, lip to 12 feet thick, which have ()een worked to some extent, during the past few years and from which a few thousand tons have been shipped to Dawson. There is also a 6 foot seam of good lignite about 20 miles from Dawson on a branch of Rock creek, a tributary of the Klondike. Also some seams of coal have recently been reported to have been discovereo on Indian river. These are an believed to occur in rocks of Tertiary Age which have an extensive development to the west and southwest of the above mentioned 10 calities. The Tantalus mine IS situated on the left limit of the Lewes river, 190 miles downstream from Whitehorse and about midway between the latter and Dawson. At this mine, three seams of bituminous. coking coal have been develop ea, averaging per­ haps, 7 feet 6 inches, 6 feet 6 inches, and 3 feet in thickness, which have been mined for several years and from which in 1907 nearly 10,000 tons of coal was shipped. ,\cross the rh·cr fro III here the same measures outcrop on Tantalus Butte where eams of good, clean coal 8 feet 10 inches, 9 feet 10 inches and 7 feet have been prospected to some extent. These same measures which are of Jura-Cretaceous Age were found outcropping for sev­ eral miles to the north and south of Tantalus Butte and 'tantalus. re pec­ ti\·ely, and are believed to be exten­ sively developed to the south and southwest of the latter. From the Five Fingers mine on the right limit of the Lewes river, 16 milcs below Tantalus, considerable coal was ship­ ped some years ago, but since then the company has been chiefly engaged in prospecting and developing the property. The widest seam here is about 4 feet thick and is a good bit­ uminous cooking coal. A few miles southwest of vVhite­ horse several seams of anthracitic coal have been discovered. two of which are 9 feet 8 inches and 10 feet 4 inches thick respectively. Deposits of lignite are also known to exist in the Kluane district to the west of Whitehorse, and prospectors report having fOllnd numerous valu- Locality. SOllr Dough Mine-Average of scow load ............................. . Tantalus Mine, frOIll adit where seam was 6ft. 6in., thick : ............. . 1 antalus BlItte-Surface average of 8ft. SealTI ........................ . Five Fingers Mine-2ft. seam ....... . Whitehorse anthracite, average 9ft. 8in. seam ........................ . able coal seams in this locality. So judging from the wide distrJuutioll of the coal bearing formations it is be­ lieved that extensive portions of the Yukon Territory are underlain by valuable coal deposits thus to some extent counterbalancing the lack of the more valuable forests with which nature has endowed other parts of Canada. .l'or more detailed information con­ rerning the coals of the Yukon the reader is referred to the writer's re­ ports 011 the Yukon Territory for the past three years published by the Geo­ logical Survey Branch of the Depart­ ment of Mines of Canada. The following are a few analyses of Y UkOll coals: Volatile Fixed Water. Corn lble Carbun. A5h Matter 14.46 33.94 40.52 11.08 0.76 24.74 58.60 15.90 13.64 31.83 51.84 2.69 5.95 40.46 45.16 8.43 2.15 6.01 69.86 21.98 Goodls Y Ulk01l1l T eIrIrntt(Q)rty Needls By J. T. ROSMAN, President of Dawson Board of Trade. T HE history of merchandising in the Yukon would show many failures since the time of the discovery of gold in the Klondike, and while many causes contributed to this end, the only one which I wish to eonsider at this time is the fact that many, if not all of the business houses of the outside seemed to consider that this country was providentially opened up as a dumping ground for all the shop­ worn, unsaleable goods; the experi­ ments, junk, trash "nd such which they had accumulated up to that time. A more discerning knowledge of the needs and demands of the country on the part of the merchants and a grow- John T. Rosman, President Dawson Board of Trade. iog realization of the value of this trade 011 the part of the jobbers has brought about a very different view of this country and its trade. The shipments into this country for the last two years have been about 25,- 000 tons each year of which some 5,000 tOilS have been dredge material, hydraulic pipe and other appliances for hydraulic mining. The people here demand the very best that can be had, not only in the line of provisions and foods, which make up the larger part of the shipments into the country, but also the machinery must be of the hest. \Ve have learned that the freight, which is a large item ill th~ cost of goods here, is no more on a first class article than on an inferior one, and a territory that consumes 25,- 000 tons of high class merchandise annually is not to be overlooked by any up-to-date jobber who is so sit­ uated as to handle any part of this business. To attempt to forecast the future of trade here is difficult. We have been going through a period of de­ pression, but we are hopeful that the worst of that is past. If quartz should be found within the next year in such quantity and quality as to justify working on a large scale it might result in largely increased ship­ ments, perhaps doubling the amount shipped now. Larger operations in agricultural lines would call for ad­ ditional goods suited to that work. Howevcr, business operations must be governed largely by actual existing conditions rather than by dreams of what may come to pass, and the busi­ ness houses of today want facts from which they will draw their own conclusions. In the main the business of this country is well looked after by the jobbers on the outside, but I would say to the wholesale trade: A re you keeping in touch with the trade in the Yukon and looking out for your share of it? Are you filling orders promptly, and with a knowledge of freight rates and conditions generally in shipping here, which cnable you to consult the interests of your cus­ tomers? Are you sending in lists of shorts at the end of the season which mean to the merchant at this end that he will be out of those same articles until the following year? We ask you to find out about us and our country, and act for us, and we will talk for you. Co-operation makes for good feeling all around. We are look­ ing forward to a bright and prosper­ ous season. and, altllough the pessi­ mist is still with us and ever will be, we trust that there are men enough of back-bone here to make things go ahead. We ask you to do your best for us here in the. 'orth, and we will do Ollr best to pay onc hundred cents on the dollar and to send the yellow metal out to you." 20 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. LAND TITLES OFFICE Showing Security of Property ID Yukon -Virtually a Torrens System By NAPOLEON LALIBERTE, Regiiltrar of Titles for Yukon T HE Yukon Territory is consti­ tuted a special land registration district. known as The Yukon Land Regist~ation District. The office of such registration district is called the Land Titles Office. The business of the office is conducted by an officer appointed by the governor-in-council and called the registrar, No person is appointed registrar unless he is a barrister of at least three years' stand­ ing in one of the provinces of Canada, The registrar has a seal of office approved by the governor-in-council with which he seals all certificates of title. He stamps all instruments which are presented to him for regi­ stration, showing the day, hour and minute of receiving the same. He may administer any oath or take any affirmation or declaration respecting titles to land. The Land Titles Office is kept open on all days, except Sundays and. legal holidays, between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during which time the registrar is in attendance. On Saturdays the office closes at 1 p.m. The registrar keeps a book, called the Day Book, in which is entered, by a short description, every instrument given in for regi­ stration relating to lands for which a certificate of title has been issued or an application made, with the day, hour and minute of its being given in, For the purpose of priority between mortgages, transferees and others, the time so entered shall be taken as the time of registration. Unless required to do so by order of a court or judge, the registrar shall not receive or enter in the day-book any instrument, until the duplicate certificate of title for the land affected is produced to him so as to enable him to enter the proper memorandum on such duplicate cer­ tificate. There are some exceptions to that rule-for instance, a duplicate certificate of title need not be pro­ duced in the case of:-(a) executions against lands, caveats, mechanics' liens, transfers by a sheriff or muni­ cipal officer, a caveat, or order of a judge; or. (b) transfers on sales of lands for taxes. . . .and a few other cases. The registrar keeps a book or books, which are called the registers. and enters therein all certificates of title, records therein the particulars of all instmments, dealings and other matters required to be registered and affecting the lands included in such certificates of title. On evcry transfer of ownership, the certificate of title of the transferrer and the duplicate thereof is cancelled and the certificate of title of the transferee is thereupon entered upon a new folio in the register. Every instrument is deemed and taken to be registered so soon as the same has been marked by the registrar or so soon as a memo­ randum of it has been entered in the register. The registrar retains in his office every registered instmment. Plans. leases, mortgages and encumb­ rances, powers of attorney, trans­ missions, executions. sheriff's sales, sales for taxes', caveats, etc., are regi­ stered in' the same manner. The registrar may, whenever a question arises regarding pedormance of any duty or as to the true construction or legal validity of any instrument, etc., refer the same to the judge, and th e judge, having regard to the evidence adduced, before him, shall decide the question or direct any proceedings to be in tituted for that purpose. There is an Assurance Fund to guarantee the titles. That is to say: After a certificate of title has been granted for any land, any person de­ prived of such land in consequence of fraud. or by the registration of any other person as owner of such land, or in consequence of any fraud. error. omission or misdescription in any certificate of title or in any memorandllm thercon, or the dupli­ cate thereof, or otherwise, may bring and prosecute an action at law for the recovery of damages against the person upon whose application the erroneOllS registration was made, or who acquired title through error or fraud. If the person against whom the action for damages is directed to be brought as aforesaid, is dead. or can­ not be found within the territory, an action for damages may be brought against the registrar as nominal de­ fendant, for the purpose of recover­ ing the amount of the said damages and costs against the said assurance fund. In any such case if final judgment is recovered, and also in any c.ase in which damages are awarded in any action as aforesaid. and the sheriff makes a return of nulla bona. or certifies that any portion thereof, with costs awarded. cannot ,be recovered from such person, the minister of finance, on receipt of a certificate of the judge before whom the action was tried. shall pay the amount of sllch damages and costs as are awarded. or the uncovered balance thereof, as the case may be, and shall charge the same to the account of the assur­ ance fund. Any person sustaining loss or damages through any omission, mis­ take or misfeasance of the registrar or any of his officers, in the execution of their re pective duties, who is barred from bringing an action of ejectl1lcnt or other action for the recovery of the land, may. in any case in which remedy by action for recov­ ery or damages is barred, bring an action against the registrar as nomi­ nal defendant, for the recovery of damages, If the plaintiff recovers final judg­ ment against such nominal defend­ ant, the judge before whom such action is tried shall certify to the fact of such judgment and the amount of the damages and costs recovered. and the minister of finance shall pay the amount thereof out of the assur­ ance fund to the person en titled on production of an exemplification or certified copy of the judgment rendered. Notice in writing of every such action, and the cause thereof. shall be served upon the Attorney-General of Canada, and also upon the regi­ strar; at least three calendar months before commencement of such action. No action for recovery of damages sustained through deprivation of land, shall lie or be sustained against the registrar, or against the assurance fund. unless the same is commenced within the period of six years from the date of such deprivation. En resume. our system of registra­ tion is almost perfect and gives to· the public an absolute security. Il?UIBUC SCHOOLS OF YUKON TERRITORY By T. G, BRAGG, Superinten­ dent of Schools for the Territory P UBLIC schools were instituted in Yukon Territory as soon as it appeared that a permanent settlement of families had been established, From the first the administration of all schools has been vested solely in the a population of twelve children of school age could be found within the necessary radius to permit of attend­ ance. Creek schools have been con­ stantly maintained at all points where conditions at all justified their being New Public School, Dawson. territorial government, without refer­ ence to any local board or munici­ pality. No school tax, local or terri­ torial, has ever been levied, but liberal provision for all schools has been made annually in the appropriation voted by the Yukon council. The school ordinance of the then Northwest Territories of Canada, out of which the prClvinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan have since been creat­ ed, was adopted practically without change as the basis for the organiza­ tion of Yukon schools, and the course of studies for these territories was also adopted in all grades up to the high school. Schools have been maintained not (j)nly in the more populous centres, uch as Dawson. \Vhitehorse and Bonanza, but also on all creeks where established and have never been clos­ ed unless the average daily attend­ ance fell below seven. The instances have not been few in which the per capita cost of creek schools has run as high as $300 per annum, and in one or two instances the per capita cost amounted to about $350 per an­ num, where the cost of maintaining a school of eight pupils for one year was about $2800. The liberality of the Yukon government in providing educational facilities for a sparse and rapidly shifting population may thus be gauged. Moreover, in localities where the school population has never reached the required minimum, the government has granted very sub­ stantial aid for "Assisted Schools," so that not even a few children might s\.1ffer the absolute deprivation of educational aclYantages. There is but one sectarian school in the territory, a Roman Catholic separate school, known as St. Mary's school. at Dawsol1, fot1ndecl during the anministration of Commissioner Ogilyie, and maintained out of public funds , This school has two teachers. The school at Whitehorse is a nice­ ly finished two-roomed building. The principal is a graduate of Toronto university, whose classes include ele­ mentary high school work a well as the higher public school grades. Hi assistant is a lady specialist in prim­ ary work with a first clas eertificate. The Dawsol1 p1.1blic school building­ is all eight-room building, erected in 1901 at a cost of about $45,000. In this school, facilities are provided for each in charge of an experienced specialist. The high school depart­ ment uses three rooms, one .... eing a physical and chemical laboratory. equipped in 1904 for elementary work in these branches. The highest classes are in charge of two honor graduates of Cambridge and Toronto. Several graduates from the Dawson high chool'have matriculated into Toron­ to university, honors being awarded to some of them in several branches. A few are pursuing their studies in arts, Jaw or engineering at Toronto, Chicago aild Ann Arbor. Though the Yukon schools always have been managed directly by the territorial governmetlt, politics 11eVel' have been allowed in any way to affect their administration. In making Free Library, Dawson. the teaching of all grades up to honor appointments of teachers, particular­ matriculation into Toronto uniYcrsity. ly in all permanent centers, the sole One room is set apart for a kinder- consideration has been that of merit garten, in charge of an expert dircc- and successful experience, so that, as 1 r('ss from Toronto. Three ro01lls arc far as possible, only specialists are required for the public school grades, cngage.d iQ t~" "adou;! departments. f) A W SON D A t L Y NEW S. 21 FIRE PROTECTION IN DA WSON D AWSON, Yukon 'Territory, with a population fluctuating around 5000, is a level town with the excep­ tion of the extreme outskirts, present­ ing no serious obstacle to the move­ ment of fire apparatu~. 'The citizens are justly proud of their streets, par­ ticularly of those in the mercantile district. The principal streets are macadamized with a cement clay taken from the hills back of the city. This clay makes a splendid surface, pack­ ing hard and smooth, and has the great virtue of being practically dust­ less. All streets are eiectric lighted, by the Dawson City Electric Light & Power company's plant, the service being supplied by cvntract with the local government. This company sup­ plies light and power to the city gen­ erally, besides transmitting to the sur­ rounding creeks a certain quantity of power for mining purposes. The city government has been generous in the building of sidewalks, and any part of the city may be reaciled on a good board walk. The sanitation and health of the city has been given a great deal of attcntion, and many thousands of dollars have been expended in pro­ viding and maintainIng a first class sewerage system of a permanent char­ acter. One of the first questions asked by the business man seeking investment for his capital is: "What sort of fire protection do you provide?" If the town is wooden, that is mostly of wooden construction, tne answer to that question would be of vital im­ portance from the prospective In­ vestor's point of view. If, for var­ ious reasons, he is unable to secure in­ surance, he feels that he is at least able to minimize the chances of loss by building up an efficient fire depart­ ment. In the early days of the town stock values were necessarily very high. This condition was due largely to the lack of transportation facilities and rhe risk incidental to bringing goods into an entirely new country. Con­ sequently the stocks carried by Daw­ son business houses represented many times the value of corresponding stocks on the outside. This, as weJl as the fact that insurance companies had not as yet entered the field, aroused the citizens to the necessity of providing an efficient fire depart­ ment for the protection of their lives and property. In a few hours the sum of $20,000 was raised by subscrip­ tion and an engine and hose tele­ graphed for. This apparatus was the nucleus of the present department. This policy of fire protection has been faithfully adhered to from that time, with the result that tOday Dawson has a modern, up-to-date fire depart­ ment, the equal, if not the superior, of any town its size in America. The fire fighting apparatus of the department consists of three steam fire engines, one double sixty gallon Champion chemical engine, one hook and ladder truck, one combination chemical and hose wagon, and ten thousand feet of cotton rubber lined hose. Fire depart­ ment headquarters, situated on First avenue in the center of the mercantile district, is a steam heated, electric lighted, modern structure two and one-half stories in height, erected at a cost of some $30,000. It is fitted with all modern improvements, such as automatic door openers, "Hale" quick hitching harness, sliding poles and all such. The apparatus and property of the department represents an expenditure of $7u,OOO. The water supply for domestic and fire purposes is obtained from the By JAMES A. LESTER, Chief of Fire Department, Dawson, Y. T. Klondike river and is ample for a city many times the size vf Dawson. It is always pure and COOl, coming as it does from the eternally snow clad hills. The water is distributed through a system of wooden, wire wound pipes, by high duty Reidler pumps, having a capacity tested to supply eight one and one-quarter inch streams, with a pressure at the hydrant of from 14{J to 160 pounds. Hydrants in the business district arc distributed so that hose lines three hundred fect in length overlap. During the win tel' season, special precautions have to be taken to pre­ vent the system freezing. All water pumped into the mains passes through a heater, supplied with steam from 500 horsepower BabLOck and vVilcox boilers. The temperature of the water is raised by this means to not less than forty degrees above freezing, at the farthest point of delivery, circulation being always provided for by certain regulated overflows in the system. As a further precaution, all hydrants are provided with a covering having a hinged lid, and arOu1Hl each hydrant is fitted an electric heater. As a re­ sult of these precautions we have had but one frozen hydrant in our experi­ ence of years. The Dawson City Water & Power company supplies the water service under contract, "and assumes all re­ sponsibility for its efficiency under any and all circumstances. By the terms of the contract, the chief of the fire department is judge of the effi­ ciency of the service, and any failure to comply with the contract is suffi· cient cause for its cancellation. The fire alarm is automatic and is supplc­ mented by a first class telephone ser­ vice. There is a good distribution of street alarm boxes, especially in the mercantile district. Comprehensive by­ laws respecting fire limits, the preven­ tion of fires, and the erection and re­ moval of buildings, are in force. The "National Electrical Code" is included in, and forms a part of these by-laws. They provide also for the appointment of the chief of the fire department as fire marshall and inspector of electric wiring. For the last seven years, special at­ tention has been paid to what we call the inspection work of the department. Every building within the fire limit is visited at least once a month, and a written report made of its condition, particularly as to the means of heat­ ing and lighting and the class of oc­ cupancy. Every stove, furnace and smoke pipe is subject to a rigid ex- amination, and changes and altera­ tions ordered where considered neces­ sary. Twenty-four hours is given in which to make suggested changes or repairs. Since the Inauguration of this preventive branch of the service, a large reduction in the number of fires is noticeable, with a consequent small fire loss. For the year 1907, the King Street from Post Office, Dawson. total fire loss amounted to $2,275, and for the year 1908 to but $637. Pro­ perty to the value of hundreds of thou­ sands of dollars has been protected by insurance. Up to datc, losses paid total less than $45,000 for the last seven years. Tourists and visitors come to Dawson with the settled con­ viction, that it is necessary for them to submit to all sorts of inconveni­ ences. Those who have been here know that such is not the case. They are agreeably surprised to find a town modern and up-to-date as regards pub­ lic utilities, with commodious electrirt lighted and steam heated hotels, hav­ ing rooms supplied with every mod­ ern convenience and luxury. And the climate, some call it the "Spell of the North," for its attractiveness is such that having once experienced it, they are loath to leave. New Ways In the Klondike Brief Review of the Many Large Dredge and Hydraulic Operations in Yukon and the Electrically-Driven Elevators and the Reform They Work in Mining. S CORES of entensive large-method bl11es or steam plants. mining plants have been in- .Some of the dredges are supplied stalled in the Klondike since the re- wIth power from steam boilers a''''oard gion began to evolve from the old the craft, but the larger concern" (,(\nditions of individual operation. have their steam or water l).)w'!r The investment in dredges and hy- plants ashore, and electrical lines draultc equIpment has reached many with which to convey the electricity millions, and this line of enterprise to t!'Je dredges. The several big com­ seems scarcely more than begun. pal11~s bran ;hmg out are planning In connection with the dredges f'X- the mstallatlOn of extensive power tensive outlay has been necessary for plants of. most modern character. The steam and water power plants, fo' power WIll be generated largely from generation of electricity, with which the vast natural water courses and the dredges are driven. For eacn hy- conducted. over hills and valle;s with draulic plant long ditch lines often copper wIres. In some instances are necessary, necessitating in m.m \' there are I,Jlans to generate power at instances extensive outlay for pii!e the coal mmes, so as to avoid hauling material or siphons, to say nothing the c,!al, a~d to transmit the power of the need of hydraulic giants and by wIre dIrect from the mines to the other parts aside from lumber for the place of consumptiQn. flL1mes, pen stocks and such. T!'Je many ne'Y hill groups or- The new style of electrically dri\'cn gal11zed for workmg on hydraulic elevatcrs or lifts for handling ta ' I;I:g~ plans wi!l be demanding much more f-. (' m ground being wor .cJ by hy- n~w equIpment ~efor~ long. Flumes, ural'lJc on the creek bor )111S ;d o call, d~tch Ime and pIpe lme material and f ' 1' (:' tensive mechanic'!l eqU1pmcnL !Slants and such wil~ come largely The framework of the lift is entirely II1tO demand as a consequence. of steel, and carries a steel bucket The prospecting of the dredge line similar to a dredgc, and is ground also makes a deman8 for more equipped with two large centrifugal modern equipment, in the way of pumps to each lift, for handling of large drilling machines. The Key­ water from the sump to the tailing stone drill is the favorite for this boxes. The hydraulic giants used for purpose in the Yukon, and no less washing the gravel down to the lift~ than ten are in use within ten miles are akin to the hydraulic plants used of Dawson. These drills cost, laid in the ooerations on hills. down at Daw50n, $3,000 to $4,000 The electrical equipment for con- each. veying power is Ine of the biggest The dredges in use in the Klondike items of expense. Lines from a camp cost on the average $140.000 to quarter of a mile to sixty miles long $150.000 each, completed on the spot, are installed, conveying power. and read~ for starting. Of this cost ap­ heavy wire and transforming stations proxImately one-third is represented add to the quantity of equipment ma- ' m the purchase price of the machin­ teriaIIy. In connection to each such ~ry at the factories. The remainder line also is the generating equipment IS for lumber, transportation and in form of dynamos driven by tur- labor. D A W SON D AlL Y NEW S. FLOWERS OF TH E YUKON · I .... 0 the stranger without our ga~es the flora. of the Yukon consists chiefly of golden nuggets to be found 'cosily ne, stled at the grass roots, and when told that from May first to October first \ve have a.n ever vary­ ing ever biooming flora differing- but little from that of the temperate zones elsewhere, our statements are quite apt to be met with an incredulous smile and uplifted brow. Always a lover of the beautiful in nature, a life of eleven years in tll is country has opened up a hitherto unknown and unappreciated vista of beauty to be found among our hills and valleys. To be sure we have three months when daylight is short and warmth out of doors is a stranger to us, but, aside from that period our climate is not only as mild and pleas­ ant, but far more desirable than that of many of our coast or inland cities. Frost is frost wherever it is found, and that of sixty degrees below zero can freeze no harder than that of zero. In April and May when the valleys and hillsides are covered with beautiful blossoms that change in color and variety with the passing of the summer months only to write "Finis" in a glow of vivid scarlets and yellows in October, no lover of the beautiful can fail to award this country the palm for variety and 111Xuriance of its wild flowers. Early in March the first harbingers of spring ate to be found in the form of the soft willow buds, or "Pussy Will You s," as a tiny little friend of mine once christened them. For three or four weeks the flower seeker must perforce be content with these dainty pieces of down, but from the early weeks in April there will be no limit to the floral surprises to be found in this golden Yukon, No rocky pile must be deemed too for­ bidding, for oft times sheltered by the sun kissed sides of some giant's foot­ stool l"laV be found our first Spring flower, iocally called the purple crocus, but in reality the dainty Pas que flower (Anemone Nuttal/iana) so commonly found in May in the valley of the Canadian Rockies in By MARTHA MUNGER BLACK. and around Banff. The flowers are very like the ordinary garden crocus in appearance, save as they are pro­ tected from the frost and inclement weath-er by a soft hairy down. The peculiarity ot this member of the Rahunculaceae or Crowfoot family is the growth of the foliage after the flower has blossomed. As the purple Dahlias Grown in Dawson, sepals fade and fall, the seeds form and then the head presents a beautiful plumose appearance for to each seed is attached a long silky tail, the whole forming a pretty feathery tuft. Closely following the Pasque flower I have found eleven other members of the Ranunculaceae family varying in size and calor from the tiny yel­ low Water Crowfoot commonly found skirting the edges of ditches and pools, to the long fruited Anemone with its dainty blossom of white shad­ ing into delicate greens and blues. Next after these flowers are to be found the blossoms that later will bear the edible fmits in pro­ fusion, among them being the straw­ berry, currant, raspberry, winter­ green, blueberry, salmon berry and three varieties of the cranberry. The dwarf cranberry, to my taste, is much more desirable for table use than the Cape Cod berry considered so fine in the States. From now on it is difficult to note the exact order of floral arrivals in this garden of the wilderness, for new beauties are added to new beauties each day in the most bewildering fashion, But we will find the Shoot­ ing Star early in May, a blossom weIl known to all lovers of the primrose family. At the same time in the cool seclusion of some mossy nOOK, the shin plant, so well deserving of a prettier name, it is so transparently beautiful with the veriest gleam of a blush touching its waxen bloom, that the local appellation of wild Begonia seems far more appropriate than the plebian word "shin." The violet too, in her modest retreat must not be forgotten, for she nods at us from many shady dells clad some­ times in white, again in yellow, and again in the lovely color to which she has given her name. One year not so long ago, it was my delight to make a systematized collection of the flora to be found ahout Dawson. and within a limited time and area I had four hundred and thirty-seven varieties. 50 that I cannot doubt the statement made by that well known Canadian botanist. Professor lIacoun, that there are over three thousand varieties of plant life in the Yukon Territory alone. In June whole acres of ground are covered with wild rose bushes. while blossoming in close proximity will be found the dainty blue bell giving a beautiful color combination of pinks, ROBERT W . SERVICE. Robert W. Servic.e, recognized as the premier poet of the Yukon, author of verses elsewhere in this edition, C .l,e la, '.OH).,).I).".').' lac I'L' Robert W. Service. and probably entitled to the same hOllor for all of Canada and to high praise anywhere in the English-speak­ ing world, is a resident of Dawson, where he is a member of the staff of one of the large banking institutions blues and greens that seem to reflect their opaline shades not only in the waters beneath ,but in the skies above, while the midnight sun may be seen majestically circling the far distant snow capped mountain peaks. There are so many lovely flowers, to say nothing of the many varieties of bracken and ferns, while the far famed northern mosses must have due mention, that it seems almost like adding insult to injury to suggest that the varieties be merely catalogued, But ill an article of this sort where space must be considered, I wil1 merely name the more common vari­ eties that are to be found in Yukon: There is the modest Forget-me-not, growing almost side by side with the vividly yellow Iceland Poppy, In June, July and August our hills are radiant with the Lupine, Hyssop, Foxglove, Grass Pink, A dder's Tongue, Monkey Flower, Spiderwort, False Dragon Head, Columbine, Hud­ son Bay Tea, Drummond's Dryas, and an infinite variety of others. I must not forget the Twin Flower or Linnoea so named because it was the favorite of Linnaeus, the great Swed­ ish botanist. But to me the most surprising find of all in this land of floral surprises, was discovered one July day, when after an aimlessly wandering walk of half an hour from the Ferry Landing at West Dawsoll we suddenly came On the southern slope of a popJar covered sandy stretch of hil1side and there lay before our astonished eyes acres and acres of the beautiful spot­ ted orchids. Although we picked over two thousand blossoms, finding among them a number of the pur e white orchids, there was seemingly no diminution of the colony, To the beauty of the flowers was the added delight to the senses of the violet­ like fragrance that pervaded the air. Let not the traveller remain away to scoff because we are in the p.:rctic regions, but let him come to be conquered alike by the magnificence of our scenery. the vastness of this golden territory, and the beauty and charm of our floral offerings. of Canada. His suc.cess is attribut­ able chiefly to having caught the Yu­ kon spirit. especially as to the rough and raw phases of life. His verses treat little of the felicities of life, but he pictures indelibly the struggle­ side of the northerner's career. For a number of months his work, "The Sourdough," had on:: of the largest sales of any publication in Canada; and now his new effort, "The Ballads of a Cheechaco," are just coming out. Mr. Service was born 31 years ago in England, and was taken to Scot­ land by his parents when too young to remember much of it. After be­ ing educated at Glasgow, spending some time at the Glasgow Universitv, he came to Canada, when 20 years of age, fighting against damnation from city to city uIHil he came to the Pa­ cific slope, where for five years he wandered up and down the earth from Mexico to British Coit.:mbia, working at all manner of things. Six years ago he accepted a position in the Victoria branch of the bank which he is now serving. He ~'ad written classic verses when yOU!1g', but later became disgusted over them, and his idea now is to write something wh ich the ordinary workaday man or wo­ man can read and appreciate, some­ thing which will come within his scope and approval as a matter of reality. H is first publication aside from occasional verses was two years ago, and now his works are greatly in demand. j .. b A VI S 6 N j) AIL Y N ~ W S. Copper aJIltd By ROBERT LOWE 1 Member of the YUkon Cohncii. O N July 25th, 1897, a small coast­ ing steamer, the Excelsior, sailed into San Francisco harbor with a crowded passenger list of men, ragged, unkempt, with long hair and shaggy beards and the fierce light of victory in every eye and bearing. These were the Argonauts returning with the Golden Fleece and the next morning every adventurer the world around was reading wondrous tales of the til! then unheard of Klondike and within a few weeks a mighty host of the hardy and adventurous poured over the mountain passes and d0wn the valley of the Yukon in search of the gold that nature had with lavish hand scattered over this northland. In the few years that have passed since . then, the Klondike region has yielded one hundred and fifty million dollars in gold dust while the rest of this vast territory with its many streams has 110t yet been scratched over. Those who first came had but one object, namely, to find a rich placer claim, wash it out as quickly as possible and then ho for home and fatherland. None had time to consider the baser metals or plan for the slower development of the coun­ try and as a result thousands passed over or near the rich silver leads of C6nrad mountain and the vast copper deposits of Whitehorse heedless and indifferent to what promises eventual­ ly to yield more millions than all the placers of the world combined. It is with these that the writer proposes to deal in a general way, space for­ bidding any attempt to go into par­ ticulars. Beginning at the southern boundary of the territory about sixty miles from tidewater and a few miles from the White Pass railway is the little camp known as Conrad City at the foot of Conrad mountain which, if present prospects hold out, will eventually prove to be one of the, great treasure houses of the world. This mountain is seamed and scarred in all direc­ tions with veins of quartz carrying high values in silver and gold. Originally several groups of claims were staked by Messrs. Pet tit, Pooley and Stewart and several others. These known as the Montana and Venus groups a few years ago passed into the hands of Col. J. H. Conrad of Montana and Wm. Mackenzie of the rad mountain one sees the twih val­ leys of the Watson and the Wheaton. Here are many groups of claims rich !n silver and gold which are as yet 111 the hands of the original pros­ pectors, men of little or no means who are paving the way for capital to come and reap a golden harvest. The government has built twenty-five miles of good wagon road through these valleys from Robinson station on the White Pass route enabling prospectors to get their supplies out at reasonable rates. There are not less than two hun­ dred claims in these two valleys that have rich surface showings giving assays from ten dollars to ten thou­ sand per ton. Among others may be mentioned the Porter group with four leads vary­ ing in size from one foot to seven and carrying from fifty to three thou­ sand ounces in silver per ton. These leads can be traced for thousands of feet on the surface and a tunnel is being run to tap them at considerable depth, capital being supplied by a Chicago firm and the work being car­ ried on under the management of H. E. Porter, one of the original locators. A few miles north of tl1is we come Robert Lowe. great railroad firm of Mackenzie & to the Stevens property where rock Mann who have in the past year assaying thousands in gold can be erected a gravity tram from the Venus picked up all along the surface of the down to the lake shore (Windy Arm) mountain extending across the length .and there erected an experimental of three full claims. A tunnel is now -concentration which for the past few being run to tap the main ledge. 'months has been running through A few miles east of this is Gold :about one hundred tons per day of ore Hill, one of the earliest recorded pro­ 'valued at twenty dollars per ton. It perties which created a sensation by :is asserted that this one claim has ore showing surface croppings that as­ .enough in sight to run ten times as . sayed one hundred thousand dollars large a mill for years to come, and per ton. A shaft is now being sunk when one stops to consider that there to strike the main ledge. Further east are scores of claims on this , wondrous again we come to the properties of mountain whose surface indications Wm. Schnabel, the pioneer prospector are just as good as the Venus, it does of the Watson valley. Mr. Schnabel not seem improbable that the history has many rich leads on his group of of the famous Comstock with its hun- claims and also a mountain of low dred and fifty millions in dividends grade ore as great in extent as the and its Virginia City of thirty thou- famous Treadwell and carrying twice sand inhabitants will be repeated in the Treadwell's values. the North and that Conrad City and Returning to Robinson station we Caribou Crossing will rise like magic take the train and after a twenty-mile to full blown cities with their million- ride northwards arrive at the little aires made over night. On the oppo- town of Whitehorse, one hundred and site side of this wondrous mountain ten miles from tidewater, the present and facing Lake Bennett and the lit- terminus of the 'White Pass railway tie town of Carcross (Caribou Cross- and the head of navigation on the ing) is the "Big Thing" group where Yukon river. Immediately to the ground was opened last fall and at the west of this little town is a copper belt present time a small gang is sinking about fourteen miles long and it is and drifting on a vein of twelve feet safe to say that there is not a single of solid metal containing fabulous quarter mile in the fourteen without values in gold and silver. The writer its rich cropping of copper ore and recently interviewed a mine foreman where any development has been generally considered a very conse:~a- done rich and large bodies of copper tive man and one who was famlhar have been exposed. with many great mines, who declared On the Valerie a shaft one hundred that if this ore body went down three feet deep shows a body of ore over hundred feet as it has gone for the thirty feet wide, five feet of which first fifty it would be one of the carries ten per cent. copper while the .\World's wonders. balance carries four per cent., to- . Looking north and west from Con- gether with good values in gold and silver. A tUhnel on the Arctic Chief shows thirty thousand tons of six per cent. ore in the first fifty feet. A shaft and drift on the Grafter shows a body of ore sixteen feet wide and getting wider as it goes down. Two thousand tons of this ore, without any attempt at sorting, were shipped to the Tyee smelter at Ladysmith, B. C., and yielded seven per cent. copper and three dollars per ton gold and silver. The Pueblo has a surface showing two hundred and sixty feet wide and stripped bare for four hun­ dred feet lengthwise of solid ore. A shaft one hundred and ten feet deep, a drift one hundred and sixty feet long and a cross cut ninety feet in length failed to find a pound of any­ thing but ore carrying an average of four per cent. copper. It is doubtful if a greater surface showing than this exists anywhere. A few miles north of the Pueblo are the "Var Eagle, Le Roi and the Anaconda Rabbit Foot groups show­ ing large bodies of high grade ore, while half way between and a mile to the east is the Copper King group from which has been taken the rich­ est shipment of copper ore that ever went into a coast smelter, averaging forty-nine per cent. in copper. Many other properties that have up to date shown equally remarkable results here await the magic touch of capital to pour forth a boundless stream of wealth. These ores con­ tain all the requisites for fluxing and are considered ideal smelting ores, while only fifteen miles away are vast deposi'ts of high grade semi-anthracite coal for fuel and almost at the miner's feet the mighty Yukon flows through Miles canyon and White Horse rapids with a drop of twenty-five feet in two niiles, an unlirrlited storehouse of electrical energy. The White Pass railway ha~ built seven miles of a spur through this belt and intends to build four miles more this year, bringing cars to the door of every mine. One hundred miles northwestward from White­ horse a vast field of copper deposits has been discovered in what is known as the Hootchi country while sixty miles eastward large deposits have been found in the neighborhood of the Livingstone creek placer camps, while one hundred and fifty and two hundred miles west of Whitehorse are Burwash creek and White river dis­ tricts with their slabs of pure bomite four feet thick and sixty feet long and their nuggets of native copper from one to six tons in weight. And so it goes in every direction throughout this vast territory, north, south, east and west, great bodil!s of gold, silver and copper ores . are found with the prospects of the rrp~k­ ings of camps as great a,s Butte, Co­ balt or Tonopah, only needing cap­ ital, skill and energy to startle the world. We ,are close to tidewater, railways are easy to build, our summers are beautiful, our winters are dry and healthy, our government is keen to advance and develop the country by building roads as fast as l'equired, ready to subsidize smelters and grant water powers, in fact everything that capital could most desire. And so great is the copper wealth of this territory that with proper transpor­ tation and smelting f lcilities al),d sufficient mine development, were an other copper supplies of the world t.o cease to exist, this territory coul /. supply the demand without .a hit~b. RAILWAY BUILDIN6 AND OPERATION IN YUKON . By EUGENE MURPHY, General Manager Klondike Mines Railway A MONG the principal means of opening up a new country are quick and cheap methods of tral1spor­ tation. In the early days . of the Yukon or of the Klondike district, dogs were the only means of trans­ portation. Later came horses, and then railways. Railway construction was expen­ sive. The cost of material and lab or was high, but not any more so in com­ parison than ditch building for mining purposes or other similar heavy con­ struction work. At present there is but one railway in the Klondike district, namely the Klondike Mines railway, running from Dawson to Sulphur Springs, a distance of 32 miles. During the stampede of 1897-8 a railway was thought of, but actual work was not commenced until 1903. at which time considerable grad­ ing was done and three or four miles of track laid. This grade was after­ ward abandoned and a new line built, which was completed in November, 1906, through to Sulphur Springs. One of the objects in building the railway up Bonanza creek to its source, was to handle the business of all the creeks then being worked, as a glance at a geological map of the Klondike district will show all the main creeks, including Hunker, Gold Bottom, Bonanza, Quartz, Little Blanche, Sulphur, Gold Run and Do­ minion, heading or having their source at or near Dome mountain, the pres­ ent terminus of this railway. Quartz claims were staked at the bead of these various creeks as far back as 1898, and at the present tim€' 'hundreds of claims are located in the immediate vicinity. Many of them have been crown granttd and are being opened up. At the present time freight for outlying creeks is taken to the end of the railway and from there taken by the company's own freight­ ing outfit.s to its destination. Passengers and express are han­ dled from the end of the railway by daily stages to and ·from all creek points. . The present outlook for this, th§: only 'railway in the Klondike district, is very promising, for the reason th: .. t quartz property adjacent to thl! rail­ way is being extensively opl!ned up, and, as a consequence, the railway is a prime factor in its development, and will share to a certain extent in th~ prosperity of the country in generad. The era of railroad building has only begun, and as Is shown by var­ ious reports from practical mining men who are experts in their different lines of mining in the way of dredging or handling ground or mining quartz, the country ..:omprised in the Klondike district has not begun to be developed, and, as a matter of fact, the country has as yet been only gone over and not even prospected in a thorough manner. With the addition­ al development, which is bound to come ill a yery short time, will come additional tTansport facilities in the way of new railways. When it is taken into consideration that the total area of the Yukon Territory is sev­ eral times that of many of the Euro­ pean countries, and the total length of railways is 91 miles, it can be read­ ily seen that the extent of railway building in the Yukon in the near future will be marvelous. With the number of railways now building to the Pacific Coast, it will be a matter of but a few years until we will have a direct route from Daw­ son to some point in 'Western Canada. DAWSON DAILV Nl1 s. The Dawson Curling Club By PHlLIP M. RAY, Secretary of the Club T HE history of the Dawson Curl­ ing club, the most northerly club in Canada, datl"s hack to the early days of the camp, for it was October 4. 1900, that Colonel W: n. ROUl'ke and a few other enthusiasts founded the club . . The personnel is continually changing, and out of forty-five charter members only seven are residents of Dawson today, and four of the seven no longer take an active part in the game. Curling in the early days was an expensive sport. The club entrance fee was $25 and a monthly subscription of $10 was charged, which with the cost of purchasing curling stones and an ex­ tra or two added, made the first year's expenses average $130 a member. The club's first rink was built on the slough at the back of the R. N. W. M. police barracks. The building, a light wooden frame~work covered with canvas, giving accommodation for two full-sized rinks, a dressing­ room, and a small waiting-room, was erected at a cost of nearly $1,000. It was found to be exceedingly difficult to make true curling ice on the slough, as the ice was continually heaving and cracking, and the following sea­ son, that is 1901-02, the club rented a warehouse on Front street and was ing beaten in the semi-finals by Braden of Winnipeg, who eventually won the trophy. In the points com­ petition 208 entries were made, and M. H. Jones obtained twenty-third, and J. Moncrieff, forty-first place. The rink also took part in competi­ tions for the Blue Ribbon, Alfred Dolge International and Dingwall trophies; and for the Tetley Tea Tankard and the Empire trophies. It barely failed to reach the semi-finals for the Empire trophy. Early in 1908 another rink, representing the Dawson Curling club, composed of F. G. Crisp, skip; A. M. Thorn burgh, third; Alf. Watson, second; Jas. Munroe, lead, and O. F. Kastner, reserve; visited Winnipeg and took part in the same competitions as mentioned with one exception, but were unable to secure any prizes. In the O'Grady Challenge Cup contest the Dawson rink played in company with that of J. D. Flavelle, the veteran curler from Lindsay, Ont., the most easterly rink present at the Bonspiel, .an.d won every game up to the seml-fll1als. M r. Watson obtained a high position in the points competition. The winter of 1908-09 may be said to have been the most auspicious sea­ son since the inauguration of the Auto on Ogilvie Bridge Near Dawson. able to considerably reduce the fees. In the fall of 1902 the Curling club became affiliated with the then newly­ formed Dawson Amateur Athletic as­ sociation. The membership, which had been limited to 50 was raised to 75 and the following year the limit w~s abolished altogether and the dues were reduced to $40 a year which in­ cluded membership in the D. A. A. A. In 1903 the Dawson Curling club affiliated with the Manitoba branch of the Royal Caledonian Curling club, and all games are now played under R. C. C. C. rules. The next few sea­ sons were practically uneventful, but in January, 1907, the club sent a .rin~ 3000 miles to compete at the WIllI1l­ p'eg Bonspiel. The team which ~is­ tinguished itself, in spite of bell1g handicapped by being unable to take its own curling stones, was made up as follows: M. L. Strickland, skip; M. H. Jones, third; C. W. Macpherson, second; Jas. Moncrieff, lead. En route to Winnipeg the team took part in the Brandon Bonspiel, winning 15 out of 16 games and capturing the Walk­ erville Cup, the Gold Standard trophy and the second prize in the Grand Challenge Cup. Proceeding to W!n­ nipeg the team played 16 games, Wlll­ ning 12, and s ring a third prize, namely the Roya Caledonian Tankard presented by Lord Strathcona, and be- club, for it was honored by being rep­ resented on the Canadian curling team of 35 members which visited Scotland the beginning of this year, meeting with only three reverses during the tour. The Dawson club's representa­ tive, Chas. W. Macpherson, was the first of the eleven members chosen by the Manitoba Curling association, and he was further honored by being given a rink. During the tour he took part in 17 competitions, won 19 out of 22 games, and secured the only individual prize of the tour, one donat­ ed by Andrew Usher of Edinburgh for the rink making the highest average score in the three test matches. M. H. J ones, while "outside" for the win­ ter, picked up a Dawson city rink, and at the Fort Saskatchewan Bon­ spiel won the Merchants and the Grand Challenge trophies; losing only one out of thirteen games played. At Edmonton Mr. Jones' rink took part in a local bonspiel, where it won 13 out of 15 games, and returned to Daw­ son with the following prizes: Grand Challenge Cup, presented by the pre­ mier of Alberta, together with gold watches for each member of the win­ ning rink; the Calgary Brewing trophy and the Grand Aggregate prize. The present accommodation of two sheets of ice for the use of 143 mem­ bers has been found to be inadequate this season, and WaIter Crcart1 !1, tnt! popular ane! energetic manager of the D. A. A. A. has decJded to make ex­ tensive alterations and enlargements for the coming winter. The present rink will be turned into bowling alleys, and a new curling rink 150 feet long and 66 feet broad, lit by over 120 elec­ tric lights, will be erected, which will give accommodation for four sheets of ice. A large steam-heated observa­ tion room, will be provided for the use of lady spectators, and a small wooden platform will separate the rinks as at present, giving ample accommodation for members wishing to view the games. The curling season begins the first week in November and usually ends the first or second w .... k in April. This year however, has been an e::­ ceptionally cold one, and play has been possible up to the end of April, but there were two months, January and February, when it was to uncom- rorlablc to curt. l'hc aCtlSOll opel1~ with a bonspiel between rinks made up of the entire members of the club, chosen by the president and the vice­ president; the losing side entertains the ·winners at a dinner of "Beef and Greens." Other bonspiels held dur­ ing the season are "Married Men vs. f.ingle Men," and the patrons' bon­ spiel for prizes donated by the presi­ dent and patrons of the club respec­ ti\·ely. The following cups presentell to the club are competed for annually, the games being played either by the Bagnall-Wyld or percentage system: Brackman-Ker Milling Co. Cup; Jer­ sey Cream; Seagram; Grand Chal­ lenge Cup presented by the New York Life Co.; Kelly Douglas Cup, and the Dawson Cup, presented by Hiram Walker & Co. A "tyro" and a points competition completes the programme, and the season winds up with a smok­ ing concert and a presentation of prizes. Yukon Sports and Pastimes By J. M. EILBECK, Deputy Sheriff D A WSON City, Yukon Territory, Dominion of Canada, the pivot of the Klondike, a name which means so much to many and a town and territory of which so many people have such erroneous opinions. Many have drawn the idea from misleading articles and interviews that we live midst snow and ice the year round and have no enjoyments nor amusements. How different is t:le case to those who have lived here. Quite tfue we have some six months of winter, some parts of which are extremely cold but in that self same period I believe I am safe in saying we have more enjoyable times than any other place of its size in the world. Curling, one of Dawson's many sports, could alone amuse the people. The Dawson Curling club, the secolhl largest club of its kind in the world, has 125 members. As a club house it has the Dawson Amateur Athletic as­ sociation building, a vast pavilion that cost $42,000. The club building aiso has beneath its rogf two fine sheets of curling ice, a skating rink of 185 feet by 80 feet, where are held hockey matches, skating carnivals ana ice races during the winter months. The same depart­ men is utilized in the summer for a natatorium. It is a ~wimming resort the most fastidious would desire. The tank is 80 feet long and 35 feet wide, and an average depth of seven feet. During the summer have been held al­ so some of the finest boxing exhibi­ tions ever pulled off. The participants included such men as Choynski, Phila­ delphia Jack O'Brlen, Jack "Twin" Sullivan, Billy Woods, J oe Millett, Dick Case, Freddy Wyatt, Nick Bur­ ley, Solly Stroup, C. Gleason, Frank Slavin and many others. Six thousand people can be seated in the athletic club's arena without any difficulty. The club also has a fine gymnasium, hand ball courts, shower baths, read­ ing room, billiard room and a fine rcception hall. The club is engaged installing two more sheets of curling ice and four bowling alleys at an ad­ ditional expense of $7,000. The Dawson Amateur Athletic club is but one of the fine buildings in Dawson which is devoted to sport. The Arctic Brotherhood hall, which is 190 by 75 feet, is the resort for many basketball matches having teams composed of both sexes. Here are held amateur theatricals well worthy of producing anywhere, also fancy and masquerade balls take place and where one may sec as handsomely dressed women as any spot on earth. The "Men's Club" has a fine build- ing with gymnasium, shower baths, reading and writing rooms and lecture hall under the management of Rev. W. E. Dunham of the Methodist church. Dawson also has the Zero club, a purely social club where such renowned personages as Lord Minto, Ex-premier Sir Mackenzie Bowell, General Funston, General Greeley, Selous the great hunter, and many others have been entertained. The Auditorium theatre is a place of amusement confined principally to theatricals, but where have been held wrestling matches of no mean im­ portance and where men of world wide fame, such as Frank Gotch, Ole Marsh, Tiv Krelling, Ben Trennaman, and that old, one time world cham­ pion McLaughlin have gone to the mat. The Fraternal Order of Eagles, the Masons and the Independent Order of Oddfellows each have fine halls where dances are held and socials are regular events. So much for winter amusements. In the summer season-a season which I could eulogize to far mOH' considerable space than I am allowed, consisting of long days and ideal weather-we play baseball games at eight o'clock in the evening. Think of it, you old baseball promoters. Figure out your profits if you could play at that hour. On the 21st day of June, we play our game even at 12 o'clock at night, due to the fact that at that particular time we enjoy twenty-four hours of daylight. While our baseball season lasts-from May 20 until August 20-the games are played in Minto park. a field built at an expense of $12,006 and maintain­ ed in excellent condition. On this field have been played some of the keenest baseball games ever con­ tested on a baseball diamond. The excitement has been so intense at timcs that families were split. Dif­ ferent clubs have gone to great ex­ pense importing players from the out­ side. On this self same diamond have been held great international games, and no later than last year Dawson sent a team to Fairbanks, Alaska. seven hundred miles away. to compete for "The International Championship North of 53." Dawson returned with the honors after travel­ ing 2200 miles and consuming three weeks on the trip at a great expense. Prior to playing in Minto park, Daw­ son played ball on the Royal North West Mounted police barracks ground where, in addition to baseball, cricket, football and lacrosse matches were played. The Dawson Lawn Tennis club, with a membership of forty, built ll1 i901, two tl!1~ courts !1.t !1.11 e;t­ pense of $5000. The club has com­ fortable quarters, with shower baths. On Empire Day, Dominion Day and the Fourth of July, t!le citizens, with aid of large public contributions, hold sports to celebrate. Here we know no boundary line. The sports com­ prise horse races, bicycle races an d Caledonian sports. These are held upon our front streeL, where we have a full quarter of a miie straightaway track. We have even road races, and l: AWSON bAtLY NEW~. h!1.V~ Over 30Q miles of perfect roads in and around Dawson, not to spcak of the overland road between Dawson and Whitehorse, more than 300 miles in length. 'l'he same extent of roads exists in and around Whitehorse, which permits us to run automobiles. Not alone to Dawson are confined all these sports. Right at Granville, Dominion Creek, in the centre of the mining district the people have base­ ball and grounds where they cele­ brate the twenty-fourth of May, July first and the fourth of July, with Caledonian games, races and the like with the same good will as we do. Whitehorse joins in a baseball league, consisting of Skagway, White­ horse, J uneau and Douglas Island. At great expense these teams import players from Seattle, Vancouver and other coast towns. l:!xcitemeht runs to blood heat, and with true sports­ manlike feeling, they, contest in the games for supremacy, and by so do­ ing cementing more closely the al­ ready friendly feeling of the two na­ tions. Whitehorse also enjoys lawn ten Ills courts tUlci ha~ the Northern Light Athletic association with a building fully equipped with hand ball courts and a perfect gymnasium, with shower baths and the like. In winter the people ther~ have skating, curling and bowling. People of the "outside" in reading of our humble amusements must ad­ mit that the Yukon fares very well and if anyone doubt my statement, visit us. Our latch string always hangs outside and "welcome" is al­ ways on the door. STEWART RIVER DISTRICT By A. W. H. SMITH, Former Prospector on the Upper Stewart, now interested in large holdings there, and in business in Dawson T HE Stewart river, one of the prin­ cipal tributaries of the Yukon, drains an extensive region lying be­ tween the basin of the Pelly river to the south and that of the Peel river to the north. It rises in the Pacific­ Arctic watershed ranges and flows in a general westerly direction towards the Yukon valley, entering the Yukon seventy miles above Dawson City. The Stewart river above Fr:tser Falls, which is a distance of 200 miles from its mouth, drains an area of about 12,000 square miles. During its course through this re­ gion it receives four important tribu­ taries, Canyon river which flows into the south fork, Lancing, Laduc, and Beaver rivers which flow into the north fork. The forks of the river are about forty-five miles above Fraser Falls. There has been considerable pro~­ pecting done above the falls since 1898 and previous to that time prospectors ascended the river as far as Ladue creek, one of these being Lancing, after whom the present river is named. They no doubt are the first prospec­ tors to discover gold, both on the Ladue and Lancing rivers, but up to . the present time no mining operations have been carried on, although I have no doubt that at some future date some of the large gravel benches which are in that vicinity of the coun­ try will pay to hydraulic, when navi­ gation facilities above the 1, raser Falls are improved so that the pros­ pector will be able to handle his sup­ plies. This section of the country is well timbered and there is no doubt that it has produG:ed more fur than any other section its size in the Yukon Territory or Alaska. Stewart river, below Fraser Falls, has one of the brightest futures of any stream in the entire Yukon valley. It is one of the first rivers in the ten'i­ tory to attract the attention of the miners. From the year 1883 and since, gold has been found in paying quantities on some of the bars along the river when the water is low by "rocking" between the Mayo river and a few miles of the mouth. In 1895 coarse gold was first dis­ covered on the streams, tributary to the Stewart, and from that time until the present, discoveries of placer gold of more or less importance have been made each year. The Clear creek, Duncan creek min­ ing districts and latterly the Haggart and Dublin districts were established and included all the streams tributary to the Stewart as far east as the Mayo river and its branches. Although some of the creeks in these districts were rich in placer gold the average remuneration was small. The difficulties and expense of mining and transportation and the inexperi­ ence of many of the miners have hitherto tended to keep down the profits and to discourage prospecting. The area, however, in which it might be reasonably expected to find placer gold is large and with a better krrnv­ ledge of the methods of mining best suited to the conditions, future devel­ opments and extension of the produc­ tive ground may be looked forward to, as much of the region is yet unpros­ pected. At Fraser Falls the Stewart river flows through a gorge three-eighths of a mile long, with a fall of about forty feet in this distance; above this gorge the river still occupies a nar­ row channel bordered by rock benches and three short rapids due to the rock barriers occurring at intervals. By harnessing these falls it is capable of generating at the lowest stage of water 15,000 horse power, sufficient to run a fleet of dredges. This can be accomplished at a very reasonable cost. At present there are three large companies operating on the river. One has one of the largest modern type of dredges, which was installed during last season, and from aU reports the company is well satisfied with the re­ sults obtained. They are operating at a distance of about ninety miles from the mouth of the river and it is their intention, in the near future, to in­ crease the number of dredges as they have numerous dredging leases on their river. One hydraulic company is operating on Dublin Gulch, and the work of constructing a ditch has al­ ready commenced and the plant for hydraulicing is already on the ground and there is no doubt that the water will be run through their ditch this season. A dredging company just or­ ganized has a numerous number of dredging- leases and are installin/t at the opening of navigation two large Keystone drills and during the pres­ ent summer will pruspect the bars at the mouth of the McQuesten river and next season will also instal a large modern type of . dredge. One of the Daw50n steamboat com­ panies is operating on the river and has a very fast, light draft steamer, giving a weekly service, something which the miners and operators of the river have not previously enjoyed. The river is navigable throughout the sea­ son as far as the Fraser Falls, or for a distance of two hundred miles from the Yukon. In respect to further information and corroboration regarding the phys­ ical conditions and history of the Stewart district I will refer the in­ terested reader to "The Yukon Ter­ ritory, Its History and Resources," a book issued by the department of the interior of Canada, obtainable on ap­ plication in Ottawa; and to the re­ ports on the Upper Stewart River Re­ gion, by ]. Keele, Dominion govern­ ment geologist. Beyond this the most authentic recent data obtainable re­ specting the Stewart river country and its auriferous deposits and present workings is given in the report made by Arnold F. George, secretary of the Yukon Miners and Merchants' Asso­ ciation, headquarters at Dawson, after a personal canvas and trip by dog team over the region the first few weeks of 1909. Mr. George's excel­ lent report contains in part the follow­ ing: The Stewart River By ARNOLD F. GEORGE, Secretary of Yukon Miners' and Merchants' Association. A report on this district must in­ clude a statement as to the difficul­ ties of getting in and out in the win­ ter time. In the summer the heart of the district is reached by steamer from Dawson, at Mayo Landing on the Stewart river. Distances are then comparatively short to almost any point where mining development has yet taken place. But in the middle of winter the 169 miles between Daw­ son and the recording office of the Duncan district at Mayo Bridge holds for the mush er some severe experi­ ences. As a rule th.:re is no travel over the trail in the middle of winter at all. At the farthest end from Daw­ son there is decidedly more snow than in the Klondike, and the trail "Prof." Arnold J. George. -Photo by Duc1os. leads through a wilderness for two to four days not broken by even a house. The government has put up three shelter tents with stoves for such travelers as may have to be out, and they are much used in the early and later winter, and occasionally call forth eUlogiums of the seldom mid­ winter traveler. A concrete instance of the difficulties of the trail is afford­ ed by the fact that twelve and a half miles from Dominion creek over the first divide supplies were short much of the past winter, with the road prac­ tically impassable between-that is to say for loads. With the exception of the gap spoken of, there are occupied cabins and occasional roadhouses for the traveler. The distances are about as follows: Dawson to J ensen, 43 miles; to King's, 12 1-2 miles; to Barlow, 22 miles; to McQuesten 16 miles; to Mayo Landing, 47 1-2 miles; to Minto Bridge, 10 miles; to Mayo Bridge, 18 miles. From Mayo Land­ ing to the mouth of Haggert, on Mc­ Questen, is 30 miles, and to discovery is 12 1-2 miles. Duncan District. Duncan has long been a name to conjure with among the miners. Dis­ covered in silence, held in secrecy and worked without recording. Dun­ can creek in '98, 99 and 1900 furnish­ ed the "Three Mysterious Swedes" with an independence, before being discovered and stampeded in the usual way. Considerable traveling over the country has since taken place, and some prospecting. But the country over which gold is scat­ tered-fully 250(!l squale miles-leaves the prospecting already done but a drop in a hogshead of water. A few general facts seem to have been es­ tablished. Many of the creeks are steep and have canyons cut through in places. Any canyon 'in the dis­ trict yields 'well to the miner. This general rule leaves many sure things certain to be worked soon, for the rule has become recognized. Anoth­ er rule which holds good over much of the country prospected to date, is that there has been I.ess concentra­ tion outside of the canyons spoken of. There is also much thawed ground the rule being the gravels are thawed under and near the running water and frozen out towards the limits of the valleys. However, there are ex­ ceptions. These differences. to the Klondike, and some others not yet mentioned, have held the country back. It cannot be said the ::'tewart has reached at all the degree of de­ velopment found in the Forty-mile and Sixty-mile country. The country has suffered, too, from a concentration of effort and atten­ tion to Duncan creek, in an effort to overcome the underground flow of water. The district already shows improvement since the men have largely given it up and scattered else­ where. I'or instance there were only 77 men in the district last winter' there were 118 people there when i was there, with more to arrive later. Also the revenues of the district have advanced from $6400 to $7000. More creeks are being investigated, with several meritorious discoveries on it. By elimination the impossible is being dropped, and much of a prom­ ising nature is to be recorded. Six hundred and ten claims in the dis­ trict are being maintained in good standing. It is difficult to estimate the gold taken out since there is no check upon it. But the stores sent down considerably over $40,000. Duncan Creek. The government pumps are located on 54 below discovery. They failed to lower the water more than sixty feet when all pumps were set and working day and night. As far as the men ge'ne'rally upon the creek are concerned, the attempt was then abandoned, though Ja . Hughes, the contractor in charge, has continued on his own account. Moreover, the general decision that tile water is too great in volume for the pumps, does not mean the creek is or is to be abandoned. The same conditions have been proved not to prevail every­ where. There is shallow ground and frozen ground on the limits, and earnest efforts are being directed to capture the paystreak there. More­ over there is ground on the creek that has always been worked, and will con­ tinue to be. Passing up the creek the first work of importance is on III above nele­ view, where four men are trying an important experiment. On the left limit bedrock has been struck at 38 feet, instead of at ninety. The ground is also frozen, and three feet of gravel yields I to 4 cents. A small pump has been borrowed from the government plant to combat the natural seepage, and preparations were making for large workings. The interest in the ituatioll lies in the fact that midway between this point and where Parent creek enters Duncan, four men have struck the same situation on the left limit. That is to say, with a bluff be­ tween them and Duncan creek proper, a channel has been undoubtedly struck. This, in conjullction with the situation on the Baker claim, is taken to mean that this limit was once Parent creek, and Duncan has been crowded over to it later by slides, and that this old channel is part of the present Duncan creek which can yet be mined. The creek is twenty odd miles long. From discovery was taken $12,000 the fir t year after rediscovery and dis­ possession of the "Mysterious Swedes." \Vages are yet taken out of discovery each summer, and at sev­ eral points above-and occasionally better. Thunder and Lightening, trib­ utaries at the head, yield pay. Sam­ ple handfuls to the amount of a pan from the Malesich dump on Thunder yielded as high as 25 cents. As stated, the admission that the water in the deep gravels near the creekbed cannot be pumped does not mean that the creek is abandoned. There is gold in Parent. James 1 [ughes and George Baird were trying it again in another shaft on 54. be­ low using the government plant In a last' trial. There will be the usual summer increase of population when the men return to work the shallow ground at the head. Ledge is one of the many creeks running into lYIayo lake. It has a canyon and follOWing the general rule, tl;e canyon, when investigated, yielded a thousand dollar~ last fall in six weeks, in which penod all the dead work had to be done also. Steep, Edmonton and Ca .cade, all creeks on the lake and havI.llg can­ yons, will be worked lhe comlllg sum- mer. d' Davidson creek is a recent ISCOV- ery. It runs into : Mayo river ~ 1~2 miles below the lake on the left 11l:lIt, and is six miles from the r~CordlIlg office at Mayo Bridge to discovery. I t is a canyon creek, very steep, ~nd may be confidently set do'~n as gOing to be a good producer tillS summer. There has been the usual hea,:,y con­ centration in the canyon, while last :!Iummer demonstrated the benches at the head of the canyon also to be profitably rich. The canyon affO.r?s a ready means for disposing of t.alhngs to any amount, and l1ydrallhc pre­ liminaries were under way. The can­ yon is a sample of others. Depth of gravel varied about the four-foot mark :and values from five to .forty cents. Nothing is known of the f~nc flats and benches far above, attentl~n of those on the ground being confined to t~e "ready money" in sight .. The creek IS ~ll staked, is twelve miles long, and b A W SON b A I L Y Nit W s. the success at the lower cnd guara'I\" tees an investigation of the upper end. The ground in the creok follows the rule of the Duncan country, and af­ fords an illustration of how the new conditions are met in order to get down to bedrock and sample the ground. Several shafts are started at once over .he claim or over several claims. Sometimes where creeks are close together, the simultaneous haft-sinking is on two or more creeks. The ground is found frozen on the surface say four feet. Two feet is thawed and taken out, and the shaft abandoned to the frost un­ til another four feet is frozen. Then t wo more feet is thawed and taken out, and the shaft again abandoned to the cold weather. This process is called 'freezing down a hole." The period required to "freeze back" var­ ies fro111 a couple of days to a week or more, according to the severity of the weather and the depth of the shaft. Jake Davidson, the discoverer, with a frying pan for his goldpan, in one afternoon picked out $250. I found two men investigating 9, 10 and 11 below di cm'cry, of course, being in the canyon. lIere the ground is deeper, and, where the shafts are sinking. frozen. Several other men were on the creek. There will be a cOllsiderable m ­ crease of population this summer at this point to nid the c men in tnk­ ing out the gold. Haggert Creek. But it is not in the neighborhood of Duncan that the bulk of the popu­ lation of the district has centered its efforts this winter. Thirty miles from Mayo Landing on the Stewart, Hag­ gert creek empties into the upper reaches of the McQuesten river. A discovery had been staked 12 1-2 miles up at the mouth of Dublin Gulch, which has produced gold for years. lIaggert was known before the Klondike strike, and some work done. The bars have yielded gold. In 1898 quite a Ilumber of men stak· ed, but no real work was done. It lapsed, all but a few claims about discovery. In 1907 two brothers found gold cropping on the left rim. As high as ,,3.75 was found with but little work. A dump yielded 40 cents to the bucket. A ditch was con­ structed to work the bench. Though completed late last fall, it was in time to demonstrate the pay did not go back into the hill. This winter they have taken out dumps on the right limit. An investigation by myself showed only the fine extreme edge of the pay, but dumps have been taken out to be wa~)\ed. T·he depth Or the­ shafts is not much over tw~nty feet, and the creek, expected to be about tw lve feet, will be turned and its b~d worked this summer with the ex.­ pectation of finding the rest of that pay which on the rim went so well. This strike, with the known values un Dublin, caused a hasty restaking of the entire creek, right down to the mouth. The past winter substantial cabins were erected all along, many boilers were carried to the creek, anl1 men from the summer diggings of Highet, Duncan, Davidson and other .streams gathered there and put down holes. The ex.treme cold weather delayed. work. At the time I was there it cannot be said any important devel­ opments had taken place. The creek is of magnificent proportions and contour. More than all the creeks of the Duncan district it resembles the streams of the Klondike, with high, sheer sides, and the evidences of much concentration. \Vhere Duncan has not yet lost the surface evi­ dences of glacier deposit, Haggert has plainly been worn down by much rushing water_ Not all had reached bedrock, though some were down fifty and sixty feet. The depth comes from the width of On the Stewart River. the creek valley, and the gentle slope to the ground commencing at the creek and extending to the side hills. About 60 men were on the creek this winter. Other tributaries of IIaggert than Dublin, and which will come in for investigation, and on which there has already been m"re or less stak­ ing, are Abbot, Fisher, Gill, Iron Rust, Dry, Lynx, Swede, Hyde, Phillips, Chasni, Murphy, Barbara, Snowshoe and Fell. To sum up for Haggert, whether or not the lower creek proves to have a continuous paystreak, there is rich ground at the head dlready demon­ strated and working, as well as on Dublin Gulch. More work is to be done this summer on the bunch of claims at the mouth of Dublin, con­ stituting the concession. The ground has been demonstrated and work, once commenced, can hardly fail of being profitable, and therefore con­ tinuous. Highet and Other Creeks. This is a summer creek, and this winter was deserted. Much of the population of Haggcrt is from Ilighet. This creek is to the present the main standby of the district, and has pro­ duced gold steadily year after year. The tendency now is to gather up the claim! in large lot, Individual min­ ers have been bought out in number~, and have started developing oth~: necks. But the summer will find much work going on. \Vorked as it is destined to be worked, IIighet will yet produce much gold. Minto has been neglected by the miners in ravor of the side streams, but prospects well, and has many promising benches, with some of thel11 l'roved. This winter two m~n were on Minto discovery. They holJ some ground on 8 pup above the discovery claim, and a group of benches l,c­ tween which are being worked profit­ ably each summer. \Vith more water and force the group may confidently be looked for to give Minto cre k a big- boost in the near fl1ture. At l fay/) Bridge I found living two enmand Bridge I found living two men and the recorder, Tom Hinton. l\Iinto Bridge is a trading and roadhouse set­ tlement at the junction of Minto and Mayo river. There were there George Cunningham, ]. O. Binet and a Jap cook. It should be stated that the 1\1ayo river all along here prospects gold. The Jam is the name given by the miners to the flat at the jUllction of Baggert and the McQuesten. A roadhouse is there. Mayo Landing is the entrepot of the whole district where supplies in SUllLmer are landed' from the steamers. The government. road with branches built by the min-. ers, runs to Davidson, Duncan, Hag;-­ gert and Highet. There are various outlying creeks with the beginnings of settlements. Empire creek, a trib­ utary of No-Gold, on the south side of the Stewart, has Albert McCoy and Emil Hebert. J. E. Farrell, the trader, is on the Stewart 75 miles above the falls. Frank Williams, trap­ per and prospector, is somewhere be­ tween Duncan and the McKenzie river. Charles Doty, trapper, trader and prospector, is on Hess river, a tribu­ tary of the south fork of the Stewart. McQuesten River. Outside of those on Haggert and Dublin, the McQuesten district has few resident miners. Charles Turgeoll and Albert Grant are on the ". orth Fork, while Hale Williams and Louis Boden are on another tributary of the same. W. L. Bramley wintered in his cabin near the mouth of l\fc­ Questen-a fortunate thing for trav­ elers, his house being open to them all. Stewart River. A little below the mouth of the Mc­ Questen, on the Stewart river, is found the pioneer dredge of this ;jis. lrlct. At the settlement 1 tOUl1U six men. The number last summer when the dredge was working was nearer thirty people. The dredge is not working the river, but a part of the left bank locally known as Nelson's Point or Bar. The ground was held in placer claims, and was drifted in the usual manner. The dredge has a nominal capacity of 35,000 yards a month. The company has a lease on a hundred miles of the river, and has acquired title to seven mining claims on the point. Another dredge is con­ templated for this summer, while a kindred company-The Stewart River Gold Dredging Company, Ltd., has acquired three ten-mile leases for dreaging on the McQuesten river, and will erect a dredge thereon this sum­ mer. It is needless to point out that the 88 miles of river from here to the Yukon have yielded handsomely to men with rockers, and that the banks have shown coarse gold everywhere, so that the introduction of these dredges may be regarded as the en­ tering wedge which is to make the Stewart the center of a vast mining activity. J. he company will this summer construct a light draft boat for use 011 the river, and promises to be of much aid to the miners of the DUllcan district in ensuring them a means for getting their supplies reg­ ularly. The company's quarters have been constructed on a basi of employ­ ing at least forty men the coming season. The winter has becn utilized in cutting and hauling wood for the dredge. The fuel is both abundant and of finest quality. Resume on Stewart. Conditions are altogether different in the Stewart country to those in the better known Klol1dike. On as­ cending Jensen creek to the summit from Dominion, the view prescnted is startling in its change of pano­ rama from this side of the same di­ vide. An immense flat greets the eye, bordered by parallel. ranges of mountains, the great flat extending at an almost water level from the Klondike on the left, to the Stewart on the right. The great flat extend­ ing through the country is seen to be of almost uniform width. At once it is comprehended that the Klondike is an island-a high, mountainous i l­ and, if this description of the curi­ ous conditions can be allowed. And it is seen at once the difficulties con­ fronting the engineers who have lln­ dertaken the bringing of water onto that high island, and the limited pos­ sibilities of such schemes. The great flat spread out before us is crossed by Flat creek-well named -Slough creek, and a multitude of smaller streams. Gravel lake is seen i .. the center. One hundred foot hills border the flat. Timber is not abund­ ant. In place of it are found numerous meadows yielding native hay. Several farmers there have their homes. John King, 12 1-2 miles from Dominion, at the first edge of the flat, has had a family of children born to him there-not one of whom has ever seen Dawson. He has comfortable build­ ings, a herd of cows, and is a pros­ perous maker of hay. The great flat is all gravel. And gold can be found in it at almost any place, though lacking profitable concentration so far as yet known. What is known of the flat already would give it great value in any other country. Cutting the low foot hills on the far side is Barlow creek and Clear creek from Barlow up. Few mcn were up there this winter. Largc lots of the Clear creek ground have been gath­ ered together in one large holding. So far as known, the ground is not high grade, but nevertheless paid to work in many places. An unfortun­ ate miscalculation in installing a water supply on Clear caused the experi­ ment to fail, giving the Clear creek district an unmerited black eye. An investigation of the situation shows I A W S C N D A t L Y NEW S. the experiment to have proved nothing detrimental, only that water delivered onto low, unprospected ground, and where not available for prospected and proved ground, is badly planned and invites failure. However, the district is suffering from the depopu­ lation coming from dispossession by purchase and other causes. The various creeks cutting through the big flat spoken of are coming in for attention. Slough creek had pros­ pectors all winter, the men coming there after the death of Alex. Mc­ Donald. The government trail to the McQuesten crosses a high rolling country, mostly wash gravel, but lit­ tle known. But the McQuestell reaches the Stewart through a true gold country. The bars of the river have been long worked, and some of the side streams are staked and re­ corded. A new creek is Roden, on which gravel is found occasionally going several cents to the part. The river is of sufficient size to use boats -during part of the year, at high water, shallow draft steamers can as­ cend for a considerable distance. Last summer polling boats took pro­ visions to Haggert creek for 17 cents a pound. Nevertheless, it is difficult to get in and out of the upper reaches, the most promising portions of the river from a placer mining standpoint. The lower end where the dredges will be. finds the transportation problem solved. The freight by river from Dawsol1 is but $40 a ton. I found game most abundant. I fed dricd moose meat to my dogs good enough for a hungry man. But it is in the matter of fish and wild ducks of every kind the district excels all other districts in Yukon. The grey­ ling, netted in the fall and frozen, and round and fat as young por­ poises, to feed them to the dogs seemed a shame, hut they \vcre the cheapest uncooked feed there. The supply is quite inexhaustible. I found everyone weB supplied with wild meat. Caribou herds are not so numerous nor nearly so big as on the west side of the Yukon river. But the abundance of the fish, which can be readily caught under the ice if a sup­ ply has not been laid in, and its al­ together superior quality, makes up for the scantiness of caribou. Supplies in the district this year were even more than ample. I found warehouses filled, warm storage houses well stocked, and no com­ plaint anywhere of inability to get needed articles. This was not al­ ways so on the upper Stewart, and is here recorded as indicating a perma­ nent advance in living conditions. The gold of Haggert creek is the best in the country, going $17.48 to the ounce. SOUTHERN YUK[ON of the Whitehorse Star. By E. J. WHITE, Publisher and Editor B y the expression "S011th~rn Yukon" is implied all that por­ tion of the territory lying south of Yukon Crossing, the south half of the entire area of the Yukon terri­ tory. The whole of Southern Yukon does not contain a population to ex­ ceed from 1200 to 1500, and of this number fully three-fourths are rcsi­ dents of the extreme southern end and within fifty miles of the British Columbia line. Whitehorse. The town of Vlhitehorse with 1000 summer population and about 750 wintcr population is the metropolis of Southern Yukon. The town is lo­ cated at the northern tcrminal of the White Pass & Yukon railway, and at the head of navigation on the Yukon river. By the river route, White­ horse is about 425 miles from Daw­ son, and by the overland winter mail route it is distant from Dawson 323 miles. The town of Whitehorse is located just one mile below the famous Whitehorse l'apids and three miles below Miles canyon. the two constituting the grandest and most sublime scenery in the entire north­ land. The town of Whitehorse was found­ ed in 1900 when the railroad was completed to that place from Bennett. 70 miles to the southward. The town is sllbstantially built on the most ideal town site of the broad white north. It is endowed with all modern facilities in the way of churches and schools, is the seat of customs for Southern Yukon and Northern Brit­ ish Columbia; is the central location of "H" Division, Royal Northwest Mounted police; and the gateway to and outfitting point for six different mining districts, two placer and four quartz. Whitehorse also has an ac­ tive board of trade. Besides her heavy mercantile and outfitting industries, Whitehorse is the home of the British Yukon Navi­ gation company's shipbuilding indus­ tries, which employs nearly 200 skilled mechanics during the summer. Many of the gold dredges in operation at points along the Yukon and tribu­ taries were constructed at the B. Y. N. shipyards in Whitehorse. Early during the present year a trail was constructed and opened clear through from Whitehorse to the head of White river where vast mineral de­ posits have been discovered and where Whitehorse, Y. T. the international botmdary survey corps of both Canada and the United States have been operating for the past two years and where they will probably complete their duties durinlr the presen t season. MINING INDUSTRIES OF SOUTHERN YUKON. Big Salmon District. The oldest and most extcnsively worked placer lUlI1mg district of Southeru Yukon and tributary to Whitehorse is the Big Salmon, which was discovered and staked in 1899 and which has been worked with most gratifying results ever since. The prin­ cipal creek in the Big Salmon district is Livingstone which, while never em­ ploying to exceed 50 men, has annual­ ly yielded from $50,000 to $65,000 worth of gold for nine years and it is estimated that the output of the present year will be fuUy $100,000. Among the heaviest operators on Livingstone creek are the LivingstoJle Creek Syndicate, the Seattle-Living­ stone company, Dan G. Snure, J. E. Peters, Chestnut & Peters, Wood & Amero\1x and M. J. Hoenadal. Liv­ ingstone has a monthly mail service during the winter months from White­ horse and a much more frequent ser­ vice in the summer. She also has tele­ graphic service with the outside world. Kluane Placer Mining District. The Kluane placer mining district lies westward from Whitehorse about 125 miles. This district was discovered and staked in 1902 and has been the scenc of active operations ever since, the principal creeks being Ruby, Dixie, Fourth of July, Bullion, Burwash, Sheep and Arch. New life was given the Kluane district a few months ago by the discovery on Burwash creek of the paystreak which has been traced practically the entire length of the creek. It is sixty feet wide and fro111 seven to nine feet in depth. Thirty men are at work on Burwash and it is confidently predicted that the creek will yield more this season than the entire district has produced during all the former years it has been worked. The Dominion government is adver­ tising for bids for a regular mail ser. vice to ~{luane from Whitehorse. A new traIl constructed from MarshaIl creek to Lake Kluane has reduced the cost of freighting supplies from Whitehorse to Burwash creek from 30 cents to 12 cents per pound. From Burwash on to the White river coun­ try travel is now easy. A cable ferry been constrQcted over the Donjek river, the work of the Whitehorse board of trade. 'the road irorn White­ hotBe to Kluane was constructed by the government at .i cost of nearly $50,000 and is in good condition wi:1! e: ' and summer. W hiteh orse Copper Belt. Mining experts and engineers haye pronounced the V/hitehorse copper belt to be the most gigantic mineral deposit on the American continPllt. The belt is from two to three miics wide and about founeen miles 11l length, the trend being from north to south. The nearest point from the t(o)wn is not to exceed three miles. Among the most prominent and mos: extensively developed of the copper properties are the l'ueblo, Copper King, War Eagle, Anaconda, Rabbit's Foot, Carlisle, Empress of India, Spring Creek, Best Chance, Graffer, Arctic Chief, Polar Group, Valerie and J osephine. Dozens of other proper­ ties have been sufficiently developrJ to demonstrate their great wealth. Among the heaviest copper property owners in the Whitehorse belt are Byron White of Spokane, War Eagle company of Spokane, Col. 'vY. S. Thomas of Harrisburg, Pa., Arctic Chief company of Spokane and Vi, · toria, A. B. Palmer of Vancouver, Whitney & Pedlar, Robert Lowe, Dixon & Johnston, Louis Belney and dozens of others of Whitehorse. Sev­ eral thousand tons of ore have beell shipped from each of several mines, namely, the Copper King, Grafter, Arctic Chief and Carlisle, and ship · ping would be going on at the pre3em time but for the persistent Iow price of copper. The general run of th l' mines from which ore was shipot r ' was from 5 to 12 per cent. copper wi t h a little gold. Ore from the Carlisle mine went as high as 42 per ceni. copper. Last season the White Pass 15 ail­ way company started a spur of its road along the copper belt but owing to the depression in the copper mar­ ket discontinued work when eight miles of the road had been com­ pleted, leaving six miles uncompleted. It is understood, however, that the work will be resumed this summer and the ' road completed the entir~ length of the copper belt. At a cost of approximately a quarter of a mil­ lion dollars the railroad company erected ore bunkers at Skagway last season for the accommodation (,f ore from the mines of Southern Yukon 8nd that it is to the interest of the railway company to foster the millill~ ' industry of Yukon goes without say· 'ing With her vast stores of hidden ,yeaIth, Southern Yukon has as ;rct been but superficiaIly prospected, ;~nd with reasonable transportatiqn chara-es this God-favored sectic,n of the N o;thland is destined to beeQ!llc paramount to any mining countr. on the continent. Windy Arm (Conrad) Quartz District T HE names of Bennett, Car:1)ou Crossing and Little Will C 'y Arm, are doubtless familiar to many of those who joined the rush to the Klonclike. The, names of the::le lliaC': 3 aTe perhaps associated in their mi,ids with the vicissitudes and initial hard­ ships of those argonauts who il' e!1riy days endeavoured to wrest from tl1 e C,)i\ckss of G"ld her treasures, the while her syren voice lured thef'.t 1" the ('rt'!at Essay Memori;~s (·f wn~cked scows, broken sleJs. fr,)~t bites and hardship, may serve tu render more vivid the experienCe! of those ·,'.'110 passed through the narrow neck of Xares lake known as Caribou Crossin!:. He who fled by the \ll.)ulh of "Little vYindy" in the teeth of a gale with wind and wave ur~:l''::; him to disa~ler upon her rocky shore. may nAWSON bAILY NEW~. surely be pardoned, if, while speed· ing onward to Klondike, he was un­ conscious of the fact that at hi very elbow he was leaving untouched treasure caveS, the contents of any one of Which, would have made him richer than a Klondike king. The first permanent locations in the Windy Arm mineral belt, were made by the three pioneer prospec­ tors J oseph liS Stewart, John M. Pooley and Ira Petty. The claims known as the Montana, the Mountain Hero, the Uranlls, and the Venus were located on dates ranging from J lily 1899 till September 1901. On the lat­ ter date was staked and recorded the banner mine of the district, the Venus, now owned and operated by a com­ pany of Conrad city. At this early date, lack of funds, that bete noir of the prospector, precluded any greater development other than that amollnt of preliminary work incidental to the opening up of a mining property, which is commensurate with the painstaking efforts of prospectors who pack supplies on their backs and ore in a rawhide. In May, 1905, these properties The ore of the Venus mine is chietly and associates prospecting some argentiferous galena and averages twenty miles west of Robinson, locat­ about $30 per ton in gold and silver. ed the property known as the Union Several shipments of concentrates mines. A railroad magnate of Vir­ have already been made with satis- gmm became interested in the pro­ factory results, and the mine even in perty and several shipments of ore this early stage of Its development, have been made with good results. is conducted on a fully paying basis. The next locations were made by The vein has 2200 feet of development Laura Hill and Robert Cl egg, fo l­ work done upon it, and has been lowed by Jno. Macle in the employ opened lip a distance ' of 5000 feet of a mining company of New York along the surface. city. In June 1906, prospectors named Located in 1904, and adjoining the "Scotty" Morrisson, Dave Hodnett Venus, is the Humper Group, the lead and Jack Stagar, made very promis­ ih which carries a large quantity of ing discoveries on what are now argentite, ruby silver, stephanite, as known as Hodnett Mountain and Gold well as native silver, galena and Hill. They arrived in Carcross bring­ pyrite. Some very rich ruby silver ing with them numerous samples of has been found on the ·'Ruby Silver" free-milling gold. A stampede imme­ claim which adjoins the "Venus No. diately ensued. Under the guidance 2," and owned by Carcross people. of "Scotty" Morrisson and headed by Perhaps the best showing of any prominent citizens a little army of mine on the Windy Arm belt, is in the would-be millionaires streamed into "Big Thing" 'mine, which has appar- the Wheaton and recorded over four ently well justified its title. It is sit- hundred claims. Since that time, uated some five miles from Carcross. however, extensive work has been Toronto capital is opening up the pro- done on several of the properties, and perty. This mine differs from all other last year one hundred and thirty-two properties on the belt, in that it is in claims were represented and renewed. granite formation. The ore is chief- On the Gold Hill there is a tunnel ON THE WAY 1'0 THE GOLD FIELDS··-THE HALT AT LAKE BENNETT were bonded and the first material advance was effected. In the follow­ ing year TOI'onto capital became in­ terested in this and kindred under­ takings, and during the last three years, in the acquiring of claims and development work, the associates have expended upwards of one mil­ lion dollars. An aerial tram has been constructed from the company's wharf on Windy Arm to the Montana Group, a distance of fouf and a quar­ ter miles, and costing in the neigh­ borhood of $100,000. One of its spans crossing an intervening valley, is said to be the second longest in the world. There is also a short tram to the Venus mine, and a third tram has been commenced to the Vault mine, which when completed will have cost' some $12,000. Apropos of trams, negotiations have been opened with an aerial tramway company anent the construction of an aerial tram across the Chilcoot sum­ mit to Lake Lindeman, which, when operating in connection with the water route to the interior, will consid­ erably lessen the cost of transporta­ tion from tidewater at Dyea to all parts of the Yukon and Atlin dis­ tricts. The company already has erected a concentrating plant costing $50,000 and having a capacity of one hundred tons of ore per day of twenty-four hours. It is working one shift at the present time and putting through about sixty tons daily. The plant, when running at its full capacity, will give employment to about 80 men. ly sedentary quartz and near the sur­ face is very porous, the minerals be­ ing chiefly oxides and carbonates. The ore in the lower workings is sulphide. The vein is ten feet in width, E. & W. strike, with north pitch and averages $25 per ton. The company, owing to the splendid showing, has under con­ sideration the erection of an aerial tram from the mine to the mouth of MacDonald creek on the shore of Lake Bennett, distant about five miles. The Watson and Wheaton Rivers A s early as 1893, prospectors from Juneau crossed the Chilcoot and prospected around the shores of Lake Bennett, eventually reaching the val­ leys of the Wheaton and Watson rivers. They made several locations, and as their old notices will show, they believed themselves to be in British Columbia. They took samples of ore back with them to J uneau, which assayed very highly. Owing to the distance from their then base of supplies, very little was done, and their . locations were unrecorded. At the present time these districts are accessible from Carcross by way of the Wheaton river or from Robinson station on the White Pass & Yukon railway a di~tance of ' abo.ut twenty miles in either instance. In August 1903, William Schnabel 111 feet in length; on the Buffalo Hump, one of 87 feet; on the Silver King 60 feet; and one of 50 feet on the Whirlwind and one of the same length on the Nevada. The ore in both the districts is gold and silver bearing with lead in combination. There are no copper claims, nor is there any placer ground in either dis­ trict. Perhaps the most extensive work is on the "Tally Ho" Group owned by five local miners. They have built about three miles of trail of which one mile is a wagon road. They have driven a tunnel close to 300 feet and have made several ship­ ments of ore which, after paying smel­ ter and transportation charges, netted them $54 a ton. Contracts have been let for several hundred feet on the Gold Hill Group, work on which has already been commenced. On Car­ bon Hill, Chicago capital is interested and is inaugurating large development work for the coming season. In a brief sketch such as this but little mention can be made of the many favorable features which would doubtless commend to the mining op­ erator the quartz camps of Southern Yukon. Suffice it to say, that such natural advantages as fuel, fish, game and a magnificent climate, leave no defect, at the existence of which one 11'1ight cavil. With the introduction of capital, and the resulting increase in faci li­ ties for the handling and transporting of its output, the future of the South­ ern Yukon quartz camps should be assured, .' D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. 29 GAME IN THE YUKON By JA K LEE, Nine Years E ,_ elusively a H uuter in the Yukon I the vicinity of Dawson, the vicinity of aJl others, in this Korthland that has been most per­ sistently hunted there is and has been during the last winter within fifty miles to the west of Dawson (or much nearer than ever caribou have been killed for the Klondike market) the near edge f a herd of caribou that ha been estimated by several parties, who travelled through it, to contain more than one million head, and, mo t extraordinary to relate, there isn't one white hunter disturb­ ing their serenity. The remarks of a party of men who came down th White river in a canoe when this herd was crossing that stream, and of George Black, Yukon COllncilman, and a leading Dawson lawyer, will be in­ teresting and instructive. He said: "For forty miles we were running through one continuous mass of cari­ bou. The narrow valley and high bald mountains on either side, all the way swarmed with the animals. Never before did I have the slightest idea of what a herd of caribou signifies un­ til while on that trip up the Sixty­ mile river. I saw where the lower part of the great herd had crossed. About every hundred yards up to where I turned back or for ful1y ten habitants of the •• orth. One of the many ),Jackenzie herds of caribou is de cribed photographically and other­ wise by J. B. Tyrrell, Dominion Land urveyor, in his book, "Across the Sub-Arctics." The photographs of Mackenzie caribou that 1\1r. Tyrrell had hanging in his office when station­ ed in Dawson are worth travelling many sleeps to see. \Vith regard to moose, it is also in­ controvertible that except along active mining creeks, this nohle beast is as numerous. all over this vast land, as ever before, all pipe dreams and brain storms to the contrary notwith­ standing. Even in the unpretentious Klondike watershed, where ninety PCI' cent. of all Yukon moose hunting has been done, moose are now more plen­ tiful than they have been for the la t eight years. They are very prolific. Cows with two calves are in the ma­ jority. So long \s beef can be had in Daw on for less than twenty cents per pound, by the side, no white hunt­ ers will outfit at a cost of eight to ten hundred dollars for each two men for the winter to supply a demand that would scarcely pay the freight on po ible killings. Klondike hunt­ ers have to be sure of twenty-five cents per pound for all they can kill each year salmon in unbelievable num­ bers arc in every acce - ible stream to a distance of twenty-live hundred miles from salt water. The greyling retire each fall to the deep waters of the large ri,·ers. and return to the small streams after the ice breaks up ill spring. They afford a III dous bite to the hundreds of pro pectors who would otherwi. e he compelled to kill hig game animals. or live on a piece de resistance hacon and beans. Big game is not nor ever has been wantonly slaughtered in any part of this country. and fro::1 my nine years' experience in the upper Klondike country ir;- continuous touch with all regular hunters and trappers, r never have actually knowll nor heard from an)' tnlstworthy or first handed source of evell olle game animal being left where shot. _ TO one, travelling or prospecting away in the hills, kills more game than i~ needed for food, or has ammunition at $7.50 per hund­ red rounds to waste; and as the Yukon game laws provide against killing and leaving game in the wood by a fine of five hundred dollar. and impri on­ ment, and a ca'e has never yet been prosecuted, I cannot conceive how, where, or by the imbiding of what brand, the originators of these hallu- high mountains in great numbers. 'the ruAled grouse are plentiful all over the timbered parts ot the i'\orth, which means four-fifth of the entire coun- try. The spruce grouse and pin tailed grouse arc also plentiful in the timbered parts. The pintail resorts mo tly to the timher line on the high hilb. The migratory game birds-ducks, geese, sandhill cranes. : wan and snipe -"of all the kinds that are known to migrate north," and many kinds of .ong birds, including the American robin and blackbird-pass through the Klonclike di trict, on their way far­ ther .' orth, by the million , during the first part of May each year. They commence going south again early in August. Some of all 'pecies of the song birds, summer and rear their young with us in the Klondike, but the great flight of waterfowls proceeds farther north and northwest to more marshy and lake-likc regions. The main, or greater, spring migra­ tion lasts only eight or ten days. The fall migration south is of some six weeks' duration. 0 it can be seen that the extreme northern scatter-gun nimrod is time limited by providence and nature. The closed season for gam in the . . ~ ~, . ' , .. .,;., , .-:.:.' . • • ~ ~. :; - ' . • • l- 383 Ducks and 1 Goose, Ten Mornings' Flight Shoot by One Gun, Thirty Miles From Dawson Bear Skin Nine Feet Long, Killed by Jack Lee, the Writer. Klondike Moose Hunter in Winter. A Yukon Caribou Hunter in Winter. Returning to Camp with the Spoils. mile there were trail a foot deep, cut freshly into the soil, and between those trails it was, without exaggera­ tion, impossible to put down my hat and not cover several hoof prints in the inch or so of snow that then cov­ ered the ground. How far more this condition extended up the valley I do not know. Unfortunately the herd, with the exception of some stragglers, had passed, and I mIssed the sight of my life." \Vhen it is incontrovertible that this \Vhite river herd is only the smalles,t one of the three herds that range within the Yukon Territory-contain­ ing only two hundred thousand square mile -the Peel river herd, and Pelly river herd being the other two; and when it is considered (hat four thou­ sand caribou would eaSIly cover the number killed in thi territory since white 11u'n first came in herc, I will a k the reader to c.Jl1template what detrimental effect, allowing for natural propagation and decreased financial illtere~t in hunting, can such insignili cant losses have on .such hordes of animals. The great Mackenzie watershed, of approximately onc and a half million square miles. also teems with caribou (lnd all thc kinds of game that arc before they will go seventy-five to one hundred and twenty-five miles into the hills, where big killings are certain, and pay eight to ten cents per pound to have the meat hauled to Dawson . Mountain sheep of at least two species are plentiful on all the interior high range, and arc perfectly safe from all erious harm, e. cept that in­ flicted on them by their old and nat­ ural enemy, the eagle. The expense of hunting sheep on these range places the sport beyond any but those who control the string ot long, full money bags. Bears of all kinds are imply a pest to prospectors and others in the hills. . ..:.y continually destroy cache of provisions depended on for future re­ quirements. They break into cabins while the owners are away, ann leave destruction behind on all occasions. T have had three invaluable cache" of provisions, one hundred miles from a grocery store, pullcd off scaffolds in the trees by these marauders. and very little left that could afterward be utilized. All streams in this • Torthland are pientiou Iy stocked with greyling. The large rivers and lakes teem with whitefish and great sized trout. . \nd during July, August and 'eptCl1lbcr of cinations find lheir inspirations. To conclude, the extermination of the buffalo, so much harped on, can not in any way be used as a compari­ son . \Vh n dealing with the big game of the I T orthwest, the buffalo hide had a high market value, and his range \\'a ~ dotted up and down al1d closely surrounded by populated districts. I t was cut up by several railroads and wagon trails, and any part of it was acces ible in a hort time from ome market. But for his hide he would be plentiful today, pro­ \'iding he could stand civilization, con­ sequently, as he was valuable and at the mercy of anyone who car'd to go after him. he did not last long . • -ot so with the big game of the Yukon and the sub- rctic. Their hides ha\'e no market value. and there are million~ of . quare miles where mil­ lions of big game exist. Acce's mean elalorate preparation, and months of heart hrenking' travel and toil. nnd there being no incentivc to kill but for food, I am compelled to dcelare that r, for 011e. can110t see far enough into the future to be alarmed at the fate of the hig game of the Far l 'orth. Our I,wal small game ('(llllpriscs a few ~pecic~. 'J he ptarmigan. se,"eral species of which arc here, resort to the Yukon follows: Buffalo or Bison-The whole year. Musk-ox, Elk or 'vVapiti, Moose, Caribou, Deer, Mountain Sheep or ~lountain Goat -Between the 1st of :\.larch and 1st of September. Grouse, Partridge, Pheasants, Ptar­ migan and Prairie Chicken-Between I-th March and 1st of September. Wild Swans, Wild Ducks, Wild Geese, Snipe, Sand-pipers or Cranes­ Betw en the 1st of June and 10th of August. Except as provided in respect to • special cases no person shall have the right to kill during the open sea. on more than two elk or wapiti, two moose. two mu k-o en, ,ix dl'cr. ix caribou. two mountain heep and two mountain goats. • TO females hall be killed at any time. ~o person who is not a resident of th(' Territory hall have the right to hunt, take. kill. shoot at or carry away any of the beast and hirds men­ tiolled unless he has obtained a licen e from the Commissioner of the TerJ'l­ tory, who shall have authority to issue permits for export of trophies. Thl' license fee is $100. Full details of game laws may be ohtainl'd in pamph­ Id form from the 1'1:rl'itori.ti Secre­ tary of Y lIkon. 30 D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. Outlying Creeks Tributary to Dawson What is Doing on Streams Which Pour a Wealth of Gold Into the Northern Metropolis. (From Reports to Governor Henderson by Secretary Arnold F. George, of the Yukon Miners' & Merchants' Association.) B y the courtesy of Comm!ssi~ner Henderson t~e News is enabled to gIve Its readers of thIs edition extensive extracts from a report made to him of outlying camps contributing to the business life of Dawson. Secretary Arnold F. George, of the Yukon Miners & Merchants association, in preparation for his lectures at the Alaska-Yukon fair, made a trip over these districts in the dead of the last winter gathering detailed information. The commissioner aided financially in making the trip possible for the association's secretary, hence the re­ port to the commissioner, the main part he so kindly permits us to publish. Much valuable information will be found herein for the stranger, and even to men who are not stranger;; to the coun.try, and few of the latter could make such an extensive trip for themselves. Mr. George's journey covered nearly two thousand miles, and was made with dog team in a temperature run­ ning from fifty to seventy-two below. It begins with the Fortymile creeks on both sides of the boundary line, then the Sixtymile creeks were visited and are described, and it ends with a comprehensive report of the district which is generally known as the Upper Stewart. The reports are very full. Mr. George writes: F ORTYMILE DISTRI CT. The American Fortymile is a very valuable asset, both to Dawson and to Yukon. It is more devel­ oped than our other distant placer districts, and is on a paying and profitable basis. Its importance and value to Yukon is indicated by the fact that nine­ tenths of the work of the American recording office of the district, located on the Fortymile river at the mouth of Steel creek, is work done for Dawson people. Seventy-five per cent. of the receipts of that office are from Dawson people. In short, sev­ enty-five per cent. of the ground owned or operated in that entire district is owned and operated by Daw­ son people. The gold from the American Forty-mile all passes through Dawson, being checked through at the American customs house at the boundary on the Fortymile river a t the junction of Moose. The checking is accepted by the Dominion authorities at Dawson The profits of the district are almost wholly to Dawson people and concerns, and the district makes a large and profitable market. With the exception of the most distant creeks of the dis­ trict, as Chicken, Dawson is looked upon by all as headquarters. Chicken and a few other headwater creeks are trying to make Eagle headquarters. The gold production of the district for the last two years is as follows: No. 1907 Wade .............................. 4112 Chicken ............................ 2296 Lost Chicken........................ 330 Fortymile .......................... 324 Poker .............................. 296 Davis .............................. 293 Stonehouse .......................... 171 Woods .............................. 130 Franklin ............................ 122 Eagle .............................. 54 Myers Fork......................... 40 Twin Fork.......................... 14 Squaw................. ............. 12 Canyon ............................ 8 Last Chance ........................ . Flat ................................ . Nugget Gulch ....................... . Napoleon Creek ...................... . Totals .......................... 8202 ounces. 1908 3152yg 1620~ 21O~ 729 356~ 211 18yg 327 620 40 15 4¥.i 8 283 7038yg The apparent falling off in the production on Chicken came from the cessation of work, owing to the bonding of the entire creek for a sale which fell through. In the dead of winter I found the Fortym ile district with an increased population of nearly forty people, and an increased activity pro­ mised a prod uction for 1909 in advance of 1907. The distribution of the population of 181 miners I found as follows: On Moose creek, 9; on Canyon, 8; on Walker's Fork 8; at Steel creek, 22; Walker's Fork dredges, 13; J~ck Wade creek, 46; Chicken creek, 30; jointly on Lost Chicken and Chicken, 24; Franklin Gulch, 6. A scattering fifteen, known to the recorder and others to be at various points, are not yet known by name, making the total of 181 in the country at midwinter. Reference to the gold Ol.ltput discloses in 1908 a doubled output for the bars of the Forty­ mile river proper. The spring arrivals for that work are not here enumerated, nor the regular summer additions to the workers on the dredges and other works. The men named above are not tied to the creeks under which they are named, but move around, their headquarters only being where named. The gold output for Walker's Fork is not given, there being but one concern operating there-the dredge-and the figures being regarded as private. Canyon creek was being worked when the I(1on­ dike was struck, and with its tributary, Squaw, was practically deserted in favor of Dawson. Miller creek, over in the Sixtymile, and in Canadian terri­ tory, was long supposed to be in American territory, and was located and worked before the Klondike era. Gold was found in paying quantity over a large area now unworked, which is being held in large lots for speculation, and which is made particularly easy by the American laws, conceded by all the miners alike to be bad for the country. BAR DIGGINGS. The Fortymile river is an unfailing source of grubstakes for miners finding themselves short of funds owing to prospecting ventures. For a hun­ dred miles the bars of the river yield readily to the rocker of the miner at low water, in many places yielding large returns. I found much preparation at many points for working these bars in the winter. The river freezes down to the bottom. It is very shallow over these bars. Men were removing an average of a foot of ice which exposed the gravels of the bed of the river. These are thawed by fire in the usual way. When rich, the gravel is rocked then and there under cover of a tem, the water for the work being heated with a Yukon stove. When not so rich, the gravel is hoisted to the bank, and there washed when the water runs in the spring. I sampled much of the dirt thus exposed and found nothing less than five cents to the pan. I have reason for believing the reports that spots are yet found going a dollar and even better to the pan, and other spots are barren. The river bed supports a host of prospectors looking for good diggings. I met several such who worked on the bars for a month during the summer once a year and even once in two years, this, with the I!ame, with which the country abounds, and the fish and berries, afford­ ing an excellent grubs take. The further prepara­ tions found for working these bars lend credibility to the report current, that as usual, men would be com­ ing in from great distances in a little while to take out their regular grubstake. Much of this work is done after the coldest weather is over. I found men already on the ground for this purpose, several having come from the Tallana, and at least two from the Arctic slope. The dredges operating in the river-and there are three, with two more on Walker's Fork-have caused records to be entered for applications covering pretty much all of it. But no disposition is being displayed to interfere or hamper. The time-honored privilege of working the bars and river bed is not likely to be wrested from the miners, as the United States issues no title either to miners or dredging cumpanies. As one consequence of the availability of this river to all comers, the community is composed of the most independent men in the North. Some have gone so far as to cease all effort beyond getting the yearly thirty-day grubs take, reinforced with game and wild berries and fish. The district has In it a number of characters who have lived thus for from five to fourteen years. There can be no privation in the district as long as these conditions prevail, and it will be many years before the operations of the dredges and bar miners make any appreciable differ­ ence. In any event the largest half of the river bed is too shallow for dredging, with only from a few inches to a few feet of gravel. Where there is insufficient water but sufficient gravel to pay, it has been suggested a system of flooding might be utiliz.:d by the dredges in order to attain sufficient depth. In so vast a country, and so difficult of pros­ pecting as is the Fortymile, the value of the river as a means of renewing grubstakes cannot be over­ estimated, and the writer took particular pains to disseminate information received '{rom Washington declaring the river open to everyone, notwithstanding the formidable locations filed with the recorder­ locations he is not empowered to refuse, no matter how lacking in value he may consider them to be. Just how the river bed is regarded is seen in the fact that where locators, as J oh11 Elden, at the mouth of Moose, have departed from the general cus­ tom of staking only down to the water's edge, and has staked across the stream, "snipers" to the num­ ber of five are by invitation rocking as if the ground were open. Fifteen such snipers were due to arrive when I passed on the piece between Moose and Steele. Last year a "sniper" found a nugget on his grizzley too large to go through, which weighed 2~ ounces. This on the free strip opposite Moose. Peter George, who died a couple of years ago in the Daw­ son hospitals, leaving a fortune in the neighborhood of $15,000, was a sniper on the Fortymile, and did nothing else. At the mouth of Moose, John E lden has completed ditch work onto a bunch of claims, the four miles of ditch costing at least $10,000, and every bit of it paid for, principally from working the bars thereabouts. Quite often this "snipping," or working unowned ground, is carried from the river up the creeks, and it is of record that three strangers came out of Moose creek after six weeks with a thousand dollars apiece, this a few seasons ago. The Dominion boundary line is just below Moose, and one of the Davison dredges is below the bound­ ary. It is working in the bank, not the river bed. It is known that for many years the bars imme­ diately below that point yielded to the rockers more than four doJIars a day in fine gold. From four to a hundred dollars a day is the record of the rocking on Fortymile, the higher figures be­ ing reached in several localities where the bedrock has acted as the riffles in a flume. It should be explained that in the shallow river bed the gravels are constantly traveIing, bringing gold along. In this way certain localities can be and are being worked year after year, and constantly yield gold. I have dwelt this long on the river because in my opinion the Fortymile and SixtymiIe countries are Yukon's most valuable outlying camps at present, and the Fortymile river is that camp's most valuable asset. Particulars of the more important streams of the Fortymile district are as follows: CANYON CREEK. The creek is twelve or fourteen miles long, wholly on the American side. Ten miles of the creek is held by Dawson parties as a hydraulic and dredging proposition. There is a paystreak through most of it that pays to drift. Eight cent pans have been obtained for four feet. Six men are on the creek, or were there when I passed up and down. SQUAW CREEK. Fifteen men were working on Squaw creek. It is a tributary of Canyon, and was one of the very first creeks to be worked. It still produces good gold, right up to the ridge in which it leads. Adolph Skopenski, after sinking sixteen holes on No. 8, now gets as high as dollar and dollar and a half pans. Only discovery claim is worked out, and there is more virgin ground still left on the creek than is to be found on the famous Jack Wade. It heads with Wade, and the gold resemb les Wade gold. The creek became depopulated owing to the Klondike rush. JACK WADE CRE EK. Wade creek was the most extensively worked creek of the district the winter of 1908-9. It is fourteen miles from the mouth to the forks. Gold has been taken out for years. The workers have traced the pay down to near the mouth. I found dumps so close together-and as early as the holi­ days-as to touch in some places. From the forks up there is much fine gold which will pay to work when transportati0n gets lower. Methods of mining are rather primitive. Though thawing is done by steam most of the hoisting is still done by hand. More work is being done than for six years. On the Bower concession, near the mouth, Sven Carlson this winter found a nugget at the bot­ tom of his shaft weighing $59. Pat Slattery last summer on the benches of the "graveyard" claim operated a "jump-off" gate, and by this primi­ tive means, with a limited supply of water, took out from $30 to $100 a day. This from the benches has raised high hopes for the creek when the creek paystreak shall have been worked out. The "graveyard" claim is a title coming from the fact that the true paystreak thereon was discovered accidentally through the burying there of the first man to die on the creek. The spot was chosen because thought worthless and far from possible molestation. Years afterwards the gravel from the grave was accidentally panned and yielded seven .. dollars. The body was disinterred and buried' somewhere else, and a shaft where was the grave: quickly turned No. 5 into a famous claim. In a general way it may be mentioned that on the ridge between Jack Wade and Squaw, a quartz lead crops out in plain view which is sixty feet wide. When I was there, seventy-five men were work­ ing on the creek, with no one idle. Indeed it maY' be stated generally for the entire Fortymile ancll Sixtymile, that they only were idle who could resist many importunities to go to work. And they were: few. I found many laymen and others paying bills Olll the creek in gold dust, which is currency there. The: general prosperity is further indicated by workmen ~ and others preferring to pay $90 a month at the road­ houses rather than batch. Claims are twenty acres, and there is much ground yet to be worked,. with nearly all the benches yet untouched. This: creek in 1898 was almost as unsatisfactory as is; Black Hills today, with many then declaring there: to be no continuous paystreak down the creek. CHICKEN CREEK. Chicken creek has been a heavy producer for many years, but has fallen away as has been stated .. Notwithstanding the stoppage of much of the work by banding for selling, it is still the center of a con­ siderable population. It is an extraordinary creek. being but five miles long, and widening out into aru immense basin in the middle like a great empty lake. John Weeden, on Last Chance, a tributary, was preparing for more hydraulicking the coming sum­ mer. Myers Fork is shallow summer ground and pro­ duces every year. The owners are prospecting, and laying out their summer campaign. Stonehouse is another good tributary. It pro­ duces gold from the benches on both sides. The men there are married, have fine quarters and are independent of the whole world. Coal creek has a little gold on its benches. Chicken creek proper shows gold on both benches wherever opened, though owing to the immense width but little work has yet been done. On the left limit the gold in great quantity has been traced and worked up the bench clear over the divide onto the next creek, which was thereby discovered, and named Lost Chicken. The two Chickens are now mostly worked in the summer. Lost Chicken has very rich ground located. Fortunes have been taken out, and fortunes remain to be taken out. Owing to the shortness of the creek, the water is a very serious problem there. Various schemes are afoot to remedy this. An important scheme is from Dawsoll, some of our business men having financed the beginnings of a scheme for bringing water down from the Ketchumstock, at a height and in volume enough to clean up the two Chicken creeks and benches, and also the known valuable benches on the main river. Several miles of ditch and a big dam have been constructed. INGLE CREEK. Ingle comes into the Fortymile six miles above Chicken. It is only five miles long, but had seven outfits of men working there, who work both winter and summer. The gold I was shown was in quantity, and of excellent quality. G. C. St. Florens IS estimated a very wealthy man. SOUTH FORK AND TRIBUTARIES. The South Fork now divides off into many great tributaries but very slightly known. Mosquito Fork is 125 miles long, and a superficial examination, which is all it has yet received, shows more or l!,!ss gold all along. It heads against the Tanana, and has immense flats of gravel five and ten miles wide. The Dennison Fork enters the South Fork and is also 125 miles long. Nothing at all is known excepting that where the benches at the mouth have been investigated they have yielded gold. Moose is a tributary of Mosquito twenty miles from the mouth, is about eight or nine miles long, and shows gold everywhere. Ketchumstock is tributary of the South Fork of the Fortymile. The Ketchumstock tdbe of Indians have their ~campment at the mouth, hence the name. The stream is about thirty-five miles long, shows gold everywhere, and heads in the most extensive of gravel beds fifty miles across the im­ mense flats of the Tanana slope. In connection with these comparatively unknown tributaries it remains to be said that trails were well beaten aIJ winter with parties of stakcrs and pros­ pectors, lending color to the claim of the Chicken creek people that there are no less than 200 people in that neighborhood. The most extravagant anti­ cipations are indulged in as to the future of that unknown region, and vast areas are being held, prin­ cipally with the financial aid of Dawsonites. The claims are twenty acres, with eight of these held as an "Association" claim, and but work to the amount l~rfDAWSON DAILY NEWS. ,of $100 required on this association claim. These association claims in turn are held in bunches, while, ,owing to the remoteness of the region, even this poor excuse of representation is easily avoided alto­ gether by res taking, or cut down to zero by a little .shoveling in the snow. However, there is no crowd­ ing at the present time to make these conditions ;senous. BURNING COAL BEDS. On the divide between the two Chickens I found the coal beds with which those streams are partially underlaid, to be burning. Notwithstanding the ex­ tremely low temperature at the time I was there, the ground was so hot from these subterranean fires as to burn the feet in places. I saw one man whose moccasins had been destroyed in this manner. ·This coal on Chicken creek is f@und in places and coal seams and stringers in others. Both the gravel :and stringers carry gold. In fact, the richest pans ·the creek has shown have been accompanied by coal, ·or been picked out of the coal seams. Coal is picked from the tailing piles in summer to sharpen picks or to be mixed with wood and used for fuel under boilers. I found this gravel coal in stores being used in the stoves. On the other limit of the South Pork is Walker's Fork, now practically given over to dredging, though some claims are held near the mouth. The black sand here shows curiously. Forty-two ounces yield­ ed $11 in gold which could not be found by panning, and thirty-one ounces of magnetic Iron ore. • NAPOLEON. Napoleon was a non-producer, having fallen into the hands of the N. A. T. & T. company. Last year a lay was given and the ground proved very rich. The layman with one man in a short time washed .(Jut 283 ounces. It heads with Jack Wade. It was 31 work filings were made at the American recording office while I was there. ACCESSIBILITY. The region is hard to enter, freights are high and distances great. I cannot do better on this matter than to briefly quote U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 345, of 1907: "Transportation to the creeks of Fortymile region has always been difficult, and the situation has been rendered more complex by the presence of the inter­ national boundary with its attendant customs regula­ tions. Most of the supplies are purchased in Daw­ son, Yukon Territory, and freighted up Fortymile creek on the ice by horse sleighs during the winter months. About 400 tons was shipped by this method (in 1907) for the dredge on Walker's Fork, and a hundred tons for the dredge below Franklin creek. The freight rate from Fortymile Post to the latter locality was $70 per ton in 1907. Summer freighting on Fortymile creek is done by polling boat. It is a difficult stream to navigate, and boat loads of material are frequently lost or long delayed by low water. The rates from Fortymile to the farthest locality, Chicken creek, are about 25 cents per pound. Cattle are frequently driven overland on the wagon road- from Dawson to Glacier, a dis­ tance of sixty miles, and thence to the various creeks on the Alaska side, where they are sold." DREDGES. Four modern dredges and a dipper dredge were found In the Fortymile and its tributaries. The dipper dredge was on Pump bar, below the mouth of Franklin gulch, and is understood to have been dis­ continued. All the others were found piling up wood for the summer campaign. One of the dredges is on the Canadian side of the boundary, and has a capacity of 3000 yards per day. The one above the boundary has a capacity of 1500 cub;c yards. The Electrical Elevator on Bonanza. -Photo by Doody. at one time regarded highly, and is e.iCpected now to make good. THE FORKS. Russell King, the dredge man, has take.n an option on the South Fork. His prospecting forces began work on the ground this spring. The North Fork is but very little knowlI. Few have been up there. It heads against the Tanana, and wherever prospected at aIJ ha~ shown gold. Montana, Confederate, Fish, Gold Run, Wilson and Bear are a few of the hundred s4b-creeks there awaiting the prospector. The regiun is remote and difficult to get supplies into. Also it is on the way to nowhere, which accounts for its being so little known. It is of record that John Meeklin got coarse gold and a nugget weighing $42 from there. Only two or three men are known to be up there. FRANKLIN. This is the oldest gulch up the Fortymile, and is still a producer, and a money maker for those stay­ ing with it. The output last year, when a few men returned to the old stand by, was Increased nearly twic~ . In the neighborhood of Chicken and Attwater the bars of the Fortymile have been very rich, yielding millions. They are still being worke-cl, and large areas of the river valley are being newly bonded to proposing hydraulic and dredge companies. Particulars were not obtainable of the fifty-three quartz locations on the American side at the head of the White. Twenty-six locations stand in the names of Dawson men, and another twenty · assessment other two dredges are on the upper end of Walker's Fork. Their capacity would be somewhere between the other two. The good work of the machine on the Canadian side was especially noticeable, the best of un frozen ground having been encountered. It is current the work was particularly profit­ able which is the more easily believed in that the river at that point has for many year.s been a favorite resort for "snipers." Regarding the U. S. government road to the Fortymile river from Eagle, it remains to be said the road was designed for the purpose of diverting valuable trade from Dawson to Eagle. But the distance is greater, two summits have to be crossed, and it is the opinion of all the Fortymilers except­ ing a few at Chicken that the money spent is prac­ ticaIJy wasted. During the winter, while many hun­ dreds of tons frol11 Dawson, Fortymile Post and even Whitehorse were being delivel'ed in the dis­ trict, a single freighter from Eagle was spending weeks and spending several times the value of his load. in shoveling a way through the snow on those Eagle summits. The conditions appear to be these, and the same would likely prevail were there a road built along the benches of the Fortymile river, even without summits to climb or snow to surmount. In the winter time teamsters would quite naturally prefer the level ice of the river, and in the summer time no teamster could begin to com­ pete with the polling boats which deliver freight as high up as Chicken creek. In short, the geo­ graphical position is such, nothing can happen to take from Dawson any considerable share of the trade and profits of t.hat region. • D A W SON D A I L Y N E W S. 1'--'-"--'-"-'-·'-·-·'-"-·'-"-·'--++'-·'-·'---·'-"-·'-·'-·.- .. - .. - .. - .. - .... I YUKON 1 S GlREA T AMUSEMENT PLACE J ... LU A PARK OF THE GOLD METKOPOLIS-DAW ON'S AMATEUR ATLHETIC CLUB .t i Fascinating Story of How People, with Aid of WaIter Creamer's Genius, have Unceasing Round of Pleasure i • • +_._ .. __ .. _----_ . .-.._._._._ .. _++-•• _ ._ •• _ •• _ •• _ •• -.._ •• _ •• _ • .-.._ •• _.+ W HAT is there in Dawson to help one wear through the long winters? Is therc any diversion, any sport, any resort of amusement? WelI, rather. Under one mammoth roof, virtualIy a part of the municipality and as not­ able a branch of the Yukon public af­ fair as the Capitol building or any portion of the government, is the Dawson Amateur Athletic Club. This in titution number among its sup­ porter and its adherents almost every man, woman and child of Dawson, and many who live on the gold creeks SUf­ founding the city within a radius of th r e score miles. j Tot only is this club the center of social life and amusement in winter, hut also in summer; and, in fact, in cvery portion of the year it has a firm hold on the public attention. It is here that in winter the grcat enclosed ice skating rink attracts devotees of all ages, who, making up a neatly and gaily clad throng spin merrily over the long tretches of carefully prepared ice surfaces; it is here that the manli gras of the Northland is held each winter, and here that the children hold minor carnivals. It is here that many of the swiftest and most expert skaters of the world join in that swiftest of all human phy ical contests, hockey, in disputing the championship of the • 'orth. It is here that in the summer the mammoth natatorium, one of the most elaborate on the continent, is made the city's most patronized amusement center, and where the 5cores of expert men, women and children swimmers gather several times during the season in magl1iticent water carnivals, som thing as much patronized and enjoyed here as are the great horse shows of New York or the flower fetes in the s unny climes of the South. It is in this capacious pavilion also that many an athletic contest between world champions has been held, and added to the multipli­ city of diversions under its vast roof mu t be enumerated the fashionable dances held in the large hall, and the receptions, bazaars and banquets held in the resplendent parlors. In one portion is an excellent club room with hilliards, readi ng room and other com­ forts of life, including a buffet, and attached i a large gymnasium and hand ball room, with shower baths. And last, but not least to be enumer­ ated, is the home of the Dawson Curl­ ing Club, the second largest club of the kind in the world, and the club which turns out more high grade curl­ ing experts than any other club on earth. Being added to this are four large bowling alleys, and the curling capacity is being doubled this year. The entire athletic club building covers an area of 100 by 200 feet, and the front portion, where the social rooms are located, is three stories high. The new curling space will cover an additional ground space al­ mo t as large as that now occupied, and Dawson promi cs to have more curlers per capita than any other city on the globe. The entire premises of the Dawson Amateur Ath let ic Club are lighted by electricity, a nd the many rooms heat­ ed with steam. Every modern con­ venience is afforded in the club, a nd :lI1y metropolis ef America will do wen to show as great a variety of amuse- 111ents and conveniences on as large a sea le under one roof. The D. A. A. A.-as it is known locally-is the luna park of Dawsoll. It is here that all cla~scs meet in com­ mon chase after fleeting hours of pleasure, and the needful recreation which mankind craves and especially must have in this land where winters are long and the outdoor diversions necesilari ly limited. It is to Clement B. Burns that the crcdit is due of hav­ ing conceived and promulgated the idea of such an institution in Dawson Mr. Burns, the present territorial and federa l secretary in Yukon Territory. on his arrival here in 1902, perceived at once the need of such a resort. With the loyal support of a few Klondikers, he soon had the matter crystallized, and the movement under way. 1'he $45,000 needed to defray the cost of erection and fi rst installations was pledged in a month. The plans were prepared immediately, and a few weeks later the structure was completed. But at first the resort did not have the hold 011 the people that it has to­ day. It was not until WaIter Creamer, the now Barnum of Klondike, took hold of the property, that it was con­ verted into the real Luna Park of Yukon. The attractions up to that time were handled more ot less desul­ torily, but Creamer, when g iven the whip hand, worked out the same mar­ velous results that were obtained by the two geniuses who created Luna Park. Creamer asked for a chance to throw him elf. He had the confidence of the management, and he got the chance. No one of the management re­ grets it. Creamer has made the place not only a . financial success instead of a losing proposition, but ha defray­ ed the expense of many additional features, and has made everyone in Dawson fee l that he or he has a pcr­ sonal intere t in the place. Concerts with brass banc! and orchestra are given in connection with many of the carnivals and contests, and at skating parties, and the immense galleries and boxes nearly always are fill -d. The whole huilding, with its various branc1ll's of ~port and recreation, com­ pri es an institution, which, in the opinion of the majority, outclasses anything of its kind north t)f Se tttle. "The building occupied by the asso ciation co t $45.000, and has confcrred a distinct benefit on the town. It is safe to say that without it Dawson would be a remarkably quiet town, e,,· pecialIy in winter, as the 'D Three A's' is certainly the centre of social life during that period of the year. Skating carnivals for adults and child­ ren, hockey matches, curling bonspiels, smoking concerts and dances follow each other in quick succession. Then, too. the members occa io;.aIly suspend that ironclad rule against permitting ladies in the club rooms, for several times during the winter they throw open their doors to the fair sex and hold most enjoyable 'At Homes.' Each succeeding spring finds us look­ ing back upon what every member regards as 'the most successful season in the club's history.' "The skating rink of the D.A.A.A. is 75 by 175 feet; the two old curling rinks 30 by 150; and the swimming tank 26 by 70. In the natatorium, which occupies in SU111111el' the vast space devoted in the winter to curling, are many private dressing rooms, with steam heat fgr accommodation of the bathers when out of the water, and steam for keepin~ the temperature of the water equable. Connected with the gym, the curling department, the skating rink and all such are lockers and similar accommodations, and sep arate dressing rooms for the ladi s who skat(' or indulge in the other sports. The re ort on the whole is one of t.he boasts of Yukon. and a vast factor in the econt)mic featmes of Klondike life." ------~o~------- PROSPERO U S VANCO UVER INDUST R Y. Men with the peculiar intuition, foresight, and all round ability to Amongst the many flourishing 111 please the public and make all feel rlustries which are to be found in I '1 h' f Vancouver, none has mad!' greater happy w 11 e carrying t e weight 0 strides than the Vanct)uver Engineer- heavy financial undertaking in such a ing \Vorks, Ltd .. and to those who venture as this are few throughout the have failed to appreciate the extra­ world. But Creamer is a genius of ju t ordinary developm!'nt which has taken this kind, and Yukon is fortunate in place in Britsh Columbia in recent having him here. Should he ever en- years. the existenc(' of so modern and ter any other field in such WOl k it complete an engineering establi h would be Dawson's loss, but a great ment may well cause some surpri e. gain to the other community, be it The nlant comprises machine ~hop, anywhere from Gotham to Melbourne. iron foundry, boiler, nipe and black Mr. Burns, founder of the club, writ- smith shops. pattern shop. warehou~e. etc, anel to these will shortly be added ing modestly of the institution, at re- a steel foundry capable of turning out quest of the editor, says: high-class steel ('astings up to five "In the summer of 1902 a number of tons in weight. When it is mention­ gen~lemen met in the Gold Commis- cd that there is no steel foundry plant sioner's office of the Government in Canada west of the Great Lake~. Building in Dawsoll and formed the thl' importance of this development Daw on Amateur Athletic Association. will be fullv appreciated. and there ('an They were ten in number. Since that he no doubt, in .view of the growinl:\' demand for steel in place of ea ;t-iron, time the association proper ha grown that there is a bil! future for thi de to a membership of 165. The original oartment of the Vancouver Engineer­ idea of the association was to crect a in):!' Works. Ltd. ('\ub house, skating and curling rink, \Vhile thc variety of work hanc\1cd gymnasium, reading and writins;:- by this rompany cover~ cycrvthing re­ rooms, card rooms and baths. All Quircd ft)r the sawmill, logp-ing and these portit)ns of thc scheme have mining ind.t1 tries, and manufacturing been carried out, and in addition there .g.enerally, .It may he noted that ~pc have been in tailed a billiard room. CHI! attentll;n ha~ always he~n. glv.en w't l E li h and American tables a to the reqlllr~ments of the. mll1111R' 1n- I 1 ng s ...' rlustry, tnd TI\'etted steel pIPC, hydr:lll- buffet bar an~l a splendId SWlmmmg lie monitors, dump cars and gravity tank for use 111 summer. A fllrthcr tramWlIvs uc only a fcw of the lines featu re which is in contemplation i in whi('h this company may be said to that of bowling' alleys, which are to sp('cializc. be built during the prescnt summcr. A recent achievemcnt of the Van couver Engilleering \Vorks, Ltcl .. was the fitting of the steamer "Scnator .1 ansen" (owned by the Fraser River Lumber Company, Ltd., of Millsidc. B. C.) with complete sternwhccl engines and locomotive-type boiler. The engines are designed for a work­ ing pressure of no less than 200 Ihs. per square inch, a pressure which has hitherto been employed only in rail­ road locomotive service and large ocean going steamers. The placing of this modern steamer on the Fraser river caused great interest and it is a sati faction to be able to state that she has developed a turn of speed which enables her to pass anyt hing at present operating on that waterway. In conclusion it may be stated that whi l t the Vancouver Engineering Works, Ltd., has always made a pe­ cialty of mining plant, the interests of the other ind u!otries which are rap idly being developed in British Columbia have by no means been neglected. Logging engines, refuse burners, steel tanks, boilers of every description, transmisison plant, castings of all sizes are only a few of the lines in which this company is doing a large and growing business, and to those who have to do with the manufactur­ ing industries of the province, a visit to the works cannot fail to prove of the greatest interest. 0'--- PERCY SHARP LE, ARTIST Of all the amateur artists who haYe worked in the orth, none more de­ serves attention than Percy Sharpe, the designer of the cover page of this publication. 1\1:r. Sharpe is a man ·till ascending the sunny slope of the twenties, and has before him a prom­ isil1/X career. He is a native of the land tth the southern cross, but since coming to America from the ;\ntipodes he has gained most of hi prominence as an artist. In British Columbia he tarried but a short time tfter landing from Australia. and shortly afterwards was in the Yukon. Here the spell of the North ancl the lure of the gold held him a prisoner to that en ravishing hope which is the backbone of every persevering Klondiker. Sharpe has not faltered in his desire. He has not waited to ee his brothers recover the fulsome poke by sweat of brow and crucifix ion of the muscle while he has idled ill artistic dreams, hut he has taken th pick and the shovel, and has gone down into the bowels of the e~rth like every rug/Sed miner of the • ! ort hland. Preferring art istic work to that of mining, he has taken for the time what has seemed most ex­ pedient and promising of quick re­ turns, but he ever is called hack to the pencil and the brush. Hc had instructions in the elements of ar­ tistic work in his native town, and with more experience he will be heard from at large. Mr. Sharpe has done a numbcr of s-lendid sketches on m se and caribou skin and with cha al and in water ('olor!; as well a wit h pen and ink. Yukon themes are his favoritc. ancl his work has been quite the talk of Klondike this season. ----..... 0----- \"!+,/ ILLIE, a little country boy, six years of ;'1ge. was taken one Sunday night to a large city churc h, where he ~aw for the first time a vested choir. 1'0 his mother's sur­ nri,!, and gratificlltion, he not on ly kept wide awake, but seem('d ~reatly interested in every part of the service. A t it~ close he turned to her and said, HT lik(' this ('hurch; it is ~o nice to watch the preacher when he comes out with all his wives in their night­ guwns." DA W S ON DAILY NEWS. 33 DAWSON AMATEUR ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION. 1. HOME OF THE DAWSON AMATEUR ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION. (Photo by E llingsell). 2 WALTER CREAMER. Manager of Dawson Amateur Athletic. Association. ( Photo by Adams, Dawson.) 3. CORNER IN CLUB ROOM D . A A. A. 4. CURLING BONSPIEL ON DAWSON RINKS. 5. NATATORIUM OF D. A. A. A. 6. RECEPT J.ON ROOMS D. A. A. A. 34 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. J. L. LABBE. Owner of Timber Berths and Pro- prietor of the Brunswick Hotel T HE continued activity and the unceasing output of gold in the Klondike is due in no little measure to thc energetic class of citizens of the country, and it is these men who are depended on to build up the region and make it one of permanent worth. The men who have lived here for years and continue to invest their J. L. Labbe wealth are the class who make a coun­ try, and J. L. Labbe, owner of timber berths, and proprietor of the Bruns­ wick hotel, is one of this type. He has been in Dawson since 1898, and has bucked hardships of every dass. The success which is now attending him has been won by utmost persever­ ence, and he promises not only to con­ tinue to handle his present large hold­ ings with every smile of fortune, but to enlarge his big operations as the camp advances. While conducting the Brunswick hotel, which is at the corner of Queen Street and Third Avenue, in one of the most prominent places in the city, by the big companies in thawing the frozen golden gravels. In the sum­ mer of 1907 Mr. Labbe cut and sup­ plied the Yukon Gold Company, bet­ ter known as the Guggenheims, with 5,000 cords of wood. The undertak­ ing was one of tbe heaviest up to that time ever attempted in the wood business in the Yukon. During the present year Mr. Labbe is getting out for the Dawson market 5,000 cords of finest spruce wood. Twenty or more men are at work on the timber limits, and will continue in his employ until the last stick of the great drive is run down the Klon­ dike river, dragged ashore at Dawson or nearby and piled on the beach ready for the market. The cost of landing this immense drive in Daw­ son will run $40,000.00 or more, and by the time it is placed on the Daw­ son market will bring half a hundred thousand or more. A large wood camp and messhouse are maintained on the limits. While making his headquarters at the Brunswick, Mr. Labbe leaves the details of the work there to others, but is the real manager himself. Mr. Labbe is a native of St. Luce, Quebec, where he first saw the light of day in 1862. He is one of the fear­ less adventurers who crossed the fam­ ous Chilkoot Pass in the rush days of the Klondike, and was present on the pass at the time tbe great slide took place which buried alive fifty-five men Mr. Labbe alone shoveled five of the victims out of the deep snow. Pro­ ceeding later over the trail to Ben­ nett, he came down the Yukon with his partners. On the way they cut above Stewart one of the finest rafts of logs landed at Dawson for lum­ ber purposes. The business experience of Mr. Labbe did not by any means begin with his coming to Yukon. When but 18 years of age he was in the grain business in Halifax. Later he made a stake of $50,000 in the boom­ ing city of Duluth, and 1('5t it in the crash there in the panic of 1893. Af­ terward he engaged in exploring and developing in the Rainy Lake district Brunswick Hotel -Photo by Ellingsen. only one block from ~he post office, Mr. Labbe devotes a great share of his time in directing the extensive operations on his timber berths, near the canyol'l, 60 miles up the Klondike river. Mr. Labbe has six timber berths covering a total of twenty miles along the Klondike river. For the last four years he has been cutting timber from the Klondike berths, and floating it each Sltmmer down the river to the mouth of Hlln­ ker and Bonanza creeks, and to Daw­ son. IIe has suppJied some of the largest contracts ever fulfilled in the Klondike. The wood is the finest grade of spruce, and is used largely between Winnipeg and Port Arthur, extensive tracts of mineral lands which he still holds. He also has valuable improved business property in Port Arthur, where his brother, Phillip Labbe, formerly of Dawson, is in the concrete business, and is a city councilman and a trustee of the gov· ernment mining school and extensive holder of property. Notwithstanding the fact Mr. Labbe's hotel was burned once in Dawson, he has gotten to tbe front again, and intends to remain here with his wife and little child. Amanda, and to keep abreast the times with the development of Dawson and Yukon. CAPTAIN MILLER'S SUCCESS. How Persistence Won in Coal Oper­ ations in Yukon-Future Bright. C APT AIN CHARLES E. MIL­ LER, of Dawsoll, who has dis­ covered and opened more coal proper­ ties in Yukon Territory than any other man, predicts that the country, as soon as adequate low cost of transporting coal is provided, will need no other fuel than coal. He says: "The splendid coal deposits of this territory arc asset:. of incalculable value. Having been raised in the great coal center of Pennsylvania, near Scranton, and managing for a time the Steetler coal mines, working lOO men on anthracite properties in Pennsylvania, I feel that I am quali­ fied to some extent to judge of coal when 1 see it. An experience of nine years in the coal center of Harriman, Tennessee, also afforded me further observations as to coal, and when 1 came to Yukon I saw, after a few years spent here in other pursuits, that coal was one of the great oppor­ tunities here, just the same as in any other part of the world." Capt. Miller located the Five Finger coal mines; the Tantall1s mines and . 1'antalllS Blltte mines, all in the vicinity of Five Fingers. George Carmack, discoverer of gold on Bon- Captain Charles E . Miller -Photo by Dudos. anza, was ' the real discoverer of coal at Five Fingers, but it remained for Miller to know the value and locate. The outcrop was in plain view to any pas erby. Miller took the property in 1900 and got it opehed. After three years he located the Tantalus, oper­ ated it two years, taking out 4,000 tons He then leased it to the White Pass Company, the present le ees. 'ext Miller located the Tantalus Butte property, two and a half miles up stream from the Tantalus. The captain, when he had determin­ ed from the conditions that such coal must be in the vicinIty, located the Butte property in five minutes after getting 011 the ground. 'l'o nim the "blossom" was an open book. Many inexperienced men had sought it there, but not knowing the blossom when they saw it, missed a great thing. The Tantalus, or second mine, has, Miller estimates, 5,000,000 tons under the water line. "The mines about Tantalus," says the captain, "contain enough coal to run every steamer, power plant, and heating plant, from kitchen stove to steam heating furnace, in Dawson and Yukon for untold years, and even with a great population which is yet un­ acquired. It now costs $2.50 to put tne coal on the barge, and it could be landed in Dawson with proper con ­ stant line of coal business throughout the sea on for $5.00 a tOil Different cumpanies in the Yukon, however, have spent three-quarters of a million dollars in coal. But I feel satisfied that since I am the only one who has gotten on successfully with large ven­ tures of the kind without capital, I will retain my interests, feeling popu­ lation will make it a great asset in time, but I may exploit fields else­ where meantime." Capt. Miller is a true Yukoner. He has his family here. He was born in Mauchchunk, Pa., in 1856, and after living in that state and Tennessee un­ til 1897, came to Dawson; built the Yukon sawmill here; later went to steamboating, running the Clara and the Reindeer, and after the burning of the Reindeer took to the coal exploit­ ation in Yukon. ----0)---- H. B. WELCH SUCCEEDS. One of the marked successes in farming in Yukon has been made by H. B. Welch, of Minto. Coming north from Los Angeles in 1898 with the great stampede, he prospected three years. With grit, backbone, muscle, he took to farming, and has forty acres in crop this year, and plans to increase the acreage yearly. He finds oats, wheat and barley develop and ripen in most seasons without frost. He says: "Wheat may never be a source of revenue, but will be valuable feed for fowls and pigs. Western rye grass is best suited of an), grass to this climate and soil. Not all land pro­ duces dry, mealy, saleable potatoes. Mine is a sandy loam that thaws deep, and produces the dryest spuds in my opinion, grown in Yukon. '1 have great hopes of success with these vegetables as a source of revenue. r have several varieties whose success is established. 1 plan to open within a year a poultry and stock farm and eventually to have the largest su~h in Yukon. I llave a vast range naturally enclosed and easy of access. Much good land is open here, and it is my intention to encourage neighbors, with hopes of having near here the first large farming community in Yukon. Tl~is is my greatest desire, my aim bemg to determine stability of farm­ ing as a livelihood. 1 have 34,000 feet ground floor of buildings, and will in­ crease largely this year. I am prepar­ ing to make a thorough test of adapt­ ability of small fruits to this climate. When the secret of wjntering them is found bush fruits particularly can be made to pay. 1 am here to prove it, if possible. Time and innumerable ex­ periments have shown me that certain things will pay, notably potatoes. The prolifiicness of vegetables in Yukon has for some time be"n established." 0)---- G. A. HATCH, FARMER. G. A. Hatch, one of the most suc­ cessful Yukon farmers, is situated on Hatch's island, in the Yukon river a mile and a half above Dawson. He bought the island in 1901. It was heavily timbered with cottonwood. He nlanted his first potatoes in 1902. The product was sour and watery. and anything but inviting. He watch­ ed the seasons and planted under a little different conditions. The sec­ ond and third year improvements were made, and so on from year to year. Mr. Hatch now produces 61 tons or more of potatoes a year. They have become acclimatized, and are large, mealy and delicious. He raises Burbanks, Early Ohios and other varieties, which equal anything raised in the States. He also raises all other vegetables, and oats. And tbe crops are bumpers every year. He raises hogs and chickens, which consume the waste farm produce, and thus gets every profit possible from his efforts. He finds a ready market in Dawson. Mr. Hatch's goods arc so well and favorably known that he is required to spend littl~ Of no time in market­ ing. "ALABAMA BILL." Fascinating Story of Bill Ansley, One of the Best Known Men of Yukon. Wm. Ansley, better known as "Ala· bama Bill," was a locomotive enginee1 on the Louisville & Nashville Railway at Birmingham, Alabama, when the Klondike gold strike startled the world. Bill got the Klondike fever, resigned his position. on the road, and accepted the managership of the "Bes­ sie Cox Gold Mining and Prospecting Company," composed of his fellow employees on the railway. Bill left for Dawson February 6, 1898, with a grl1bstake of $800. He agreed to pay his expenses into the country and to buy the grub and to remain two years. He did not know the big expense which would attach, and the $800 did not prove enough for even one year. But by holding down to a diet of pork and beans-using bacon so strong that when it was cooked it always drove him from the cabin - he pulled through as agreed in the contract. Packing his outfit of 1,500 pounds over the terrible Chilkoot Pass, Bill sledded it to Little Windy Arm, where he built a boat, and embarked May 26 for Dawson. Two men ac­ companied Bill under the same agree­ ment with the same company. They three fell in with two other men, making a party of five. Arriving at Whitehorse Rapids, all of the five but Bill refused to shoot the rapids. Bill had all the packing he wanted. Gus Mercier, another of the party, con­ cluded that he had rather die than have word go back to old "Alabam" that he showed the white feather, so he joined Bill, and they and a hired man, Pete Lorensen, took the scow through the seething waters. The Ansley party arrived at the mouth of the Stewart, and there made a serious mistake, for the time, by go­ ing up the Stewart. They spent the summer prospecting, but none of them knew the first thing about the work. Returning to the mouth of Stewart the last of August, they split their outfit. Bill gave the two others about $200 cash each, and their share of grub. Bill had managed to retain over $600 of the grubstake of $800 that each had at first. The two others left the Klondike in '99 without success. Ansley staked several good claims, btjt owing to conditions then existing, which were understood by all old timers, he says, he was unable to get them recorded. He got the name of "Alabama Bill" from the sign he hung in front of his cabin at the mouth of Bonanza the winter of 1898-99. The sign read "Alabama Point," which was two miles from Dawson and known to every Sourdough. After two years' stampeding and prospecting, Bill went to work on two below upper on Do­ minion, running one of the first steam plants on the creek, running the plant until the claim was almost worked out. He bought a roadhouse, did a big credit business, and had to sell out to pay bills in Dawson. He then went to work running a steam plant for "Spieler Kelly" on 22 below upper Do­ minion, broke but a much wiser man, and vowing never again to see! hootch, nor ever do credit business, and until this minute everything is cash both ways with Bill. When Bill got a little stake he went up White river and started a small wood camp, and hunted and bought and sold furs and such. Trave!ers on Yukon boats well remember bim, as in the fall and spring he generally had a bear or two hanging in front of Ms cabin. He killed eleven bears the spring of 1906, and while there about six years was very successful in hunting. He is in the express, transfer and wood busi­ ness in Dawson, and everyone knows his happy face, and his cheerful voice, and everyone who has dealt with ·BiIl knows he gives the best of service and prompt attention, and that "Alabama Bill" always is there with the goods. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. JAMES F. MACDONALD. J ames MacDonald, now serving the inland revenue department of the Do­ minion as inspector of weights and measures and depu.ty collector of in­ land revenue, and former mayor of Dawson, is a native of Whycocomah, Nova Scotia, where he lived until quite well along in years, and where he was connected with commercial business. He served as a municipal councillor in Inverness, his native county, for two terms. Mr. MacDon­ aId left his old home in 1903, taking a position with Geo. Munro's Sons, Publishers, New York. He made headquarters at St. Louis, and repre­ sented the firm several years, while traveling through Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska. He came to Dawson in 1899, and opened the postoffice money James J. Macdonald order department under Postmaster Hartman. He was elected alderman in 1902, and again in 1903; and mayor in 1904. Mrs. MacDonald formerly was Miss Trekell of Kansas City, Mo. Mr. MacDonald and family re ­ side in Dawson. ----0'---- ELl VERREAU. Few men in Yukon have waged their way to success in this new country with more persistence and against more daily physical obstacles than those who have won their laurels on the mail routes of the realm. The foremost of all mail carriers in the North is Eli Verreau, contractor car­ rying the Canadian and United States mails on the Dawson-Eagle route. Eli received his strenuous schooling under no less a master musher and hustler than rare old Ben Downing, long since called over the last trail to the camp of the last stampede. EH started work on the Dawson-Eagle route with Ben in 1900. He had been here then a year, and was a hand­ some, rooust young man, well fitted to the trying work. Through the summer time they carried the mail down river in canoes and skiffs, and came back on the lower river­ ers. In the fall, when the ice floes began to form, they sallied forth in their canoes until forced to take scows heavy enough to resist the crash of ice. The scows did service until the danger became too great, and by that time dog teams could be used on the newly formed rim of shore ice. The perils of late fall and late spring on the ice, and of the few periods of ex­ treme cold snaps on the Yukon are faced by these intrepid carriers with­ out hesitation. They take their lives in their hands, and the regularity with which they deliver the mails under the most trying stress of the extremes of conditions which prevail a short time each year has made them admir­ ed and honored for their work by all Yukoners. Eli in particular is known as a man who will· get there if any­ one can, and what is possible for human force to perform against Yukon odds, he is the man who ex­ emplifie:; it ill his daily work. FRED NEWMAN, GARDENER. One of the most energetic and suc­ cessful Klondike gardeners and farm­ ers is Fred, of Sunnydale, op­ posite Klondike City, and three miles above Dawson. Properly speaking, he is on · Duck island. N ewman has 14 acres under cultivation, where he has been the last five years. He has rais­ ed as high as seven tons of potatoes to the acre, and has splendid success with cabbage, carrots and other var­ ieties of vegetables. Mr. Newman well deserves the suc­ cess which has attended his efforts. In taking this island ground, he found it covered with a growth of timber which required much hard labor in clear­ ing the trees and stumps. However, the low lands along the river are dry­ est and best for gardening, and he now has a magnificent garden site, and easily reaches the Dawson mar­ Ket every morning in the open season with his boat laden with the tender­ est and freshest of garden truck. Mr. :N ewman came to Klondike from ~t. Louis, Mo. He saw that the Klon­ dike is a country which has agricul­ tural possibilities and determined that he would not let the opportunity pass of getting sure money from rich loam. Some of the potatoes raised by Mr. Newman would be prize winners as to size in any part of the world. The other vegetables he raises, as with all Yukon gardeners, are the most ten­ der in any part of the world. This is because of constant growth under the never setting midnight sun. 0---- KELL Y PLACER GROUPS. Two of the largest and most per­ sistently developed properties on Quartz are the groups of W. P. Kelly. The oldest comprises Nos. 27, 28A, 29, 30, 31, 31A and 45 below A. Mack's discovery, a total of more than half a mile of creek ground. High as $1.20 to the pan has been found on the ground. Mr. Kelly is ground sluicing on the benches. He cleaned up over $1,500 there in two months last year working alone. The ground is 18 to 27 feet deep and carries two to eight feet of grave! on the creek bottom. This group begins where the rich bench pay of Quartz creek falls into the creeks. Mr. Kelly's second group comprises Kelly's discovery and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 below on Indian, controlling the mouth of Quartz. The bar at the mouth of Quartz on this group was worked in early days. Billy Radford, discoverer of Quartz, and his partner, rocked out as high as $64 there in one day, and frequently got $5.00 or more a day to the man. Many others, including Chris Olsen, took out grubstakes there in early days. Mr. Kelly staked Kelly's location in this group, and also got the other claims two years ago, and has repre­ sented them continuously, holding them for dredging properties. He ac­ quired his first Quartz creek claims in '98. ----0---- PRETTY-PATTERSON GROUP. A. E. Pretty and N. M. Patterson have five promising bench claims on the left limit of Fortymile below Steele at the junction of Twin creek. They will take with a ditch water from Twin two miles from the mouth to hydraulic the ground. The talings will have a perpendicular drop of 250 feet. This group comprises some of the best ground in the entire Forty­ mile district. Col or! are found in the gravel from the grass roots down, as is characteristic in the Fortymile gold district. There is practically no over­ burden on the property, and the depth of gravel is as great as 60 feet. Tun­ nels and shafts are being run in the opening of the property. Work this season starts in June. The owners are well known at Dawson, their head­ quarters, and have been in the coun­ try mining for years. 35 FINE YUKON ART. Exquisite Line of Work Done in Dawson-Original Klondike Ideas. To the stranger visitincy Dawson there is no place so uni;ue and so fascinating as the art store of the Butler & Faulkner store, in the Em­ pire Block, at the corner of Queen Street and Second Avenue. In this store is gathered the finest collection o! Indian novelties, Ilyrographic de. ­ signs, moose skin and caribou skin work, and Indian baskets ever assem­ bled in Yukon. The work in this store represents the efforts of the aborigines scat­ tered across the broad Northland from the .Arctic ocean to the slopes of the PacIfic, from the Rocky Mountains to Bering Sea. It likewise represents the efforts of many white hunters and other adventurers who have contribut­ ed toward assembling here these rare works of art. The pyrographic work, done on moose skin and caribou skin is peculiarly Yukonese. Not only ar~ the burnt figures employed to heighten the beauty, but the material on which the figures are m'.lde is so designed and cut as to form fascinating lanterns, which can be illuminated with electric lig~ts; window luminaries, through wlllch the (mnlight can throw its rays in heightening the beauties of photo­ graphi~ prints placed therein; large KlondIke scenes, and other beautiful sketches done on quarters or full size skins; and in many other forms attrac­ tive to the eye. The demand for this work has spread far beyond Yukon, and many of the products of the shop, as it has been known through the present man­ agement and its predecessors for years. are to be fOl~nd in every part of this continent and also in the old world. Tourists who have visited Dawson the last few years have ob­ tained work which they have carried away with them to be shown to the great delight of their many friends, and old time Yukoners have bought liberally of the wares to send to friends or to keep as mementoes. A large and splendid collection of Yukon souvenir books, replete witk pictorial half tone sketches, afford an­ other feature of the store. Beside this the house also carries a great many of the choicest Yukon photographs ever taken. Grand panoramas, scenes along the phenomenally rich gold streams, glimpses of the beautiful modern parks, waterfront scenes and the many cosy homes of Dawson like­ wise add to the collection. The artists who have contributed most to the work are Miss Dorothy Ogbl1rn and Percy Sharpe. They have been in the Y!1kon years and have caught the spirit of the North. Miss Ogburn is a pupil of Morte Craig, famous ih Klondike as an originator of much of the attractive pyrographic work and moose skin and caribou skin luminaries which have become so not­ ed here and abroad. Since undertak­ ing the work alone she promises to distance the old master. Mr. Sharpe is an Australian who has drifted into the work from a predilection in that line. He devotes most 0f his time to mining, and is a real miner-artist. Mr. Sharpe designed the cover page for this publication. In the same block Butler & Faulk­ ner have an adjoining store, where they carry the largest line of fine cigars, tobacco and fancy confection­ ery in Dawson. They also have a good line of toys and fancy stationery, and all latest magazines and newspapers. Attached to the store they have a swell ice cream parlor. Mail orders or inquiries in respect to any of their lines receive prompt attention. HaroM W. Butler and Clare Fa111kner are the proprietors. 36 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. +.~.-+.-.~ .. ~ .. ~.+.~ .. ~ .. ~ .. -+--+ livery station is at a lower elevation than the loading station, the ropeway will be self-acting according to the d ifference in elevation, notwithstand­ ing that the buckets may have to travel to a considera ble height be­ fore reaching the down grade. These sheaves are arranged to auto­ matically distribute the pre su re equally between each onc of a given g roup. 1 AERIAL TRAMWAYS 1 · i (By C. W . Stancliffe.) t Photos Used by Courtesy of Messrs. Ropeways, Ltd., London, E. C. .. 4. The automatic action of the car­ r iers, which take on to and leave the cable at the statiol1s without allY separate coupling operations, and which, when once on the rope, can only be released by being lifted bodily off. If by any chance a car­ r ier is allowed to run along the sta­ tion by carelessncss, etc .• it simply al­ taches itself to t11e rope automatically. +.~.-*.-.. ~ .. ~ .. -.+-.. -.,,~.,,-.+,,~.,,~.+ Systems.-T hese may be divided broadly into two distinct types: I N a rough and mountainous coun­ try like British Columbia and the Yukon, it is not surprising that con­ siderable interest is being taken in the ways of simple and efficient means of transport, and of these, none offer more advantages, both in respect of cost, and maintenance than the Aerial Ropeway system. Going back to the history of aerial ropeways, we find that even the ab­ original races used a similar ar­ rangemcnt, though very primitive, and were accustomed to twist fibre strands together into a rope, and use same for hauling goods and passen­ gers across streams and ravines in places of bridges. Coming to later history we find t hat a D~ltch engineer about the year 1644 was the first to use an aerial ropeway, but as only hemp ropes w hich cannot be overcome by means of aerial ropeways, and their capa­ bilities have now been so thoroughly tested in different countries and climates, that the experimental stage is past, and they have proved their economy with regard to working ex­ penses, reliability and simplicity. Then aga in, an aerial ropeway is free from interruption by and does not interfere with traffic beneath, nor is it subject to stoppages by floods or snow, and can be run night and day. A further great advantage is that where the gradient is in favor of the load, the ropeway becomes self­ acting, not only giving off suffi­ cient power to haul up the empties but also sometimes leaving surplus energy, which can be utilised for other purposes. Provided the de- 1. That in which the loads are suspended from carriers or small trolleys runll ing along fixed cables, and drawn or controlled by a ep­ arate traction rope, or, 2. That in which a single endless constantly moving rope not only supports the load, but carries il along a lso. Each of these types d iffer in de­ tail according to the duty and kind of work to be performed. 5. The capita l representcd in t he ropes in this system is much less than ill the double ropc type, and the renewal exnenscs are rcduced to a min imum. Choice of Route.-Great Cine should be taken in determining the route to be followed. and time and expen c in this direction will be amply repaid. It is not necessary at all to find easy ground by folloi-ving contours, as intermed iate gradients, and on the rope to some extent. have no bearing on the question of power, wh ich power depends entirely on the differ­ ence of altitude between the terminals, either in favor or against. 110" .... ~~----------------------------~------------------, Wh ile the first of these systems has found much favor in Germanv and on the continent, the endles' moving rope system, as perfected by J. Pearce Roe, is not only doing all that is claimed for the first system, both in regard to t he hourly ca­ pacity and weight of illdividual loads, but also in t b e very s uccess­ ful working of long spans. and steep gradient, wh ilst being cheaper in cost, more economical in the working, and less complicated. The sites for the terminals having been fixed upon, the intervening ground should be examined, and notice taken as to any extraordinary obstacles wpich might have to be surmounted. and which would in­ crcase the cost of installillg, where a slight alteration of line would re­ sult in a big saving. Installations on Roe's system have been erected over some of the rO llghest ground, with very long steep gradients, whilst being cheaper and more economical witb capacities of over 80 tons per hour, which speaks for itself. Amongst the disadvantages of the double rope No. 1 system, as compar­ ed with the moving rope system may be mentioned: 1. Two sets of cables, making cost of renewing ropes much more, there being more ropes to replace. 2. The rail cables being fixed, are subject to uneven wear at different parts of the line, and suffer severly at elevations or ridges, whi le again, the wear is confined to the top sur­ face only, except at trestles and supports, where wear will take place underneath also. 3. The inspection, greasing etc., has to be performed by men travel­ ling on the line in carriers. 4. The existence of a sepa rate traction rope with its attendant coupling devices, involving indepen­ dent operations or mechanism for attaching them. Turning from the double rope system tp the single rope system, we find that the system is perfectly free from the above objections, and presents the advantages of: 1. An endless rope which both .• upoorts and carries the load, which is subject to even wear all round. and can readily be inspected ancl greased at the stations. 2. The employment of special saddle clips of simple construction which effectually prevents the car­ riers fram slipping 011 steep grad­ ients, and permit of the cable beillR' Rreased, by which its durability is increased. An ideal ropeway shol1ld run in an absolutely straight line from point to point, and angle stations should only be considered where absolutely necessary, though they are easily worked, but are more liable to wear. 'rhe length of a ropeway is im­ material, but when very considerable. it becomes necessary to divide it into sections, the carriers passing from one section to another by means of shunt rails. In this manner there is no breakage of bulk, the buckets travelling the whole length, and there is no limit to the length of a rope­ wav constructed in th is manner. On easy ground, undivided sec­ tions of six miles are practicable, and one of 4 1-2 mi les in length i 110W working very successfully carry­ ing 35 tons per honr. Where long lines are used, angles can be intro­ duced at the ends of the sections, g iving a larger choice of route. In the early days, large spans could 110t be negotiated, but under Roe' system. long spans are easily worked this being due to the special app ljan~es for grouping and support­ ing the sheaves, distributing the pressure on the ropes, thus avoiding undue strains. J. MONK & CO.'S ROPEWA Y, BLAINE, MONTANA-LENGTH, 750 YARDS IN ONE SPAN-BY ROPEWA YS, LIMITED. 3. Distributing the rope pressure over a series of balanced sheaves. mounted 011 those supports which have the greatest weight to sustain. The clip which is used for g-rip­ ping the rope is all invention of Roe's and with it. even the steepest grad­ ients can he easily worked, and grease or climatic conditions have no effect on the grip. nor does thc gripping have any cletrimcnt;l l effect on the rope, the action of the car­ riers, passing from the rOpe to the shunt rai1~ at the stations being perfectly automatic. As an instance of a n automatic were available, the system did not make much advance until the advent of the wire rope in the year 1834, from which time onwards they have become increasingly popular. Advantages.-The advantages of aerial rope ways are very obvious, be­ ing very apparent in the crossing of hilly and rough country, where the building of railways or roads would entail enorm01lS expense out of all p roportion to the value of the prop­ osition in hand. Fo!' the carriage of ores, mer­ chandise, shingle bolts, logs and for contractors' work in the building of bridges, etc., transportin'g the material from bank to bank it has proved its economy. Messrs. Ropeways, Ltd .. have even successfully erected a plant to pick up complete wagons with their loads, traverse, and place them on the track at the other side of a river. Another class of ropeways known as suspended cableways is also ex­ ceed ingly useful for dam construc­ tion. as well as in connection with certain kinds of qllarry work. There is scarcely allY obstacle AERIAL ROE ' S SYSTEM S ingle Endless Rope ROPEWAYS C. BUILT BY ROPEW A Y'S LIMITED, LONDON, ENG. Cheapest means of transport for mines, quarries, smelters, merchan~ dise, etc. In successful operation all over the world. Spans of over 700 yards giving every satisfaction. Traverse the very rough~ est country. Frictional Resistance reduced to a minimum by use of Special Appliances. Estimates prepared and complete installa~ tions erected. w. STANCLIFFE & COMPANY ENGINEERS AND AGENTS, VANCOUVER, B. C. Phone 844. Cable: Stancliffe, Vancouver, B. C. bAWSON DAILY NEWS. 37. 10pc\\ay, an installation 3,170 yards long convcying 40 tons per hour, with a mean grade of only 1 in 25 or 4 per cent. is automatic. \Vhere, owing to the difference in altitude between the stations much surplus power is produccd, such power can be utilised by a patent water brake, which both absorbs the power, con­ trols the speed of the line, and works automatically without attention. Trestles.-\Vhich may be either of steel or wood, are spaced according to the contour of the ground, and ad­ vantage should be taken of all points and ridges, so that the fewest number of trestlcs need be used. An average spacing of trestles is about 150 yards, but they have been in­ stalled where only 17 supports have held a line 2 1-2 miles long, while some of the pans arc 600 yards. The e long spans are a great advan­ tage, not only in the saving in ma­ terial of trestle, but in the erection and foundation. Where timber in the form of poles is cheap and plentiful, and labor cheap, it is somctimes worth while ing information will have to be given: 1. Length of proposed line. 2. How many tons have to be transported per working hour, and the number of working hours per day. 3. The nature and weight per cubic foot of the material in the state in which it would be carried. 4. As to whether individual loads must be kept to a particular weight, or arranged to suit the capacity of the line. 5. The character of the ground to be traversed, (whether flat, hilly, or mountainous). 6. Whether the ropeway can be taken in a straight line from terminal to terminal. 7. Whether the grade is for or against the load. The aproximate difference in height between the ter­ minals. 8. vVhether the loads have to be conveyed in both directions. If so the quantity each way. 9. The exact terminal require­ ments in connection with loading and 'Inloading. vVhether the stations VIEW OF LOADI1TG STATION AT PEDROLA, NEAR SARAGOSSA, SPAIIT-BUILT BY ROPEWAYS, LIMITED. building the trestles of pole timber, bllt the extra labor required for the construction of the trestles would generally amount to more than the co t of square sawn timber. Steel trestles, however, whilst slightly more costly at first, are practically oermanent, and require no upkeep and are very easy of erection, light for transporting and much time and labor is saved by their use. Loads.-The weights permissable ,·ary according to the capacities of the line with regard to spans, etc., etc. Carriers can be designed to handle the many different classes of goods, special provision being made for logs, barrels, cases, slates, tiles, ores, etc., etc. And as will be seen from the photograph the load can be diverted in any direction for unload­ ing. An automatic weighing machine can be introduced at any convenient point on the shunt rails at the sta­ tion, which will register the num­ ber of buckets as they pass, and weigh their contents, and indicate the total weights of the buckets at any time, or after the passage of a bucket. Haulage, Cost, etc.-The wear and tear on the single rope system is re­ markably small, both on the ropes as well as the other parts. This is due to the care which is taken to carry the ropes on suitable appliances which will distribute the weight uniformly. The rope wears even all round, and is not liable to local deterioration as in the case of fixed ropes. In onc case an installation hand­ ling clay was in use for eleven years, not only without renewing any part of the appliances, but also without re­ newing the rope, and its life was only terminated by the clay pits giving out. It is impossible to make an esti­ mate of cost of handlinft material by ropeway_, unless all the data, as regards contour of land, weight and kind of material to be handled, cost of labor, and capacity are known, and in order to get an estimate the follow- have to be raised, or would be on the ground Icvel. 10. What is the manner of trans­ portation carried on now, and over what distance. Also any other remarks and infor­ mation which would go to helping to make an accurate estimate. I t will readily be undertsood from the foregoing that the success of an aerial ropeway lies in the care and suitability of the design, proper dis­ tribution of trains, and the material emoloyed, for on these depend the frictional resistance of the rop· eway, which resistance is also a fair meas ­ ure of the ensuing wear and tear. In different designs of ropeways, there is large variation in self re­ sistance. Good design, properly suited to the class of material carried, and the gradient, has resulted in a se1£­ acting ropeway where the mean gradient in favor of the load on a long line was only 4 per cent. where­ as a badly designed ropeway has been observed to require ... ower to drive it when the mean gradient was as much as 16 per cent. in favor of the load. The designing of a ropeway there­ fore. is for an experienced engineer in that class of transport, and is not to be lightly undertaken by anyone as the result will only prove failure or a constant sovrce of worry and expense in upkeep and repair. The working cost of a well design­ ed ropeway will vary from just over 2 cents per ton per mile upward, every case having its own specific value, according to the load carried, grad­ ients and spans, etc., and it is imno - sible to make an accurate estimate until these points are fixed. The use of sharp ledges and points in the contour means a large sav­ ing in the number and height of the towers both in first cost of material and also foundations. Straight lines from 'point to point form the ideal road and angles should be used only where absolutely necessary, One point to be remembered in the planning of the power station is that it is not necessary to have the power station near water and fuel, as the ropeway can bring up its own supply, but of course it is better, where possible, to place the station near its own fuel supply. Here in British Columbia, we have conditions very favorable to the economical use of aerial rope ways, the simplicity, portability and light­ ne s of a well designed plant lend themselves to a country where cheap means of transport alone can solve the problem of the successful working of mines, etc., and we look to see big strides in this line in the very near future, both for mining work, and for logging, for which lat­ ter it has been successfully used. FIVE O'CLOCK TEA I FIVE O'CLOCK TEA is the most popular of all institutions adopted by English speaking people the world over; it is the hour most welcomed by all lovers of the cup that cheers. In the United States, Afternoon Tea is made a special feature by all the lead­ ing hotels. Across the Atlantic it is found in the palace and in the cottage, and there is perhaps hardly a house hold in the British Isles where it is not in use. The lumberman in Cana­ da keeps his pot of tea going through­ out the day, while the bushman in the wilds of Australia finds it a refre 'h­ illg beverage. Tea was known to the Chinese in the very early centuries, but its intro­ duction to Europe was of a much later date. 11 istory record that the lIon­ orable East I ndia Company, wi hing to pIcas' and honor thl'ir Royal Patron, King Charles the Second, pre sented to His Majesty in 1664, "2 pounds alld 2 ounces of Thea." It is also recorded that his Queen Kath­ erine of Portugal was the first to in­ troduce tea drinking as a luxurious custom with the Engli h Court; the fashion, however, was confined for many years to the aristocracy and wealthier classes, and no serious at- dian Tea is to be found in the care and method adopted in the factory, the rolling of the leaves, the baking or firing being done exclusively by machinery, thereby preserving all the essential tea-goodness and richness of favor, a method vastly superior to that which still obtains in China and Japan today of employing coolie labor for rolling the leaves between the palms of the hands. The shipments of Ceylon and In­ dian Teas last year reached the enor­ mous total of over 400 million Ibs. They have now completely beaten out Japanese tea from the European markets and are daily making great headway in the United States and Canada. The En c y c lop a e d i a Rritannica makes the following interesting state­ ment: "What is indisputable about tea drinking is that it forms an al?ree able means of imbibing the proportion of water necessary in human nutrition which being taken hot, communicates to the system a diffused warm glow. Further, as used by Western com­ munities, it is a medium of taking, in the form of sugar and cream, no in­ considerable amount of real nutri­ nlent." Its virtues have nowhere been bet­ ter summarized than by the earliest Chinese writer on the subject, Lo Tu, who says: 'It tempers the spirits and harmonizes the mind, dispel lassitu" e and relieves fatigue, awakens thought and prevents drowsine , lightens or refreshes the body, and clears the perceptive fa cui tic ." '·The gentle exhilaration which ac­ companies the moderate use of tca is not followed by the depression which succeeds the use of alcoholic stimu­ lant. Experience has proved that it sustain the frame under sc,·ere mus­ cular or mental exercise without caus­ ing subsequent exhaustion and col­ lapse. Tea is frequently found to be beneficial to sufferers fro\11 nervous headache, and it counteracts to some extent the effects of alcohol and of opiatl's." RIDG\V.\ YS TEA is uncolored an,1 un ophi ticated; it is the pure leaf picked from the finest selected trees and grown at a high altitude in Ceylon ROPEWAY AT COVADO GA, AUSTURIAS, SPAIN-THE RIAN MINES; BUILT BY ROPEWAYS, LIMITED. tempt appears to have been made un­ til 1834, when the monopoly of the East India Company was abolishcd and thc extravagant prices hitherto demanded were no longer forthcom­ ing. This opportunity was seized by Ridgway, one of the shrcwdest and ablcst merchants of his time. who ill 1836 established himself in the heart of the City of London. determined to supply tea of all grades at fair and reasonable prices. In that same Tea House RidR"ways Teas have been sold ever since, year in and year out, and have enjoyed thc highest reputation for excellence of Quality and £lavor, patronized · by Royalty, the nobility and aristocracy of Europe, and today Ridgways have the largest sale in the world of high­ grade tea. One of the reasons for the steady increase in the use of Ceylon and In- and being manufactured by machinery and untouched by hand, the fine aro­ ma. and delicate flavor is perfectly preserved. RIDGWAYS TEA is more econo­ mical than that of Japan or China, only half the quantity being required for each pot; a pound will make over 200 cups. Ridgways be t tea-H.M.ll. -"Her Majesty's Blend." the same as supplied to the late Queen Vic.toria for over 40 years, co ts per cup le s than half cent, and it is the choicest tea that is grown, unique in quality and richness of Ravor. Sold only in air tight tins and packages. Canadian offices: Vancouver, \Vill­ nipeg. U. S. A. offices: Seattle, Portland, San Francisco. Branches and agencies throughout the world. Largest sale of high-grade tea in the world. 38 D A W SON D At L Y NEW S. 9·_··_ · _ I _. _ II ..... " _ . . _.I _I _ I_I._"_. _ .. _ .. _" -'_. Q . _ .. _ ,.-' -,. _. _. _. _ .. _ . _. 1_._, ._,. _ ............. ' -'1 I DREDGING ON THE STEWART RIVER I !' _'_" _ " -"_'_" _ " _" _'_" -"-" _ '_" _ " _'- ',._, Q . _ . _ .. _..-.. - .. _. _ .. _ . . _._. __ .. _ .. -_. -..-1 Y UKON B ASIN CO. Splendid Showing is bein~ made by Big Concern-Has the Largest Dred~ing Area ill the Yukon T HE Stewart river, which for so many years, including quite a period before the discovery of gold near Dawson, has furnished grub­ stakes for the prospectors of the realm, is to be turned over this year as never before. ~..rore of the gravel will be torn from its ancient resting place and sifted for its preciolls flakes of gold in the several months of the open season of 1909 than has been handled by all the old time miners in aggregate since the first of their number thrust a shovel into tbe en­ chanted gravels. The dredges of thc Yukon 13a~in Gold DI-edging Company, Limited, having its main oiftces in Kansas City, Mo_, will turn over the great bulk of gravel Two thousand co.rds of wood were cut during the winter for dredge No. 1, and also for dredge No. 2. The first dredge operated a part of last season, and located the best pay yet known on the Stewart_ Some­ thing out of the ordinary in dredging values for any port of the world, the superintendent reports, was run into last fall toward the end of the season, and it was decided to get the dredge into the very best for111. P. B. Eteson, the dredge master, from the factory, arrived over the wintcr road this spring, and began making repairs be­ fore the ice was gone. The large force of men at the wood camp. who also act as helpers for the dredge crew, assisted in the repairs. Dredge No. 2, which was landed at White­ horse in May, was assembled there immediately for taking down the river 011 its barge, and to be towed to des­ tination. Both dredges are to be operated at Nelson Point. where some of the best ground on the Stewart is known to exist. The gravel there has been proven rich, and two drills are work­ ing with the dredge. The new dredge has five foot buckets, and a capacity of 3,000 yards a day. One additional dredge is to be placed 011 the property each year un til th ere is a total of seven. The government requires this. The first dredge has a theoretical capacity of 2,500 yards a day. So far as physical conditions arc concerned, the Stewart is an ideal dredging pro­ position. The volume of water is so large the gravels never freeze, and the dredges operate without the heavy resistance and wear and tear on dredges in some parts of the north which work in frozen ground_ The growth of timber 011 Nelson Bar has afforded a 11ne wood supply right at the dredges, and the light thin over­ burden. which is thawed, and the stumps will be washed off this sum­ mer with hydraulic force, supplied by a large steam-driven, l1igh duty, com­ pound pump. The dredges also are driven with steam, meaning, the man­ agement states, they may get in four to six weeks more time each season than the hydro-electrically driven dredges, which are .:ut off early in many places by the creek water sources freezing before the large streams close. The Yukon Gold Basin Company has 105 miles of the Stewart river from bank to bank, extending from a point 15 miles above the mouth to a point 155 miles above the mouth, which is above Fraser Falls. The total comprises 25,000 acres. The company has operated two years on its, and has ob­ tained splendid results in places, and gold in all places worked. The com­ pany has such extensive holdings on the river, that it can find suitable depths of dredging for a machine of most any size, and in this way most flexible conditions prevail as to util­ ization of a fleet of gold ships. In testing the ground, the company util­ izes keystone drills and empire drills. To operate beneath the water, the drills are placed on scows, and cas­ ing is sunk through the bottom of the scows. In tbis way the same re­ sults are obtained as though working on ground. Bedrock in places on the property is known to be as deep as 60 feet below the surface, but this easily can be worked to the bottom with long ladder dredges. The company acquired its extensive holdings through the efforts of Wm. Ogilvie, former Governor of Yukon Territory. He organized, with assist­ ance of others, and the new concern tGlOk over the ground from the original holders of the tract. who had secured it in the early days of the Klondike. Mr. Ogilvie was in the Yukon years before Klondike was struck, when he was in charge of the international boundary survey between Alaska and Canada, and it was at that time that he observed the splendid results be­ ing obtained by the prospectors on the Stewart. Many were getting win­ ter grubstakes from the hars with simple rockers, and otl1ers were tak­ ing out handsome stakes. Some got as high as $30,000 in a single year, and the Stewart became famolls far beyond the Yukon. The fact the gold was scattered so many miles along the stream aroused the greatest excite­ ment and no end of curiosity as to lts origin, Not so much gold has been found above the McQuestcu as below, and that stream is thought to have been the parent stream of the creeks originally carrying the gold. Stewart Company New Concern Holding Property on McQuesten and Stewart Rivers is Energetically at Work This Year A MONG the new mining concerns in the Yukon holding large tracts of placer property is the Stew­ art River Gold Dredging Company, Limited. incorporated last year. The company has taken over 44 miles of property 011 the Stewart river, and 30 miles on the McQueStel1, the famous gold bearing tributary of the Stewart. The area along the Stewart comprises gaps which were lying unclaimed be­ tween the holdings of the Yukon Basin Gold Dredging Company. More than 100 individual placer claims along the McQuesten river also are owned by the company. The submerged river bed holdings on the McQuesten con­ trol the situation at the mouth of that stream. The individual claims lie along the benches and beside the river, and are in what is declared by old timers in the country to be the extension of the famous white channel from which 7 he Dredger Piles 1 ,P the Washed Gravel Behind it. the millions in wealth on Bonanza and Eldorado creeks were taken. The company had planned to put a large dredge on the property this season to initiate vpcrations, but it was impossible to get a machine de­ livered at \Vhitehorse before Septem­ ber which means it cannot be gotten to the place of operation in time for service this faiL It, however, will be ready early next spring, the manage­ ment states, and there is no reason why the company should not get an early start the season of 1910. This season two drills will be oper­ ated on the McQuesten property, and the ground which is to be operated next sea on will be blocked out, and there will be no waiting when the dredge does arrive. Supt. D. A. Matheson ordered the drills for the company while he was at the factory of the Keystone Company in Penn­ sylvania last winter. IIe was. enabled to give specifications for machI11es th~t should be peculiarly fitted for work l.n the north and to arrange for theH early deli~ery. The next spring it is planned to put on tWO seven-foot dredges, and to operate them with steam but to so equip them that they can .at any time be operated with elec­ tricity, which the company hopes be­ fore two or three years have passed to generate from nearby wate.r souree~. Immediately after the openmg of thIS season the drills go to work, and the men will have the most promising bars along the river tested thoroughly. Those interested in the company who belong in Yukon say that the Mc­ Questen river will surprise them all. Joint Power Plans Stewart River and Yukon Basin Companies to Have Co-operative Service in Several R espects T HE Basin Gold Dredging Com-­ pany, Limited, and the Stewart River Gold Dredging Company, Lim­ ited, operating on Stewart and Mc· Questen rivers, have arranged for the joint erection of machine shops, foun­ dries and the like at McQuesten Post. at the mouth of the McQuesten, for the undertaking of extensive plans for the installation of a large hydro-elec­ tric power plant for lighting and driv­ ing dredges, etc., and for the building of a steamer to serve the two com panies. The Stewart River Company has a fine "tunnell" launch coming for llse on the Stewart and McQuesten this season. It is planned by the two companies to have a fine large steam­ boat designed especially for towing dredges and for shifting them from place to place. The intention is to have the steamer reitdy for service early next spring. Surveyors will be put in the field this season to determine the most feas­ ible water supply in the district for the generation of electricity. So many large streams are in the district that there is no question of finding suitable supply. Notable among the water sources of the district are the Fraser Falls and the water of Mayo, Jannet Lake, and McQuesten rivers and their tributaries. Applications already have been made for water from three sources. The two companies are entirely sep­ arate organizations, but since they op­ erate in the same large valley anu their properties are contiguous, it has been found mutually advantageous to co-operate in the organization of power, steamer and such service, and this has been arranged. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. DAWSON Yukon Territory 1898~~·Eleven Years Continued Growth~--1909 FAIRBANKS Alaska J. L. SALE Leading J eweler of the North In Both Stores our whole aim is to carry WHAT THE PEOPLE WANT GOOD GOODS AND FIRST-CLASS WORK AT THE LOWES1 PossmLE PRICES DIAMONDS-Nothing but Al stones. WATCHES-Waltham of every grade. NUGGET JEWELRY-Always something new in design. IVORY JEWELRY-Made from the Mastodon tusk. Nothing nicer for a Souvenir. Cut Glass, Hand Painted Lamoges and Haviland China, Silver Deposit, and largest stock of Sterling Silver Table or Flatware in the North. PHONE 148A J. L. SALE THE KLONDIKE MINES RAILWAY COMPANY . Operating daily trains between Dawson and Sulphur Springs and connecting with our own stages running on Sulphur, Dominion and Quartz Creeks. We operate our own freighting outfits in connection with the railway and quote passenger and freight rates to any claim on Bonanza, Eldorado, Hunker, Sulphur, Dominion, Gold Run and Quartz Creeks, or any of their tributaries. For rates or other information address E. A. MURPHY, Manager Dawson, Y.T . 39. 40 DAWSC N DAILY NEw!:t · North American Transportation & Trading Company OfflCfS: I Rookery Building, CHICAGO, ILL. Pioneer Building, SEATTLf, WASH. STEAMERS JOHNCUDAHY WILL H. ISOM CHAS. H. HAMILTON JOHN]. HEAL Y PORTUS B. WEARE T. C. POWER J. P. LIGHT EVELYN KLONDIKE STATIONS AND AGENCIES DA WSON, YUKON TERRITORY EAGLE, ALASKA CIRCLE, ALASKA F AIRBANKS, ALASKA ST. MICHAEL, ALASKA Close connections made at Dawson with White Pass All stations carry complete and up~to~date stocks of & Yukon rou~e steamers and at St. Michael with ocean groceries, flour and feed, hardware, mining machinery, steamers for Seattle and San Francisco. clothing, boots and shoes and dry goods. 1868 N. C. CO. Pioneer Traders in Alaska ·and Yukon over 40 Years 'W'HOLESALE AND RETAIL 1909 Carrying Largest, Choicest and Best Assorted Stock of GROCERIES, LIQUORS, HARDWARE and MINING IMPLEMENTS in the· North. STATIONS STEAMERS ST. MICHAEL, ALASKA SARAH, SUSIE, HANNAH ANDREAOFSKY, " LEON, ARNOLD, LINDA NULATO " LOUISE, ALICE, F.K. GUSTIN BETTLES .. KOKRINES .. ST. MICHAEL, SEATTLE TANANA .. DELTA, TACOMA HOT SPRINGS " D.R. CAMPBELL, VICTORIA FAIRBANKS " BELLA, SCHWATKA DELTA " MARGARET, IDA MAY RAMPART .. SEA TTLE, No. 3, MIL W AUKEE CHANDLAR .. FLORENCE, HERMAN CIRCLE " EAGLE " LA VELLE YOUNG, TANANA FORTY MILE, YUKON TER. KOYUKUK, ISABELLE ,\ DAWSON " " RELIANCE, METEOR. Our palatial siean:ers carrying the U. S. mail io all paris of Alaska afford ihe suresi and quickest means of travel and transportation of freight to Alaska and Yukon. Service unsurpassed. Northern Commercial Co. - DaWSOD, Y.T. " • • Bedferd McNeill and A B C Cedes, Fourth Edition. t A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. 41 P. O. Box S!;::;. YUKON SAW MILL COMPANY MACHINE WORKS AND FOUNDRY. Joseph F. Burke, Manager. Manufacturers of Native MACHINE SHOP AND FOUNDRY. SLUICE-LUMBER-FLUME These departments are completely equipped and prepared to do all kinds of heavy repair and construction work at sh0rt notice. Dredge repairs a specialty. Importers of all kinds of hard woods, Puget Sound fir and cedar, doors, sash and shingles. Office Corner Duke and First A venue, Dawson, Y. T. Mayer's "Dry Sox" No. 2102. No. 2102-Interlined with oiled silk and a layer of rubber between inner and outer soles. . Box calf BIucher, leather lined, two full soles, Goodyear welt, made hy F. Mayer Boot and Shoe Co., M ilwaukee who also manufacture a com­ p lete li ne of stylish and serviceahle foot­ wear. No. 902-Chrome tan Nome calf, 12-inch BIucher, two full soles, thoroughly vis­ colized, re-inforced shank, Goodyear welt, made in Seattle. ALASKANS need Boots and Shoes that stand the racket­ - Boots and Shoes that are as nearly waterproof as leather can be made. - And as nearly waterproof as tanners and shoe~ makers know how. You have never worn anything that fills the bill like the Washington High Top for .tough wear and the M ayer shoe for dress. These shoes are made for Western wear in Western factorie5 by Western men who have studied W estern conditions and know what's wanted. Ask your dealer for these. If he can 't supply you let us know. We'll look after you. THE WASHIN6TON SHOE MF6. CO., SEATTLE, U.S.A. Washington High Top No. 902. 4t. 1) A W SON 1) A I L Y NEW S. Wm. A. Hayward Thos. p, Scott 1909 HAYWARD & SCOTT SARG~NT & PINSKA Wholesale and Retail Produce Dealers - YUKON AND ALASKA BUSINfSS A SPECIALTY - Our Mr. Hayward has been engaged in the wholesale importing and jobbing business at Dawson since 1900, and thoroughly understands the northern demands, and how to ship the goods. He was a member of the Dawson firm of Jackson & Hayward, Dawson. Mr. Hayward has made many trips down the Yukon by scow with perishables and other freight, and over the winter road from Whitehorse to Dawson with similar goods, without m issing a year since he first entered the field. He also has traded into Fairbanks and other northern towns. Our 1I1r. Scott likewise, has been in the Yukon for years, and knows well the northern demands. We handle all produce special ties. Buy from us, and be sure you have your order in experienced hands. PHONE 2579 117 Water Street - Vancouver, B. C. A. P. RENZONI Direct Importer of DnAMONDS And Nugget Ware a Specially. Mail Orders Given Prompt Attention. First Avenue P. o. Box 19 THf PIONffRS - THf LfADfRS ~~Men's~~ 1 Outfitters DAWSON, Y.T., CANADA FAIRBANKS, ALASKA I:stablished 1898 I:stablished 1904 Phone 78. [STABlISHW 1898 P.O. Box 63 -FURNITURE A most complete line of fu rniture including pianos, organs, crock­ ery, carpets, dra.peries, bedding, pictures, officefurniture, etc. FRANK LOW The House Furnisher DAWSON, Y.T. FRANK LO'tV FUNERAL DIRECTOR Office and Parlors - Second Ave. DAWSON, Y .T . DAWSON DAILY N E WS. Scougale Mercantile Company LARGEST DISTRIBUTERS IN NORTH OF General Dry Goods Carpets Linoleums lIousefurnishings Shoes BUYERS OF RAW FURS - SCOUGALE MERCANTILE co. Second A venue DA WSON, Y. T. - K. T. M. CO. The Pioneer Machinery House of the Yukon Territory (Established 1908.) K . T. M. Co's Specialties are recognised as the standard of the Territory. Some of them are Scotch Marine, Return Flue, Water Back, Boilers. Light Prospecting Boilers, Automatic Self Dumper, Nippleless Thawing Points. Special brand of Steam Hose, Grooved Friction Hoists. The Miner or P rospect or can be certain of getting just what he requires, as only those goods, that have proven themselves to be the m ost suitable for work required of them, are carried in stock. Prices lowest possible consistent with quality. Manu­ facturers of FLUME HOSE, TENTS, TARPAULINS and anything in the canvas line. Full line of the very best grade of American Seamless Hydraulic Hose carried in stock. Information of the products of the following firms, will be gladly furnished upon request: American Hoist & Derrick Co., Bucyrus Steam Shovel Co., Ferro Gas Engine Co., Ingersoll Band Co., Lidger­ wood Mfg. Co. Marion Steam Shovel Co., Snider Hughes Pump Co., Star Drilling Machine Co., Allis Chalmers, A. B. Farquhar. Gould Pump Co., Keystone Drill Co., Nagle Engine & Boiler Works, Mullins Steel Boats, Sparta Iron Works. KLONDIKE THAWING MACHINE CO. Third Ave., Dawson, Y.T. SINCE '98 The Old Town! T he Old Place I The Old People! The Regina Hotel G. N. HARTLEY, Lessee. DA'W'SON - YUKON Cafe Open Day and Night. The Year Round. 'Phone 36 Second A venue Dawson Hardware Company Limited Dealers in builders' hardware, machinists', black .. smiths' and carpenlers' lools; bar iron and sheel steel; pipe, pipe fillings and brass goods, dynamite fuse and caps; doors, window sash and glass; ranges, sloves and granite Ware. PRICES ON APPLICATION DAWSON Y.T. 4 3 44. ! AWSON DAILY NEWS. !Incorporated under the laws of Yukon Territory. R. A. LANPHIER ............................... Secretary Treasurer J. H. McKINNON ....... : .. .. ... ................. . ... Vice President ' J. G. RIVERS ... .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. President CAPITAL STOCK $25,000.00 YUKON TRANSFER ~OMPANY LlMIHD Phone 9B. TRADE MARK P.O. Box 213 THIS COMPANY is the only one of the kind in the Yukon Territory, and is fully equipped to handle a gen­ eral Transfer and Storage business. OUR ROLLING and LIVE STOCK is the most up­ to-date, and the best in every respect that can be obtained. WE OPERATE Warm and Cold Storage warehouses and care for Freigh t Consignments, either ordinary or perishables in an efficient manner, making collections and remittances on delivery of goods, if so instructed by shippers. BAGGAGE to and from Railway and Dock under check with three days free storage. Address all communications to Yukon Transfer Company Ltd. Dawson, Y.T., Canada Stanley Scearce. Stanley Scearce 1898-1909 Yukon's Oldest Established Independent Grocer All merchandise subject to deteriora~ tion by elements stored in modern frost~ proof, fire~proof, two~story brick ware~ house. The only one of its kind north of Vancouver. My superior facilities enable me to supply large operators their requirements the year round with a maximum of qual~ ity and a minimum of cost. Estimates furnished and contracts entered into when desired. STANLEY SCEARCE DAWSON, Y.T. Dawson's Leading Wholesale and Retail Grocery. SUCCESS Often has begun with a new suit of clothes. You cannot expect business success if you are poorly dressed. Yet it is not neces­ sary to spend a lot of money on your wearing apparel in or­ der to be welI dressed. You may not know it but it's a fact that the best dressed men ill this city buy their clothes of us. We offer special values this season. Prices range from $12.50 to $45.00. HERSHBERG & CO. 135 First Avenue DA WSON, Y. T. SHAW & SPENC~ Wholesale and Retail Merchants DAWSON Direct Importers Miners' Supplies of Every Description STORES AT , fiRANVILLE SULPHUR YUKON TERRITORY .. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. Vegetables and Flowers All kinds of native grown vegetables, delivered at your door on short notice. Six large green houses and nearly 70 acres under cul­ tivation. Plants for gardening purposes. I am prepared to furnish Dawson and tbe surrounding country with fresh vegetables. Flowers and plants at all seasons. I raise radishes, lettuce, onions, rhubarb, beets, turnips, celery, cucumbers, tomatoes, parsnips, cabbage, cauli­ flower, roses, plants, cutflowers, and in fact any vegetable or cut flower that will grow in the N orthland. I wholesale as well as retail. Creek or down or up rive'r orders receive prompt attention. Goods packed properly for shipment and delivered aboard stage or train or steamboat. Either winter goods, fresh goods, plants or cut flowers will • be shipped anywhere on telephone, telegraph or letter order. The Canadian Bank of Commerce I .. Head Office, TORONTO, ONT. Paid up Capital, $10,000,000. Reserve Fund, $6,000,000. B. E. WALKER, President. A. LAIRD, General Manager. A General Banking Business Transacted. Prompt Attention Given lo Collections. "W'. S. PADDOCK, Dawson Dawson Branch D. M. SANSON, Manager Oak Hall Clothing Co. Pioneer Poultry Ranch MEN'S CLOTHING DAWSON AND FURNISHINGS Miners' outfitting, etc. Fit-Rite clothing; "Invictus" shoes, Geo. (\. Slater's "Haggar" shoes. It is absolutely impossible to make better shoes than these. It's just as impossible to make better clothes than Fit-Rite. That's why we do "'\ better business each succeeding year. OAK HALL - Dawson, Y.T. DANIEL KEARNEY Men's Furnishing Goods Outfitting for Miners a Specialty Second Avenue, Dawson Deals in Fancy Pcultry and Ducks-Fresh Laid Eggs a Specialty. All kinds of vegetables, Cucumbers, Lettuce, Radishes, Spuds, Cabbage, Carrots, Turnips, Parsnios, etc. w. J. ANSTETT, Prop. YUK N HOT~L Pioneer Holel of DauJson. Firsl~class Accommodatior.s. All Old Timers Stay Here . . First Avenue, Between Church and Harper. THE CnTY BAKERY J.W.Murphy. D. W. Murray A. O. Palm. Prop. M urphy & M urray Wholesale and Retail Bread, Pies, Elc. Cakes a Specially. Banquels and all Kinds of Socials Served. Ice Cream Served Daily and Made lo Order. PHONE l07-A 109 Second Avenue DAWSON, Y.T. HORSESHOERS AND GENERAL BLACK~ SMITHS; WAGON REPAIRING Business from Creeks Especially Solicited. Bucket, Peint and Pick Work a Specialty. Only First-class Men Employed. All Work Guar­ anteed. Positively One Price to All. Two Shops: 314 Third Avenue, Clle Door South of Yukon Stables; and at Corner Third Avenue and Princess. Telephone 201B. Capital Stock $80,000.00. M. Jaccbsgaard, Mgr. Da'Wson Trading Co. Ltd. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL COMMISSION ~AERCHANTS. Provisions Hay Grain Seed OUlfitting Our Specially. Your Trade Wallted. Satisfaction Guarantee:!. The New Store, with New Goods and New PriceJ. DAWSON, Y.T. 45 D. DeLAGRAV~, Tailoring Establishment, Queen St., DAWSON 46 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. ELDORADO BOTTLlN6 · WORKS W. P. Bray ton, Prop. Importer and Manufacturer of Mineral Water and Soft Drinks Box 697. DAWSON Phone 748. J. T. ROSMAN HARDWARE AND SPORTING GOODS ~UNS AND AMMUNITIO N BUILDERS' HARDWARE FISHING T A CKL E SASH AN D DOORS BASE BALL GOODS GLASS CUTLE R Y CROCKER Y Pipe Fittings, Pumps, Engines, Paroid Roofing, Fire and Water Proof Agents for A. G. Spalding & Bro. 124 Third Ave. DAWSON 'Phone 145 . (Established 1900.) J.E.LILLY & CO. Dawson, Y.T. TH~ BANK Of BRITISH NORTH AM~RICA Established in 1836. Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1840. PAID. UP CAPITAL .......................... $4,866,666.67 RESERVE FUND ............. ............ . .. 2,433,333,33 Head Office .. . .... . ............... 5 Gracechurch Street, London, E. C. A. G. W ALLIS, Secretary. W . S. GOLDBY, Manager. HEAD OFFICE IN CANADA, St. James Street, MONTREAL, P. Q. H . STIKEMAN, General Manager. Dawson Branch-Corner Second Ave. and Queen St. E. O. FINLAISON, Manager. CROSSAN SODERBERG THE OLDEST AND BEST APPOINTED CAFE IN THE CITY ARCADE OPEN DAY AND NIGHT Banquets and Box Parties a Specially. Opposite While Pass Steamer Landing, Dawson . WHEN IN DA WSON . Stop at The Westminster Hotel F. w. VINNICOMBE, Prop. ALL LINES SUPPLIED DISTANT POINTS Newly Furnished Rooms 50 Cents and Up No Bar. Our Motto: "Best Goods and Lowest Prices." 314 Third Avenue South DAWSON Oliver DeLisle, Henry Pope DAWSON SHEET METAL WORKS Iron, Tin Roofing, Hydrau­ lic Pipe, Furnaces and Air­ tight Stoves. 113 Second Ave. DAWSON 'Phone 244A. YOUR CHOICE OF TWO PLACES Klondi' ke Hotel Prospector Hotel Harper St. and First Ave. First Ave. Near Queen Forty~three Rooms. Thirly~seven Rooms Total Eighty Rooms OLUF OLSON, Proprietor of Both Places Near Railway and DAWSON Steamer Landings. CRlBBS, The Druggist c. S. PH/LP General Dry Goods Boots and Shoes . SECOND AVE., DA WSON, Y. Ts A. 'UT. H. SMITH CustODl House AND Mining Broker Agent: Independent Dock, Side Stream Navigation Co. Dawson SA VES YOU MONEY ON EVERY PURCHASE DAWSON DAWSON DAILY NEWS. 47 DAWSON PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY --. LAWYEJiS --- PHOTOGRAPHERS McDougall & McPeake BARRISTERS DAWSON COLLECTIONS A SPECIALTY. Also Mining Law. If you want advice as to the law of the Yukon, come or write to fRANK J. STACPOOLE DAWSON, Y. T. Barrister, Solicitor, Notary Public, Conveyancer, Commissioner for Tak­ ing Affidavits, Etc., Etc. Solicitor for Canadian Bank of Commerce; North American Trans­ portation & Trading Company; the Sheriff of the Yukon Territory; Cana­ dian Klondike Mining Cc..mpany; Yukon Transfer Company; J. C. Mur­ ray Company, wholesale liquors; W. M. Cribbs, next P. 0.; John Griffith, the Clothier, Second Avenue. Write me re White River Copper and Quartz in general. P. O. Box 941. Telephone 40 c. w. c. TABOR BARRISTER, SOLICITOR, NOTARY PUBLIC CONVEYANCER Offices, Queen St. and Second Ave. o A W SON, Y. T. f T C d J. E. N. DUCLOS ong on Only Photo~raphec in. the Klondike • • Makmg a Speclalty of K. C. Portrait Work BARRIST~R DA WSON YUKON TERRITORY. Supplies and Developing for Ama­ teurs-Fine line of Views of Chilkoot, Yukon, Dawson and Creek Scenes taken in '98--Thousands of Negatives in stock from the old establishment of Larss & Duclos. Get your work done by Duclos and be sure you have the service of an expert. ----------------------------4 E. O. Ellingsen COMMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHER Creek and Mining Views a Specialty -All kinds of Photographic Work to order-Views and Post Cards, Plates, Papers, Finishing for Ama teurs- Kodak Films, Enlarging. Third Ave., next Third Avenue Hotel. P.O. 'Box 584. Dawson. 'Phone 176X Call on or Write R. L. PATTULLO JERRY DOODY ASHBAUGH & TOBIN Klondike's Premier View Photographer BARRISTER DAWSON BARRISTERS, SOLICITORS 'Conveyancers, Notaries, Etc. Yukon Views a Specialty-Contracts and Estimates for Any Class of Work -Over 4000 Northern Negatives in Stock, Including Those of Chilkoot and Yukon Scenes of '98. Henry S. Tobin; J. B. Pattullo, K. C., 0 A W SON, Y. T. Crown Prosecutor. Cable Address: "Patob." ADAM§& COo '~ntngrap~trn Codes: Bedford, McNeil1; Western Portraits in All Sizes-Views of the Union. DAWSON YUKON TERRITORY l{londike-Amateur Finishing-Burn­ ed Leather Work of All Kinds. 128 Second A venue, Craig's Old Stand DAWSON, Y. T. E N GIN E E R S Mail Orders Receive Prompt Attention J · P. S M IT H J. Langlois Bell, L.L.B·I=v.,r=.=J=.=R=e=n=d=e1=ll Wo~~~~oPi:~tk~cilLa~~ydlL' Y BARRISTER, SOLICITOR, BARRISTER, SOLICITOR l! ~ ~ NOTARY, ETC. AND NOTARY PUBLIC. 'Phone 207B. N. C. Co. Office Building. D A W SON, Y .. T. o A W SON, Y. T CIVIL AND MINING ENGINEER. Reports on Mining and Power Propositions. o A W SON, Y. T. PHOTOGRAPHER OLD-TIME PHOTOGRAPHS OF KLONDIKE Views and Post Cards; Scenes in Early Days of Dawson, Yukon River and the Creeks. RADFORD, YUKON TERRITORY Outside Address: Yountvme, Napa County, California. John Black George Black Henry Bleecker M. B. O'Dellr--------------Ir-============-1 BLAtK & BLAtK BLEEtKER & O'OELL c. S. :;':~~~ELL fiAKRETT ~. fi •. ~YKKn~ BARRISTERS, SOLICITORS, ETC. Graduate In CIvIl Engl- BARRISTERS, SOLICITORS NOTARIES, ETC. DA.WSON, Y. T. Offices B. N. A. Bank Building, Queen Street. DA WSON, Y. T. SURVEYOR, MINING AND neenng, Dublin University. CIV!L ENGINEER. Reports on Placer Propositions. DA WSON, Y. T. P. O. BOX 749. o A W S '0 N, Y. T. 48. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. DA WSON DRUGS and 326SixthAve.s~HE 'Phone3SY CROCKERY, HOTEL '-, . SUNDRIES DAWSO. N GREENHOUSE AND RESTAURANT WARE A WHOLESALE AND RETAIL CHAS. H. PADDOCK PROPRIETOR. Fresh Vegetables Cut Flowers Potted P:an~~ Floral Designs to Order. Orders from the crceks carefully fille ~!, DA WSO~. y, T, The Only Place in Dawson Where They Carry a Complete Stock. T. P. CONLIN AV AVE AVER AVERY AVER Y'S GROCERY AVERY'S AVERY AVER AVE AV CREEK ORDERS A SPECIAL TY Two Stores: Jli ~i It J Ill: HOTEL NORTHERN ff~l](rij~ OWL DRUG STORE 'Phone 222X RED CROSS A 'Phone 222B. Headquarters for Souvenir Post Cards and View Books of the KLONDIKE fiOLDFIELDS Curios and Novelties, Glass, China and Crockery The Japanese Bazaar S. KAWAKAMI. Second Avenue, Dawson, Y. T. Second Avenue, Dawson, Y. T. Y. KA W AKAMI, Proprietor. . Gibson Bros. o A W SON. Y. T. P. O. Box 587. Best place in the city to stop. 1 ____________ .t---__________ I-_l\_la_il_O_r_d_er_s_P_ro_m_p_t_lY_F_ i_l1e_d_. -I Furnished rooms 50 cents up. Best DAWSON meals in town. HUXFORD'S Dawson Milk Dairy Get The VARIETY STORE Atwood Idea Only hotel and cafe in Dawson Fresh Milk and Cream . DA WSON. Y. T . . D 1 · d D '1 In House DecoratIons running since '98 with same proprietor e lvere al y. __ and at same place. Wall Paper and Paints, HARDWARE, CROCKERY, GUNS Finest Herd cf Cows in the Yukon. AND AMMUNITION. Do You Believe in Signs? MIKADO LAUNDRY Fishing Tackle, Paints and Oils, Toys W. H. ELLIOTT, Prop. We Paint 'em. I and Stationery. Musical Instruments, Toilet Articles, Office 512 Second Avcnue North. THE A TWOOD SHOP 1----- ------ Clocks, Jewelry. P. O. Box 616. 'Phone 156A Second Avenue Dawson, Y. T. l ____________ I ____________ .I-___________ IBaths and Lodging House-Porcelain Tl.Ibs-Everything Clean. Perkins & Sharon 1895-Fourteen Years in Yukon-1909 Established 1899. , Ho E. Peter G. S. Churchward Creek orders receive prompt atten­ tion Special rates for large orders. Get our figures. Established 1900. GROCERIES AND THE PIOXEER JEWELER TIN SHOP For Nugget and Mastodcn Ivory PROVISIONS • Jewelry. Ranges and Stoves for Prospectors, MINERS OUTFITTED Watches, Clocks, Souvenir Spoens Sterling Silver Toilet Sets. SPECIAL CARE GIVE~ TO :::ighth and Bridge Streets, Near WATCH REPAIRING ::1cndikc Bridge. Dawson, Y. T. ]11 Queen Street, DA\VSO_ , Y. T. Miners, Hotels and Camps-Job Wcrk a Specialty. Second Avenuc, ncar N. A. T. & T. DAWSO~, Y T, GEO. G. OMURA PROPRIETOR 220 Second Ave .• Dawson. Phone 57A. SPANISH RE~TAU~ANT Daniel Coates The Kenwood ~:::t~':re~f;:~~ Ge:lUIn.e Spamsh Dishes HEAVY TEAMING FIRST ~ CLASS 0. Spec~alty-Always the AND EXPRESS WORK ROOMS AND BOARD All kinds of Bread, Pies: Cakes. We Be s tIn the M ark e t. serve the best coffee 10 Dawson. orders get prompt attention. ADAM RYSTOGI, Prop. DAWSO~. Y. T. From Trains and Boats. PIANO MOVING A SPECIALTY. Old established stand. Creek Best Meals in Dawson Are SIGNOR E P LOPE? Served Here. Two Blocks - ' .• ~, Office; Hutch's Stable, Third AYcnllc. PROPRIETOR. KLONDIKE CITY, Alaska. Telephonc 195. Dry Wood for Sale York Se and Third Ave. DAWSO~ Second Ave., near King St. Dawson. PIONEER SALOON w. H. L Y, ON PRESSING, CLEANING TOWNSEND'S GREENHOUSE AND REP AIRING CUT FLOWERS AND Geo. B. Sato, Prop. P.O. Box 9. Columbia Lodging House First Avenue, Dawson, Opposite Fire Hall FOR LADIES AND GEN'l'S. ROSES A SPECIAL TY BEST PLACE FOR TIlE MONEY All Work First Class. Prompt Prices 25 and 50 cents. Only Best Stock Carried. Attention Given to Creek Orders. x Great Reduction for Week or Month. King Street and SCC'()l1d \1"( l1l1e ED. STROM. D.\ WSO)J, Y. T. Eighth Ave., Dl\. WSO~. 'Phone 213. 124 Seccnd Ave. DAWSON, Y.T. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. 49 Telephcne 61B. P. O. Box 444. JAPANESE EMPLOYMENT OFfiCE Boarding and Lodging House. JOE W. SAKATA. 309 Second Ave. S. DAWSON. Ryan's Harness Shop Horse Blankets, Robes, Furnishings. First Class Work Promptly Executed. P. J. RYAN, Prop. Harness Making, Repair~ ing and Supplies. WE ARE ITVISITORS to the A. Y. P. E. 1067 Richards Street. CROSS & Phone 495. FOR We welcome you to our store. CO Make your headquarters with us. We will entertain you with the kind • of music that you like to hear, and make you feel at home. We carry the largest stock of Vi ;­ tor goods in the Northwest. We are obliged to, for we wholesale as well as retail. 228 Third Avenue, Dawson, Y. T. Soda W t Our piano line is the finest that _____________ \. _____________ \ a er money can buy. J. G. Purden Architect and Builder Plans Furnished for All Kinds of Work. Fourth and Church Streets, DAWSON. SAM'S EXPRESS AND Wood Yard Get My Prices on Orders for Wood for Creeks. M. s. AUNGER, Prop.; Office at Frank Lowe's. DA WSON, Y. T. 'Phone 78-A PALE DRY AROMATIC GINGER ALE, BREWED STONE GINGER Stein way, Everett, A. B. Chase, Emerson, Estey, Ludwig, Etc. BEER, AND ALL KINDS OF ~t!.r. . ... FINELY FLAVORED FRUIT ~~-.JI1!ilfb DRINKS. -----.."" 1406 Second Avenue, Seattle. WE PRIDE OURSELVES ON CLEANLINESS AND THE PUR- Our other stores: Portland, Spokalle, ITY OF OUR PRODUCTS. AN Tacoma, Bellingham, Everett, North INSPECTION OF OUR FAC- Yakima, Wenatcllee, Boise, San TORY IS INVITED. Francisco, Oaklallcl, Los Angeles ancl other California cities. G t King Edward Fruit W. W. GILMOUR ran and Candy Store & CO. Established 1902. Pick's Express James Day and Night Service. WOOD FOR SALE Headquarters Yukon Stables, Dawson Telephone 165. Painter, PaperHanger Artistic Decorator. and Creek Orders Receive Prompt Attention. Store and Shop, Second Ave., Dawson Cigars, Tobaccos, News~ papers, Writing Paper; Home~made Candy, Soft Drinks, fine Confectionery James and George, Props. Dawson. YACHT, LAUNCH and BOAT BUILDERS FITTING OUT A SPECIALTY. NORTH Y ANCOUVER, B. C. MORTEN JORfiENSEN Estimates Give~~i~~;~e Building and P. E. KERN ,N~W OPEN PIONEER T AILOR- M. MURRA Y .MANUFi\CTURER OF NUGGET C® Cllll H(Q)tt®ll JEWELRY F uB line of Scotch and CARPENTER AND DE I Dealer In English Cloth for Ladies BUlL R Alaska Souvenirs and Curios of John McDade, Proprietor. Hotel new and modern throughout. all American plan $1.50 to $2 per day. and Gentlemen's Garments STORES AND OFFICES FITTED Kinds. European plan, $1 per day and up. Pool room and barber shop in con­ nection. Cafe and bar first-class in every way. 1326 Granville street, Van­ couver, B. C. . Always on Hand. UP, CABINET WORK, ETC. Second Avenue, Dawson. Third Avenue. Dawson Y.T. Near Postofflce ' T lL 0 0 .a. n Rooms by Day, Week or Month. . Jrn e rll eR1lI!.@l Beds, 50 cents and up. Sk Y.-T Building, Second Avenue Dawson. The Wonder of Tourists. Makes a specialty of Original De­ signs in Hand Embroidered Silk and Linen Gowns, Coats, Blouses, Kim­ onas, Beautiful Lingerie and an un- surpassed line in needle work. Also the only store carrying the latest New York Fashions in Feminine Apparel. Stone's Hotel MRS. B. STONE, PROPRIETRESS. Second Avenue, near Princess St. Dawson. King Edward B. M. Simpson, Restaurant SHOE MAKER PETE ]ELICH, Prop. All K' d f R ' , __ m s 0 cpamng- Open Day and Night. Best Meals m Dawson. King Street. Dawson. Creek Work a Specially 234 Third Avenue, near Princess, Dawson. Send for Catalogue. SKAGWA Y, ALASKA. WASHINfiTON PIPE AND FOUNDRY COMPANY ' LARGEST PLANT OF ITS KIND IN THE WORLD MANUFACTURERS OF MACHINE BANDED WOODEN ST AYE AND CONTINUOUS ST A YE PRES~ SURE AND CONDUIT PIPE For Waterworks 'Systems, Irrigation, Domestic Water Supply, Power Plants, Fire Protection for Cities, Dredge Work, Towns, Mills and Manufacturing Plants Hydraulic Mining and Salt Water Mains. INSULATED WIRE CONDUITS, SPECIAL PIPE FOR MINES, WOODEN TANKS AND TOWER;:; FOR ALL PURPOSES. 'I Steam Pipe Casings. - Office, Factory and Works: 1512 to 1620 Center Street and 3001 to 3019 Asot'in Street, TACOMA, WASHINGTON, U. S. A. • DAWSON DAlLY' N~WS. THE DUBLIN One of the Largest Hydraulic Tracts in the Yukon-Splendid Property in Upper Stewart District Being Developed. T HE Dublin Hydraulics, Limited, is doing more extensive devel­ opment and prospecting work on its properties on Dublin Gulch, in the upper Stewart country, this season than ever before. V. V. Blodgett, the superintendent, who is one of the most experienced hydraulic experts in the North, left Dawson in April, and has charge of the work from be­ ginning to end. A number of men were engaged by him as soon as the make it an ideal hydraulic proposi­ tion. The tract is three and a quarter miles long, extending from the mouth of the gulch up, and taking in every­ thing for the width of a mile with the exception of 2500 feet owned by Jack Suttles, and on which the com­ pany has an option. The company has a grant to 1000 inches of water to be taken from Hag­ gert creek four and one-half miles Hydraulicing Scene on Dublin Gulch. A Clean-up on Dublin Gulch. snow melted, and the directors of the company hope to have the most pleas­ ing results to report at the end of this season. On one of the last steamers going up the Stewart river last fall, the peo­ ple interested forwarded a thousand feet of ten-inch hydraulic pipe, lum­ ber, camp outfit, horse feed and the like for the season of 1909, and dur­ ing the winter the consignment was freighted from Mayo landing to the gulch on sleighs. Dublin Gulch has been worked more or less the last ten years. Only primitive methods have been used, but good results have been obtained, al­ though the work has amounted to scarcely more than prospecting. The large area of gravel and the splendid situation of the tract, together with no end of water and a heavy grade, above the mouth of Dublin. The ditch to convey this water will be less than four miles long. Work will be begun on the big ditch this season, and it is expected to have it com­ pleted by September. At the lower end of the gulch, where the hydraulic work is to be done, there will be a head of 600 feet, which two miles up will be reduced to about 100. The gulch has a grade of about seven per cent. on the lower end, increasing rapidly as it is ascended, thus afford­ ing ample fall for hydraulic work. Over the area of 2200 acres in the tract there is little or no overburden or muck. Moss and scrubby trees comprise the only overburden. Bedrock ranges from eight to 22 feet below the surface, and is soft. The gravel comprises small granite boulders and angular fragments of schist. More than 40 holes have been sunk on the property, and there is an open cut 400 feet wide and about the the same length, l'epresenting the work done the last three years by lay­ men, McIntosh, Anderson and Tom Heney, who took out an average of 75 cents to the cubic yard last year. At the mouth of Dublin is the dis­ covery claim of Haggert creek, and it is noteworthy that only one or two claims exist on Haggert above Dub- canvas hose and a two-inch nozzle, under a pressure of 50 feet, and an average of $1.40 to the cubic yard was cleaned up. This was not a fair test, as bedrock was supposed to have been cleaned, but afterward in washing ten pans of this bedrock 90 cents was re­ covered. During the summer of 1908 an open cut was worked by laymen and about 6,750 cubic yards was moved by a two-inch nozzle, with six-inch canvas hose. The total sum cleaned Ground Sluicing on Dublin Gulch. Prospecting Scene on Dublin Gulch. lino Haggert is the foremost creek among the small operators in the up­ per Stewart district just now, and they doubtless would have staked Dublin together with Haggen in their rush last fall had it not been for the fact that Dublin already was held by the company. The splendid pay located on Haggert, told of elsewhere in this edition, argues the fact the gold there must have come out of Duplin. The values found in prospecting the creek are established as running from 75 cents to $4.50 a cubic yard for a width of 400 feet and good values for hydraulic purposes have been found a distance of two miles along the gulch. During the season of 1900, claim No. 6 was worked by two men who aver­ aged $4.50 a cubic yard. They took out $350 in ten days during 1906, min­ ing in a crude manner with a siJt-inch up for the season was $4,400, about 75 cents to the cubic yard. The water supply on Dublin Gulch is equal to the very best in the entire placer grounds of the Yukon. Be­ cause of the springs which run con­ tinuously throughout the year, no part of the creek bed is frozen. The main water supply IS from Haggert, and will be brought through the big ditch already referred to in this article. Prospectors and miners have been on Dublin Gulch continuously since 1898. The prospects they found have kept them enamoured of the locality, but they have worked in crude manner and under great difficulties. This was chiefly because of the great distance from the seat of supplies. In the early days when there was no steam­ boating they had to spend most of the winter getting in their necessities, DAWSON DAILY NEWS. The Pacific Cold Storage Co. Dealers in Live Stock, Fresh Killed, Frozen Meats, Poultry, Eggs, Butter and all Perishable Products. Main Office: T acorna, Washington. Glasgow Office: 26 Bothwell Street. Packers and Dealers in The The Cold Storage Plants at T acoma, Washington; Nome, St. Michael and F airbanks, Alaska; Dawson, Y. T. Frozen, Mild-Cured, Pickled and Canned Cannery and Fish~Freezing Plant, Taku, Alaska. Owners and Operators of Refrigerator Steamers "Elihu Thom~ son" and "Robed Kerr"-Refrigerator Barges "D h' W " "M'N b" "T . d " as mg ave, a , rm er Cargoes for the Philippine and Alaska Trade a specially Rates for Storage Furnished to Dealers in Goods Requiring Re~ frigeration Upon Application. Wire us for Prices on Frozen Salmon, Using the Western Union Code. Contraels Made to Supply Beef, Mulion, Pork, Poultry and Other Meat Produels to Operators in the Principal Mining Camps of Alaska and Yukon Territory. Salmon. Dawson Dawson Daily News and Vtleekly News Yukon's Pioneer Paper---Covers the North REACHES EVERY HOME AND BUSINESS. OLDEST AND BEST KNOWN PAPER OF YUKON OR ALASKA-READ AND APPRECIATED IN BOTH TERRITORIES READ IN EVERY CABIN ON EVERY CREEK IN KLONDIKE CIRCULATES IN EVERY PORTION OF THE GOLDEN NORTH K!ondikers Have the Gold-They Live on the Best the World Produces-They Wear the Best Goods Made ~ T hey Make T heir Money to Spend or Invest and They are the Best Citizens of the Continent. If you contemplate coming North or investing in this re~ ~ion, subscribe to the News and·keep in touch. Be Abreast with Northern Progress. If you think you may want to subscribe or advertise, send for Sample Copies of the paper. Your name and address on a postal is sufficient. Our carriers and mail conneelions cover hundreds of miles North and South weekly in creek service. M anufaelurers and Makers of M erilorious Goods Cannot With Profit Ignore this Field-Create a Market Among the Virile People of Yukon and Alaska by Advertising to the Thousands Who Read the Daily News and the Weekly News. We also publish the Yukon World and Official Gazette of Yukon Territory and have the heaviest and finest line of job stock in Yukon and magnificent print~ ing plant, including Mergenthaler typesetting machines, etc., all electrically driven. The Dawson News Publishing Company, Ltd. DAWSON, YUKON TERRITORY 51 52 D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. Canada's Famous Yukon Territory ... Within the last quarter of a century the mineral output of Canada has totalled over $1,000,000,000. In 12 years Canada' s Yukon gold field alone produced more than $125,000,000; this field-200,000 square miles in extent-has scarcely been touched yet and, with the recent investment of capital in improved machinery, etc" the future is big with promise of larger returns. The Mining Regulations are briefly: QUARTZ-A person eighteen years of age and over having made a discovery may locate a claim 1500 feet by 1500 feet. Fee, $5.00. At least $100 must be expended on the claim each year, or paid to the Mining Recorder. When $500 has been expanded or paid and other requirements complied with, the claim may be purchased at $1.00 an acre. Placer Mining Creek Claims, 500x2000 feet. Other than creek claims, 500xlOoo feet. Grant for one year $10.00. D REDGING-Two leases of five miles each of a river may be issued to one app licant for a term of twenty years. Rental $10 a mile per annum. Royalty, 2~ per cent. after the output exceeds $10,000. 'But Canada's wealth is not an in the mines: In the great western provinces are millions of acres of FREE, rich, arable land awaiting the arrival of the settler. Land that will produce crops of grain and fruit unexcelled on the North American Continent. A letter or postal card addressed to The Superintendent 0/ Immigration, OUawa, Canada, will bring to your door, free of charge, an illustrated pamphlet giving full par~ ticulars. T . DUFFERIN PATTULLO W. G. RADFORD Pattullo & Radford REAL EST ATE, INSURANCE AND FINANCIAL AGENTS PRINCE RUPERT, B. C. DA WSON, Y. T . The Canadian Bank of Commerce Capital paid up ................. . ...... ............ $10,000,000 Rest ........................................ . .... 6,000,000 B. E. Walker, .. , ... , . , , .. . , .... President A lex. Laird .... . . . , . . .. General Manager Head Office : Toronto. 195 Branches and Agencies including the following: DA WSON, Y. T. WHITE HORSE, Y. T. SKAGWAY, ALASKA VANCOUVER, B. C. LONDON, EN G., 2 Lombarcl Sl. J\fO~TREAL, P. Q. VICTORIA, B. C. SEA TTLE, WASH. PORTLAND, ORE. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. T ravellers Cheques and Letters of Credit sold available in all parts of the world. Third Avenue Market ====KASTNER & RICHARDS==== Wholesale and Retail Meats Phone 115 .' Headquarters for Game ORDERS FROM ALL POINTS PROMPTLY FORWARDED. Third Ave. ' and Queen St. DAWSON 50 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. Barton Brothers . tI Wholesale and Retail Meat Merchants Prompt Delivery Made to All Points in Yukon Territory. Im~ mediate Attention to Mail or Wire Orders. DAWSON 1901 1909 ISAAC LUSK, Proprietor Largest Livery nO'rth of Vancouver. Largest and finest string of horses ever in Klondikc. Bes'\: livery and sales exchange in Yukon. .All kinds of hauling, and teaming in Dawson, to creeks, or anywhere in Yukon. Large contracts for wood and heavy dredge hauling. Full line of buggies, carriages, sleighs, cutters. Open day and night. vVhitehorse Stables now combined with Yukon Stables under one ownership. 31 0 Third Avenue. DAWSON. 'Phone 165 • -.- Phone 33 Golden Gate Gardens JULIUS JACQUEMIN Proprietor Leading Florist of the Yukon Finest and Largest Greenhouses and Open Air Gardens in North. Ten Thousand Square Feet Under Glass. Choicest and Largest Variety of Cultivated Flowers north of Vancouver. All kinds of cut flowers and plants. Designs prepared and flowers sold or rented for ban­ quets, parties and like. Mail orders from any part of Yukon for plants promptly filled. All kinds of stock, including cauliflower, celery, cab­ bage, etc., for transplanting. Located in the fashionable centre of the city, on Fifth Avenue, the boulevard of the Gold Metropolis. Fifth Ave., Near Princess, Dawson. 'Phone 157B leaving them only the summer to work. Under these conditions John J. uttles is the only man who remain­ ed on the ground continuously since 1898. He staked No. One, and in 1900 bought from the government ten claims more, and he has worked on the ground ever since, and nowhere ~lse in the country. Claim.' o. Six a l -o has been kept in good standing, lml ha been purchased, and is a part of the Dublin Hydraulic's property. The history of Haggert and Dublin goe back as far as 1 9, when pay gravel first was found. That was long before the great strike on Bon­ anz:! was made or Klondike dreamed of by the world. Thomas lIag-gert, accompanied by another fearless pros­ pector, pushed into the silent, remote field, and lived all that winter in that district, subsisting on nothing Illore than moose meat. The two men pro - pccted there with considerablc encour- bAWSON b Al LY N E W agement, finding as high as 35 cents to the pan. Mr. Haggert did not leave that section unti l the rush to the rich creeks nearer Dawson. He returned to the McQuesten river district dur­ ing the scasons of 1901 and 1902, but as he then was a man SS years of age, and more or less worn down by the roughing of years, in time found the work of ascending the Stewart with a small boat too trying. Now fine steamers and a number of private launches ply the Stewart to McQues­ ten, and not far from Dublin all through the open season. Dublin Gulch carries gold from grass roots to bedrock, and there is a general saying among miners that "You can't get a skunk on Dublin." Good pay has been found in the val­ ley bottom over 400 feet wide, and on the left limit 2500 feet wide as high as three cents to the pan, and this only while prospecting. The company is fortunate in h:w­ ing such an experienced hydraulic man as V. V. Blodgett in charge as super­ intendent. He has been engaged in hydraulic work continuously for 28 years, and has opened and had full charge of mines from Peru to Klon­ dike. He installed one plant in Ecuador that cost $1,500,000 before water was turned through the pipe, and he has operated in Ecuador, United States of Columbia, Old Mexi­ co, Arizona, Eastern Oregon, Mon­ tana, British Columbia, in Sierra, Trinity, Butte and 1 evada counties California; and nine years in Yukon. He is familiar with all branches of work from preliminary survey to melting of bullion. The value of a good man can be better appreciated when it is recalled that the succ ss of a proposition depends largely on hav· ing experienced managers and in mak­ ing a good start in installing a plant and in opening the ground on prac­ tical lines, and in knowing how to meet and cope with all contingencies and conditions. The officers and shareholders are all Dawson people. At the first gen­ eral meeting uf the company, held in Dawson, April 26 of this year, the election of officers and directors for the year resulted as fol1ows: President, Dr. \V. E. Thompson; vice prcsident, Eugene A. Murphy, Gen. Man. of the Klondike l\fincs rail­ way: secretary-trea urer, A. W. H. Smith, broker; directors: the forego­ ing officers and G. L C. Barton, of Barton Brothers, wholesalc and retail meat importers and dealers and presi­ dent of the Dawson News Publishing Company, Ltd.; Wm. Taylor, gencral agent for the White Pass Railway company; Frank Lowe, furniture dealer, and H . L. Clements, engineer. TIMBER IN YUKON TERRITORY By GUS JOHNSON, of Dawson. Y UKO. T is extcnsively wood cd along the valleys, and has ex­ tensive forests fit for lumbering, pulp wood pur po es and fucl. A fcw years ago there was a largc dcmand in thc Yukon for lumber. A large quantity was required for the construction of houses, for city improvements, for the con tructioll of flume to carry water from streams to thc different mining claims to which water rights were ap­ purtenant, and fur the conSl1·uctioll of sluice-boxes and power-houses erected in cOllnection with mining plants installed on the principal creeks. The establishment of a min ing camp of thc magni lIClc of Dawson, and the cn rmOllS Cjl1antity of lU1/1ber rcq\lired within such a comparatively short period, created great activity ill the lumber industry, and the four ~aw mills in Dawson, aggregating" a capa· city of 90,000 fcet, werc working' night and day during the summer. The demand for lumber in I awson may be said to have reached that point where the Olltput is governed by the quantity rcquired for maintenancc of buildings and other impro,'ements in the city. On the crecks, howcycr, the operations of large companic neces· sltate a continual supply. Dredge:, parts of which arc nati,·e lumber, arc being constructed, several large water grants nece itat(' the construction of great lengths of flume, rcservoirs and impounding dams are being built, and the leral repair of water conduits already constructed may be said to have considerably increased the de­ malld on the creeks for lumber. One large minil"~ company erected a saw­ mill on the Twelvemile last fall, of a lius Johnson. capacity of 30,000 fect, and has been manufacturing its own lumber dUTlng the past winter. An enormous quantity of timber has been cut in the Klondike district for mining operations. Wood is the only fuel that has been used up to the pre­ sent time in thawing the frozen ground, and it is, therefore, an es­ sential factor in the developing and working of claims. At one time a certain quantity of wood piled on a claim was accepted as representation under the old placer mining regula­ tions. Under the Yukon Placer Min­ ing Act, however, this mode of repre sentation was abolished, and in the computation of the value of work as defined by the schedule of representa­ tion, the cost of wood used for fue l has been included. In consequence of the enormous quantity of timber used as fuel in connection with mining opera­ tions, nearly all the timber of any im­ portance has been cut on the creeks in the Klondike district proper. Large quantities of excellent tim­ ber are cut annually on the upner Klondike for lumber and fuel, and floated down the Klondike river to Dawson, where the togs are caught in booms adjacent to the sawmills, and the smaller timber is piled on the beach for fuel. Besides the supply from the upper Klondike, good timber for fuel is found in the Indian river district, and along the tributaries of the Yukon north of Dawson. From Indian river the wood is brought down the Yukon in rafts, which are moored along the Dawson water front, and from the district north of Daw­ son it is hauled over the ice by sleighs during the winter. There is also a large extent of tim­ ber along the Stewart and Pelly and their tributaries. Owing to the dis­ tance from Dawson, however, very little of this timber has been cut ex­ cept what is required for mining pur­ poses on the creeks and tributaries of these rivers. vVriting of the tim­ ber on the upper Stewart, Mr. 1- Keele, of the Geological Survey, in his report of 1906, says:- "The principal forest trees are white and black spruce, balsam, poplar and birch. The limit to which trees grow on the mountain slopes varies from 1,800 to 2,800 feet above the river. "The white spruce is the most valu­ able tree, and furnishes good timber for building and mining purpo es. The best groves of this tree are found all the islands or on the alluvial flats along the river, but good specimens occur i.n scattered groups on the slopes to a height of 2,000 feet above the river in the lower valleys. "There is a marked detenoration both in the size and appearance of the spruce as the more northerly branches of the river are approached. "The balsam fir occurs only on the valley s lopes mixed with spruce, be­ ginning at an elevation of about 1,200 feet above the river and contin­ uing upward to the limit of trees. On the slopes of the Ogilvie range, how­ ever, the balsam disappears entirely, its northern limit in this area being about the forks of Rackla river." ~'QUARTZ IN THE TERRITORY By F RANK LOWE, Former President Dawson Board of Trade. T HIS year above all others does Yukon Territory look to quartz. During the ascendancy of placer, quartz has been a secondary matter, and for years scarcely received any attention. But there have been a few faithful enthusiasts who have worked per istently, and now they have suc­ ceeded in bringing quartz to the ear­ nest attention of nearly everyone in the territory, and largely to thc at­ tention of capital outside the territory. Hundreds of thousands of dollars are being spent in the development of quartz, and the work is not confined to anyone portion of the territory. In Southern Yukon the work in copper has progressed to the extent that ship­ ments are being made to smelters, and in ilver and gold in that district the same stage is just being entered. Detail of the splendid strides in that part of the territory are told else­ where in this issue in the article on "Southern Yukon." In • 'orthern Yukon, that is the northern half of the territory, thou­ sands of feet of tunnel and shafts have been run in solid rock simply in pros­ pecting, and now there is promise of result. The work is being undertaken this year more earnestly than before. A statement compiled in the office of the quartz recorder in May of this year, 1909, shows in existence in Northern Yukon a total of 760 quartz claims. Of this number 89 are crown granted or patentcd. The locations for the year 1908-9 were 298, and re­ newals 373. Considering the fact that none of the properties were produc­ ing, but were merely taken on specula­ tion or held for purposes of prospect­ il~g, which in this country is expen­ sive, shows what faith is held in the properties. The most energetic work this sea­ son is being done on the ridge be­ tween the Klondike river and the In­ dian river basin, and centering near the head of Dominion, Hunker, Bon­ anza, Sulphur and other prominent Klondike placer producing stream, and in the neighborhood of what is locally known as "The Dome," that is the central eminence of the camp. From "The Dome" radiates the streams which have claimed the world's attention because of the rich­ ness of their placers, and it has been the 10l!ical conclusion that where so much high grade placer has been found quartz of extraordinary value and in large quantities should exist. The surface indications, backed by the theory, have encouraged a number of indefatigable workers to go in on the more promising outcrops. The best known or at least most talked of quartz property on the Dome just now is that which was located two or three years ago, and which is being opened by Dawson people, in associa­ tion with eastern capitalists. The claims are at the head of Dominion and Lombard creeks, and on the sum­ mit several shafts, one to a depth of eighty feet, have been sunk. Assays show $40 or more to the ton in free milling gold ore, Now a tunnel has been started on the Dominion creek side, and is being run this season with a large plant, using steam, compressed air, and several modern drills. Eight to ten feet a day are being bored, and it is hoped to cut 1500 feet or there­ abouts by August, and to cross-cut the veins found on the top. Near this pro~erty are scores of other groups which have been held and prospected with shafts and tun ncls for a long time. At the head of Victoria gulch, a tributary to Bon- anza, ~ther very promising properties are be1l1g opened, and a quartz mill has been ordered for one of the groups. Elsewhere on Bonanza and other old creeks of the camp quartz locations are claiming the attention of the devoted owners. In the, T~elvem.ile district, 011 Lepine and nelghboTlng creeks extensive holdings have been prospected for years and continue to be exploited. On Indian river, a huge deposit of conglomerate is being prosoectecl by several as­ siduous workers. Two brothers there have been working on a mountain of conglomerate for eight years and are as enthusiastic today as eve'r. They have located rich coal near the quartz property. On Henderson creek an ar­ dent old time prospector is sinking a deep shaft through every formation hoping to locate quartz or a second placer bedrock On the Sixtymile ex­ tensive holdings in quartz are located by Dawson people. At the head of White river, not far from the Bon­ an~a mines, .to. which the Guggen­ helms are bUlld1l1g a railway from the coast, are many copper locations held by Daw on people, but as yet little prospected. I T is a commentary upon the age in which we live that an enter­ pri e which fifty years ago would have startled the round world, had just been consummated within the shadow of the Arctic Circle with scarcely a ripple of interest and no excitement at all at the populous cen­ tres of the earth. The first of June found a despatch telegraphed bri~fly to the larger newspapers announclllg that water had just been turned into the Yukon Gold Company's great ditch at Daw on, Yukon Territory, Canada, signalizing the completion of that concern's mastery of the novel situations up there where great de· posits of gold have for ages be~n locked up tight in the frozen allUVIal gravels. Only that and nothing more. And not one man in a thousand of even those who read that despatch understood that here again was an in­ stance of man's twentieth century ma lery of the indomitable eleme~ts; and one more triumph for humamty; another victory over seemingly un ­ conquerable Nature; another yast en­ terpri e launched by the daring and brought to a successful is ue against obstacles never before encountered. A Young Panama. How many yet know that with~llt the herald of trumpets, an enterpnse nearly a tenth as big as the Panama canal and fully as daring and novel, has j'ust approached fruition in the frozen regions of the far North? How many understand yet that com­ merce the world over is about to be revived as by a transfusion of new blood into the veins of the aged, and this by a new flow of gold by the tens of millions yearly through .the overcoming of natural barners which have held off humanity since the existence of the world? Volumes have been written and read of the Great Salt River ditch, of the divert­ ing of the Colorado and kindred pro­ jects. But here was announced as modestly as would be the building of a house, the completion of an under­ taking putting them all completely in the shade for courage, for innova­ tion, Ior difficulties overcome, and for prophetic vision of the engineers and faith in that prophetic vision by the men controlling the necessary millions. The telegram means the diverting of a river of five thousand inches, and the carrying of that river over precipitous mountain tops, across frozen morasses, through vast ra­ vine, down stupendous valleys, over mighty mountain chains, and finally delivering it by a great inverted syphon over the Klondike river to the once famous Klondike, there to do the work of tens of thousands of miners and restore that region to its pristine glory as one of the most im­ portant producers of the world. Rework the Klondike. It means the bringing into produc­ tiveness of tens of thou ands of acres of gold bearing gravel hitherto lying idle. It means the reworking with increased profits of every inch of ground which formed the original Klondike. with additional hundreds of square mile which never could have been worked by the comparatively primitive means at the disposal of the arjlonauts of 1898. It discounts any and every undertaking hitherto attempted by ancients or mod erns against such unique and overwhelm­ ing odds as :t\ature presents in the shadow of the Pole. The Yukon Gold Company is one of the vast enterprises familiarly known to the public as the Guggen­ hcim group. So singular have been the applications and adaptations of modern mechanical and civil engin­ eering, and so startling the innova­ tions, a few facts and figures will be particularly appropriate in this special issue of the great metropolitan daily of the 1 orth. The twenty claims of Bonanza creek and Eldorado creek which offhand produced twenty-four DAWSON DAILY NEWS. million dollars and precipitated the greatest stampede of argonauts the world has ever known, have been ab­ 'orbed along with thousands more by the Yukon Gold Company. Powerful dredge , unique and surprisingly suc­ cessful electrical elevators. multifar­ ious hydraulics have been installed to work the ground, and finally a northern river, taken from far up in the Ogilvie Mountains, has been brought to do the work of overturn­ ing the hills, ripping out the in­ teriors, stripping bare of its gold the accumulated gravels of untold ages. With sun and wind and steam, and now with great floods of water, the eternal frost in the ground is being made eternal no more; is having a time limit set; is being extracted and dissipated to the four winds of heaven. Tremendous machinery has been conveyed deep into the track­ less wilderness. Above timber line, at the head of a jagged mountain ' range where always the million­ headed herds of caribou have hitherto been absolutely safe from even the native hunter, is to be found a mod­ ern electrical power plant. complete in all its appointments to the smallest detail, sending its magic-working cur­ rents along heavy copper lines down to the distant valleys of the Klon­ dike, there to turn the wheels, pump the water, elevate the gravels, saw the wood, wash the black sand, drive the dredges, illuminate the colossal works at night, and in other ways subject to man and make docile the natural obstacles which are obstacles no longer. Panama Compared. No part of the Panama canal strip is removed more than a day or two from the ships of the ocean. Supplies and men can be and are landed there comfortably from the ocean carriers almost in sight of their work. Sup­ plies for the men are landed almost at their camps. Not so with Klon­ dike's Panama. Thousands of miles from civilization, and twice as far from the manufactories, men and machinery had to be assembled far in the interior of a country until quite lately thought inacceSSIble to all but the most daring Arctic ex­ plorers and adventurers. An army of men had to be provisioned over a trackless area many miles from even the friendly Yukon river. ~ew methods of road building had to be devised across swamps. The ways and peculiarities of King Frost in his own home had to be studied and mastered. The times and habits of rivers had to be learned. Machinery and supplies must needs be bought years ahead of actual use in some cases. And in the end we find the masterpieces of Pittsburg machinery duly installed side by side with Ger­ many's best products of steel, and Slavonians, Swedes, Italians, English­ men and Americans comfortably housed and working in their various capacities far from the madding crowd. Quite naturally the Klondike river, heading in the distant Rockies, was first looked to as a source of ,valer and power for cheaply opening up Klondike' almost inexhaustible gravel. But a similar supply of water and power to that now turned to use from the Twelve Mile river, would have cost seven millions, would have been another year or two in maturing, and would have re­ quired a ditch of eighty-five miles length, instead of seventy miles. The Twelve Mile enters the Yukon eighteen miles below Dawson. It head in the Tombstone range, part of the Ogilvie lIIollntains, which at­ tain an altitude of 7,000 feet and over, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water through the summer melt­ ing of the heavy snows. The Great Ditch. The great ditch, carrying five thousand inches of water. is made up of nineteen and a half miles of flume, twelve and a half miles of steel and s~ave pipe,. and thirty-eight miles of dItch. acrYIDg every few miles in method of con truction, in dimen­ sion , in grade, and nature of the ground eros ed. The bottom of the ditch varie from nine to twenty feet. The fall varies from four ~o seven feet to the mile. CPlaces where .... (' i I j ( The Building of Yukon' Panama--A Fleet or Gold Ship --- Succes ful Mining Method, Electrical Elevator 55 current would be fatal are slow and big. Where the ground is still more uns~able~ the great stave pipes of Cahforllla redwood have been built crossing the swamps like some vast headless and tailless snake. The Klondike is crossed by a steel line of pipes oyer a steel bridge specially ... built on concrete piers. And at the cnd [he water is delivered 125 cubic feet per second, under a working pressure of 359 to 850 feet, or roughl) 175 to 425 pounds pressure to {he square inch, according to wl1cl-e on lionanza creek it is used. Before filling up the valleys level full with the debl-is frC)Jn the golden hills, provision has been made for completely stripping the valleys I)f their gilded burden. even of th·~ largest dredges in the world havc been in operation for several seasons. The manner of their operation is similar to that in vogue elsewhere, with the exception that in places thousands of steam points sixteen feet Jon~, are driven ahead of the dredges, and the frost effectively ex­ tracted thereby. Night and day ~he dredges work, tired operators bein,; bAWSON bAlL'! N~WS. the No. 5 copper wire which conveys the hillh tension curren t to the gold­ fields. Four sub-stations. at various points, and transformers' at every dredge, change the current back to stlrviceable pressures. Electric Elevators. But while the manner of dredging has been maue widely known through the operation of smaller goldships in various parts of the world, it is not so with the electric elevators which are cleaning out the last vestiges of gold from miles of the creeks antici­ patory to the denuding of the hills. These are a novelty, devised to meet the new conditions of the Klondike creeks, and are proving a miracle of effectiveness. In brief, they are dredges without the dredge. 'l'hat is to say, there is the ame chain of buckets elevating the gravel a ver- miJ'llte 24 bucktts dump into the siu lcel oxt:s abo~ e. The three ele- . valors of the company cach have a llvl11inal capacity of 4,000 cubic yards per day, but this, of course, is nlodined by the capacity of the sllliccboxes. Th·~ buckets are revolved by electric motors. The water from the sump is pumped by electric motors. An h yc1raulic pressure from the monitors or 140 pounds is ecured from electric motors. And the ground is illumin­ ated in the dark nights of the fall by electricity. Two hundred electric hcrsepower is consumed by each ele­ vator, 35 for the buckets and 165 for the pumps. Thc effectiveness of the elevators is a marvel to beholders, and a constant source of delight to the hosts of visitors who take a sin­ cere satisfaction in every invention calculated to master the weird nor­ thern conditions. Frost interposes 110 obstacle whatever to the opera­ tion of the new elevators. Areas of gravel hydraulicked clean of muck quickly yield the frost under the ac­ tion of sun and wind. And creek gravels, frozen harder than granite, literally melt as soon as thawed . . It is of record that lots of the ground being worked bv the elevators ·have yielded $7.50 to the cubic yard a!1d upwards, which is more than double the estimates for the same grollnd. Since the company is now able to furuish the power at a cost of $8 per horsepower per month, and [en men per shift can operate the elevator, the dimensions of this me­ chanical victorY. its wealth-making marvel, is readily estimated. Klondike Inventions. Steam Shovel Working Near the Clouds. Klondike has in its time introduced, modified and perfected a multitude of devices for mining frozen ground. Everything used throughout the north. and which has gradually re­ duced the cost of mining from $15 per cubic yard to as many cents, had its genesis in the Klon­ dike. And the electric elevator, tak­ ing the place of the hydraulic elevator replaced by fresh ones at intervals, the rumble of the powerful machinery and the rattle of the gravels from the stackers behind being all per­ v~ding over the old Klondike. Dredges Electrified. The seven dredges are electricailv criven, securing their current fro n the power plant on the Little Twelve Mile over heavy copper lines. tical fifty feet. But the pond of wa ter and the ship are I-eplaced by a sumphole on bedrock into which sumphole the surrounding gravels and muck are hydraulicked. From the top of the steel tower carrying the string of buckets runs a line of sluiceboxes, into which everything ' from the sumphole is elevated or pl1mped. Presently large areas of found elsewhere, apparently leaves no room for further improvement il1 working creek bottoms not amcnable to the similarly constructed and sim­ ilarly economical dredges. The elec­ trical dredgeless dredge is the final word in the argument; there is secm­ ingly nothing to follow, ingenuity being exhausted, and effectiveness Just 110w. t-he ditCh w~s dug \vith powerful steam shovels, digging five minutes and then moving ahead by their own power. Six: such shovels were employed for three seasons on the work. The modernness of the methods of construction is further shown lly the five air compressors­ electric, of course - operating the many riveting hammers for the steel pipe, this pipe being thus riveted both inside and out. The substantial ~tee1 bridge carrying the pipe over the Klondike river was built with the same aid. The concrete piers of the bridge, for which shafts were sunk through river and gravel down to bedrock, are of stlfficicnt dimen­ sions to withstand the breaking up of the ice of the Klondike river ill th!' spring of the year. Several of tht- piers, those through the river especially, afforded a unique instance of how the dreadful forces of nature In a country where nature puts on her most dreadful aspect, can be and are utilized. By doing the sinking in the winter, and by chopping out Ice as fast as frozen, the bottom of tl':e river was reached through per­ fect cofferdams of ice-through shafts in the river with frozen sides, and the TU lling river held back as per­ iectly as by compressed air in the cofferdams usually constructed by engineers for such work. Ten million feet of lumber was :Jsed in the flurning necessary to carry the water of the ditch over ra­ vines and bad places. This was manufactured to size and shape at a steam sawmill built on the main 'l'welve Mile river, a spot beforetime hardly known to even the Indians, but containing the best piece of lum­ ber in that country of not too great a growth of trees. It is of record that in the hands of Angus Macdon­ aId, a general foreman. the efficiency of the most modern plant in the great lumber centres was equalled by the little mill almost at the head of a mountain chain in the interior of that supposed inaccessible country. Built Against Odds. More particularly interesting to en­ gineers would be the details of the construction of the ditch. In places it runs through what is practically a glacier. layers of ice being uncov­ ered the moment the upper muck was removed. Cribbing was resorted to, Wooden Pipe Line Under Construction. Near Head of Tombstone Creek. The main line is 36 miles, the branches 18 miles. On Little Twelve Mile a flume five and a half miles long, three by four feet in size, de­ lh'ers 60 cubic feet of water ver sec­ ond under an effective head of 65'1 het. Three generators convert the power from the Pelton wheels into three times 625 kilowats, the current being stepped up from 2,200 volts to 33,000 volts, and then switched into bedrock are exposed and drained, ~ nil then men get to work with bn'Ehes and scrapers and picks. In this manner bedrock is cleaned of its gold absolutely. and the slabby bedrock, which 'beneath the pond will punle the dredges, is robbed com­ pletely if its last grain of the yellow metal. Each bucket holds three cnJ:.ic feet of gravel. There are 76 of the buckets in the string, and each and economy having apparently reached its maximum. The seven dredges of the company, making their own ponds and floating [hereon, are similarly the ultimate of many years of evolution and ex­ p 'rimcnt. The dredge swings from r:dc to side constantly, tal :l1:; a sv;arlh from the bottom of th- 1,c'l1d, slui, rng it within the dred::-e it;;",£. &,;,cking' th' coarse gravel, J1i~11 in thf' rear. and pumping the sand bc· h:ncl the same gravel piles, th! wh' le as barren of gold as before :~ .! .. nre slarted making the Klondike. Modern Methods. But it is 011 the newer develop­ ments to come from the new flood of water in the great ditch th:lt pub­ lic attention in the north is centered the sides being then lined with moss and dirt again, in this way taking a lesson from the country itself, where pure ice is found many thousands of years old, lying unthawed in the hottest summer weather, protected by just a natural growth of moss filled between the interstices with decayed vegetation and sand stuff. Naturally in such places current was not wanted. hence the varying grade of the ditch from time to time, and hence the varying size, the bottom varying in width from nine to twenty feet. The worst ground is that in which not only layers of ice but nearly vertical veins of ice extend through the moss and muck. so as to afford a channel for seepage as the ice thaws. These permit the wat ;r D A W SON' :n A t L V N ~ W S. s, tl'otn the ditch to est:ipe, and it wlll appear a hundred feet or more from the hill slope in the form of a gey­ ser-if permitted by the builders. But these, too. have been circum­ vented, and th'e bottoms. where ne­ cessary, have been protected in the same way nature would do it if the bottom of the ditch were the surface of the earth. The wooden pipelines found here and there carry 200 feet of pressure. They vary in diameter from 40 to 50 An Expert's Summary. "In building the ditch many natura; obstacles were encountered. They were overcome by methods sug­ gested, for the most part, by ex­ perience gathered elsewhere in the north. The following examples will prove suggestive: 1. Frozen muck. where there is :naterial for constructing lower bank, IS scraped by the aid of horses so as to accumulate on the lower side, A Section of Pipe Line. inche~ according to the grade. The mate lal is from California mills, the staves being shaped where made, and being assembled mile by mile on the ground, the whole held together by maIleable iron bands and steel rods. The spacing of the bands determines the pressure the pipes will stand. Smaller wooden pipes in use elsewhere in the far north have demonstrated the com­ pletest reliability for these stave­ pipe sections of the great ditch. A few extracts from the report~ of the mining expert, T. A. Rickard. who also is editor of the MininJS and Scientific Press, of San Francisco, wiII di~c1ose somewhat of the diffi­ culties overcome. and against the bank thus formed poles are laid close together, the points being placed two feet below the grade of the ditch. Upon the poles is spread a layer of moss ur sod from 6 to 12 inches thick. Then dirt or other good tamping material is scraped. forming a slope 5 feet from the 'top of the moss, and in­ clined at an angle of 1 1-2 to 1. 2. ' Fine silt or glacial sand, which is frozen material upon being ex­ posed to the warm air, upon removal of the moss. thaws to a slime. In such materia'l the ditch is dug 16 to 18 feet wide, during the first season; the lower bank sloughs away; the upper bank m~lts, and the ditch . is practically obltterated; but by mam- Oil the Line of Dlt~h. t:.lining open drains the whole mass is dried. 1n the second season the ditch is dug again, and the stuff which filled it serves to form the lower bank poles, moss and fill are arranged as in No. 1. When the moss on the upper side is thick and remains unbroken, it drapes the un­ derlying silt, which continues to run out like a thin mud until it finally attains angle of the rest; then the moss protects the bank from further thaw. When, however. the moss of the upper bank is thin 'or brittle, the silt slides into the cut, and must be scraped by teams to the lower side. In cases where the lower bank is uneven so that poles cannot be laid regularly, two stringers are stretched longitudinally to serve as a base for the poles. These stringers are held in place by logs placed horizontally un­ derneath the lower bank. 3. Shattered schist is easy to dig, but it makes leaky ground. Digging is done by the steam shovel and the ditch is made 14 feet wide at the bot­ tom. The corners are excavated by hand labor. and filled with moss to a depth or' at least 12 inches. The bottom of the ditch is also blanketed with a foot of moss. On top of this is spread a covering of 8 to 12 inches thick of good puddling dirt, and the sides are given a slope of 1 1-2 to 1. 4. A rocky slope with no lower bank offers another problem. On the lower side a crib of logs is built, with a base six feet wide and a top fonr feet wide. This framework is filled with broken rock. Moss and pud­ dling are applied as before." The foregoing affords some idea of the nature of the ground on which the engineers were called to exercise their skill. Nor are ditch, electric elevators, dredges, etc., all they were required to adjust to the new condi­ tions prevailing there. It was decid­ ed also to conserve the water natural to some of the creeks to be worked, and to this end a mighty dam was thrown across upper Bonanza creek, which, filled by the thawing snows of spring, affords from the reservoir so made some 700 miners' inches of water for at least forty days. Nine miles of flume, and an inverted syphon of steel across Bonanza creek far below the dam, pours this precious water onto the heights of Gold Hill and the hills below. reliable data that much more remains to be taken out. The Yukon Gold Company's holdings are of fabulous known wealth. The expenditure of twenty millions and more in purchase a.nd construction and labor of opera­ tIOn becomes a mere drop in the buc~et. Upon acquiring their pro~ per tIes, the company for the most part ceased operating them by the ?lder and more expensive methods 111 vogue before the company's ad­ ve.nt. Naturally, since cheap power, mIghty dredges and wonderful elec­ tric elevators were to be installed, and the whole supplemented with a river of cheap water under great p~essure . on the tops of the highest hllls-ql1lte naturally it was bl1smess to await the advent of the new me­ thods. Now that the water is on the ground, now that dams. reinforced power plant, elevators and dredges are all in operation, there is to be a most marked rise once more in the yearly amounts of gold coming from the Klondike. As a producer the camp saw a new birth with the tele­ graphing of the news of the arrival of the 'l'welve Mile water on the heights far above Dawson City. And so vast are the known gravel deposits carrying gold profitably to be worked by the newer and cheaper methods, there is no way of fixing a day when there will again be a falling off in the gold production. The first year there will be no attempt to operate the ditch to its fullest capacity. It will be carefully tried out and watched. Costing some three or four million dollars, built as it is through such strange environment, and pre­ cious as is its maintenance in view of future possibilities, it is inevitable the maximum will not be attempted for a season or two. Meanwhile the arrival of the valuable water cheapens the operation of even the machinery installed and operated for years. With but a portion of the water now avail­ able the overburden of the creek gravels being worked by dredge and elevator can be readily made to dis­ appear down the Klondike into the Yukon, and thence to the sea 1,500 miles distant. Water works magic with the muck covering of the gravels. Then the sun and wind act fully as magically in extracting the frost, thus facilitating immensely every branch of the work of extract­ ing the gold. Another Ditch. Then, as the creeks become worked But for the presence of the over- out, will come the leveling of the shadowing of the great ditch, an- hills. the deep, canyon-like creeks af­ other ditch of twenty miles, known as fording unlimited dumping ground the Acklin ditch, would be considered for an unknown period. There will an important enterprise. Taking the be no state legislation against it as water of Moosehide creek, the ditch in California. There are neither carries it around Moosehide mountain farms to be overflowed nor sluggish and onto the heights of the left bank river to become blocked by the dirty of the Klondike river, opposite the water from the mines. It is a country mouth of Bonanza creek. where at devoted exclusively to mining, and some time in the dim 'and distant where the natural conditions, once past Bonanza creek deposited some matured, aid rather than retard. of its carried gold at a level far Mountain torrents are harnessed for Tligher than the creek at present. power. Mountain streams furnish And so what was once known as the the hydraulics. ' Rapid rivers, which Acklin Potato Patch, and was a made' useless scores of steamers of magnificent garden, now shows im- the first steamboats sent to stem mense gravel pits from which the their torrents, insure a perpetuation ground has been removed by hy- of their channels against any possible draulics. mining conditions. New Klondike. T. A. Rickard, himself a m111111g The Klondike has to date produced engineer of widest experience and a hundred and twenty-five millions an authority whenever he speaks. was in gold dust. It is estimated upon an astonished visitor to the big works Another Piece of Ditch Construction. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. during construction. He graphically ~lllllS up some of his impressions thus: Expert Sums Up. "It was no light task to take care of the men engaged in this work; they were scattered over a line reach­ ing more than 50 miles from Dawson, the various camps being pitched in as the frost comes a p~ls,age is ef­ fected. A piuw removcs any excess of snow. and the road is thcn watered to give: it a durable crust of ice. Logging sleds from 11ichigan arc used. The average load is nine tons with four horses. and eleven tOilS with six horses. The maximum load is fifteen tons with six horses. It cost Bulkhead to Protect Ditch. a wilderness of serup and soggy moss. No supplies, either of food or ma­ terial, are hauled in summer, for all the roads, except those built by the government near Daw on, are then impassable by heavy wagons. Haul­ ing is done exclusively in winter. The stumps and brush are cleared in a line across the marsh and as soon $2.000 to set up a camp. and it cost $7.000 to $12,000 to gt"[ a steam shovel ready to work. Not less than $75,000 worth of horses were employed. the price at Dawson being $800 to $900 per pair. "The magnitude of the work ac­ complished by the engineers of the Yukon Gold Company may be in- NORTHERN COAL F ROM present indications the country in the vicinity of Daw­ son must at some day have been a large lignite coal field. Outcrops are to be found in most directions and af­ ter approaching Fort Selkirk a field of older measures is entered with out­ erons of bituminous and as we pass toward the coast, even approaching semi-antbracite. The coal of this region will com­ pare very favorably and in some cases much better with coal mined in the states of the Pacific slope. The coal indications in the Yukon valley and throughout Yukon and Alaska are extel1sive. To speak of the known deposits in Yukon territory proner, I mav say that there is a coal deposit 23 miles southwest of Whitehorse, which is said to be semi-anthracite. The seams lie at an angle, and there are a number of them outcropping. On Indian river, less than 30 miles from Dawson, to the south of tbe city, there are two lignite coal loca­ tions. On one of them several hun­ dred feet of tunnel has been run. The coal is said to be of good quality. On the Twelvemile river are de­ posits of lignite equal in quality to any found in this belt. Three hundred miles northeast of Dawson co'al outcrops are reported on the Wind river. The seams are said to be more than six feet. in thickness. This river is a tributary of the Peel river. The samples shown by H. Vaughn, who returued from the coun­ try with Charles Black a year or more ago, compare favorably with the best I have seen in the Yukon. Seventy mi les below Dawson one of the larQ'e trading and transportation companies for several seasons mined coal at Cliff creek. Much of the coal was shipped by steamer to Dawson, and found a market at $25 to $30 a tOil of 2,000 pounds. In the vicinity of Five Fingers, be­ tween Dawson and Whitehorse, and right on the bank of the Yukon river, are a number of coal locations with which I am most familiar. I made the locations on some of the pr0per­ ties, and have Deen associated with their development. In 1900 I located the Five Finger coal mines from a blossom or outcrop which I sighted when 011 the way down the Yukon river in a small boat the year before. The property previously was located by George Carmack, famous as the discoverer of gold on Bonanza creek. The scam 011 which I first located is two feet nine inches thick with some rock through the top portion. The texture of the coal is quite hard, and it will not slacken when exposed to the air. It is a very good coal for do­ mestic and steam purposes and will coke. I t has a good roof and floor. The mine has produce. d several thousand tons, always finding a ready market for the product. The analysis show 10 to 15 per cent. ash, and 45 to 50 per cent. fixed carbon. I opened the Fivc Finger coal properties in as­ sociation with Fred Wade, former crown prosecutor of Yukon, and after operating it five years, I located the 'l'antalus mine, and operated it three months, when I leased it to a large navigation company of tbe upper Yu­ kon, the present operators. The coal is sent to the Dawson market, and burned on nearly all upper Yukon boats. They have used it five years. The railway running from Dawson to the creeks also has used it ever since it was put on the market. The Tan­ talus mille has been the largest pro­ ducer of any in the Yukon. It is 240 miles south of Dawson, and so close to the water's edge that room for some of the works had to be made on cribbing. This coal needs to be washed to make it satisfactory for domestic or steam purposes. The seams lie at an angle of about 30 de­ grees, and vary in thickness from three anr! a half to eight feet. The analysis shows fixed carbon 65 to 70 per cent., ash 10 to 15 per cent., water 1 to 3 per cent., volatile, 2 to 12 per cent. It is claimed this coal is much more economical than wood, and it has been demonstrated that when clean it equals the Comox coal for fuel. It has proved satisfactory in tests for COke, and assayer~ have pronounced it sat­ isfactory for smelting. The Tantalus Butte mine, two and a half miles up stream from the Tan­ tal us, was located by me in 1905. The property has not produced as yet, but the outcrops show, and there are three orened, one seam of seven feet, with one f00t of rock near the centre; one seam seven and a half fef't thick, with one clay band a quartt.r of an inch thick; and one seam five and a half feet thick. These seams lie at an angle of 35 to f erred from an C1Hlmcration of the tasks completed during the three seasons since the surveys were com­ pleted; seven dredges in commission; three mechanical elevators; a dan. and reservoir (700 miners' incl~es for 40 days) on Bonanza creek, connect' ing ditches, flume and pipe-aggre­ gating nine miles); a power plant of 2,000 horse-power (now increased by the addition of a third unit gener­ ator-Ed.), with 36 miles of line, 18 miles of branch, and 8 miles of sec­ ondary lines; 64 miles of main ditch, flume and pipe of 5,000 inch capacity (N ow increas.ed to 70 miles-Ed.) All this has been done 3,500 miles distant from manufacturing centers, with an inadequate supply of labor. Some of the machinery that arrived at the time of my visit had been ordered 18 months previously. The company was carrying 1,812 men on its pay­ roll. representing from 1.600 to 1,700 men continuously engaged. This called for an expenditure of $300,000 per month. In the examination of the claims purchased or optioned not less than $55,000 was spent. During the season of 1907 over 7,000 tons of material were received, ~nd it was in­ evitable that some of .he parts or­ dered in advance, for immediate op­ erations, should be delayed in de­ livery despite every effort. It is al­ ways difficult to operate when en­ gaged in construction work on a large scale. Of the four large dredges, two are Bucyrus and two are of Marion manufacture, each couple be­ ing of the same pattern, so that the parts are interchangeable. The three smaller dredges were built by the Bucyrus company. They are of iden- FIELDS 40 degr('p~. Butte Mountain is 860 feet high OV(:r- the water level. The river bends and wind around ten miles af­ ter it first touches the hill, and travels but half a mile with the hill in having made ten miles of a run and dropped three to four feet to the mile, which some day might be used as water power through the coal mine, The analysis of the seams show: fixed car­ bon, 55 per cent; ash, 4% to 7 per cent, and volatile. 29 to 31 per cent. The Tantalus properties lie about 208 miles north of \Vhitehorsr. by the tical design and entirely interchattge- 1.ble~ A sufficient stock of parts is :arned, so as to obviatc delays from slowness of transport. Maintenance of a proper commissariat for laborers scattered over an area 70 miles long by 30 miles wide required some gen­ eralship, etc." The supervision of all this remark­ able work bas been in the hands of singularly youthful men. Older men might stand appalled before the prob­ lems to be solved for the first time. or might prefer to follow safely after established precedent. And. too. with maturer years comes often a liking for greater creature comforts than are to be found on an Arctic frontier. Apparently much the same thought struck Mr. Rickard, from whom we have previously quoted. He says: "The supervision has been in the bands of young men, mostly graduates from mining schools. The chief, O. B. Perry, is a graduate of the Colum­ bia School of Mines; the resident manager, Chester A. Thomas, hails from Stanford University; the super­ !ntendent of dredges, E. li. McCarthy, IS a Harvard man; C. G. Newton, in charge of pipeline construction, is a Michigan graduate; the head of the ~ydraulic mining, George T. Co!Iey, IS a graduate from the school of ex­ perience; H. H. Hall and E. A. A~stin hail from Stanford. They con­ Stitute a fine body of young and vig­ orous men, willing to make the most of the long Arctic day, and eager to hasten a work of which it can be said that it is the most interesting example of man's invasion of the trackless wilderness that borders the Arctic Circle." • By CAPTAIN C. E. MILLER, of Dawson. route of Yukon navigation, along the lake and river; or 130 miles by gov­ ernment road frolll vVhitehorse and 150 miles from the Klondike placer fields. The roofs and floors of these propcrtie.s are solid sandstone, with no InterruptIOn except breaks from later­ al pressure and other cau es. I estimate the Tantalus uutte has three million tons virtually in sight above the river. It is only 400 feet f:om the river. The Tantalus, I es­ tnnate, has four to fiYe million tons under the water line. FURS IN THE YUKON By J. S. BARRON, of Dawson. D AWSON is one of the largest fur centers of the North. The fact that many of the finest furs in the world are obtained from this region has caused this city to be looked on J. S. Banon. -Photc b) Duclos. in the fur world as one of major im­ portance The people of Dawson naturally take to furs in winter, and those who buy in the Dawson market have the first choice, and therefore get the best that is going. Nearly every Klondiker is more or less of an expert in matching and selecting furs, and the women of Dawson wear many of the finest marten, mink, fox, ermine, beaver and wolverine sets to be seen anywhere. The localities in Yukon mostly fre­ quented by trappers are the Pelly the headwaters of the Klondike' the White river, the Stewart and the Fortymile. Some say the best fur is obtained on the headwaters of· the Pelly. where a few y.ears ago marten were plentiful. Dunng the winter of 1902-1903 two trappers caught 446 marten, and also a large number of otter, beaver and mink, which they s?ld at the trading post at Fort Sel­ lurk. Th e marten averaged $7 a skin. In. the PelIy country there is a t~ad111g post at the mouth of Ross fiver, where fur can be sold by trap­ per and suppltes can be obtained for prospecting. Unless a trapper has a large number "f skins, it will not -'" t ? make the trip either to Fort Sel­ kIrk or Dawson as the extra price' that could be obtained would not re­ pay the expenses and time occupied by the trip. !c much higher price can be ob­ tamed for wolves and wolverine in Dawsoll than can be obtained in the ma:-kets outside of the Territory. ThIS class of fur is shipped from Daw­ son to St. Michaels and other points ~)U the lower Yukon, where it is much 111 demand by Indians for trimming purposes. For one wolf or wolverine the Indians will give in exchange three white foxes or three marten. The value of wolves and wolverine is therefore, determined in the Daws01~ market. according to the demand by the IndIans along the lower river. .. :DAWSON bAtL\:' NEWS. SIXTYMILE DISTRICT By ARNOLD F. GEORGE, i Secretary of the Yukon Miners' and Merchants' Association. T HE SixtymiIe creeks head with the Fortymile, and the same general characteristics prevail. The gold is coarse, there has been much concen­ tration of it, and the miners are chiefly engaged in taking it out where it may be described as in "bonanza" quantity. That is to say, the exploita­ tion of cheap ground at a small margin of profit has been neglected in favor of ground where even desultory work and primitive tnethods cannot fail to yield a profit. It is wholly on the British side where the work is being done. The working creeks are fewer, the miners less numerous, and the area of exploited territory far less. But while the activity is confined to Glacier, Miller, Big Gold, Little Gold and Bedrock creeks and a portion of the main Sixtymile itself, it is a self-supporting and profitable country, while recent developments have still more accentuated its "bonanza" features. GLACIER CREEK. Glacier creek is the center of present activity apd population. It is seven miles long and runs into Big Gold just a short distance from where Big Gold in turn empties into the Sixtymile. And thereby hangs an important tale, as will appear later. All of Glacier is staked, with fractions and benches, from 37 above to 33 below, and is represented and held from year to year. Work has of recent years been on the upper end, most of it summer work, many of the miners looking elsewhere for deeper ground with which to occupy themselves in the winter. As far as 18 below good pay was found. Below there the creek acquired a reputation of containing only a little of the finer gold. But J 01111 Stocton staked a discovery on Big Gold near the mouth of Glacier, which claim took in Glacier ground. A tunnel to­ wards Glacier 200 feet long, and a shaft at the end of the tunnel sixty feet down, revealed pay. Later the pay proved to be Glacier pay, and on the left limit, where before unsuspected. The work of the early part of this winter, before I went there, had disclosed an important strike of coarse gold from this Stocton discovery up Glacier very nearly to where the rich pay left off at 18 below years ago. Before the holidays many fair sized dumps were out, activity everywhere, and the promise then made of many five and ten thousand dollar dumps is be­ ing fulfilled. As in the Fortymile country, the aver­ age depth is less than thirty feet. This new pay has already been traced down Big Gold, with every indication, as far as the miners have been able to investigate, that it will continue a greater or less distance on down the Sixtymile. It is a valuable discovery, as the granting by the government of much of the nearby Miller creek in a concession had restricted the known gold area of the miners. Glacier, though only fifty miles from Dawson, in the winter time is very remote from the necessity of reaching there by way of the Fortymile river, and over the divides. Note-The writer here enumerates many claims which are working in Glacier. Five dollar pans are common on Glacier. I panned dirt going into the dumps, unpicked, which went $1, $2 and $3. The width of the new pay had not been demonstrated when I was there. Shafts a hundred feet apart found some edge pay. On down Big Gold the ground is staked to No. 12 be­ low, where Rufus Miller last year got water onto the benches with a three-mile ditch from Glacier. After concentration by ground sluicing, he took pans as high as $50 and $58. Men are too few and too busy to investigate whether the pay continues on down onto the likely benches on the Sixtymile. LITTLE GOLD AND MILLER. This is a tributary of Big Gold further up. Work has been done and gold taken out, but the only men up there are John A. Davison and partner. What is already known guarantees the creek will be worked when transportation charges come down. Miller creek is a duplicate of Glacier in many respects. From discovery to the mouth, thirty claims, is in a concession, but are known to be rich. Only two claims in between are held pri­ vately. To twelve above I found the ground owned and worked. Since my return reports have been received of a very valuable strike on the upper creek, of which there is no reason to be skeptical, since gold h~s been coming from there steadily. The new strike is on No. 5 above, where Madsen and Bourdelais have opened up five feet of gravel carry­ ing coarse gold valued at 8 and 10 cents to the pan. The concession is doing good work preparing for dredging operations. An experimental attempt at hydraulicking proved disastrous. What water has been secured is now being utilized in the most prac­ tical and extensive attempts in the territory to strip off the overburden of muck, and have the sun extract the frost from the gravels. The work done thus far is very promising. With a drill and by drifting and sinking shafts the paystreak has been or is being properly located and staked on the surface, and it is computed that the frost will be extracted even­ tually from the entire auriferous area at a fraction of the cost elsewhere seen in thawing by steam. VALUABLE EXPERIMENT. The experiment is a valuable one for the terri­ tory at large, where the various dredging enter­ prises are against this frost proposition. Success on Miller creek extracting the frost cheaply by the sun will be watched, and success should be given the widest publicity. Upon this point U. S. Geo­ logical Survey Bulletin 345, 1907, says: "Dredging cost in frozen ground is increased by thawing cost, which may range from about 25 cents to 40 cents or more to the cubic yard. It may even be as it has been in certain places in the Klondike, more than 80 cents per cubic yard. It is not likely that dredging frozen ground requiring steam thawing can ever be conducted for less than 50 cents per cubic yard unless a new means of thaw­ ing shall be evolved. This means that inasmuch as it is exceptional to find extensive deposits of allu­ vium at such high tenor, frozen ground in general can not be dredged proftably." The local work of stripping the concession is in charge of Harold Hoskillg, on the ground under Guy Lewingtol1, mining expert of the company. BEDROCK CREEK AND OTHERS. Bedrock parallels Miller, and enters the Sixty­ mile further west-up stream. Every inch of this stream carries gold, of sufficient value to be worked when freights are reduced by better roads and territory, and .some of which may be put down as permanent producers. A creek crossing the boun­ dary, with pay on both sides, is Poker, a summer proposition, with only one man wintering there when I passed. Davis is another. Both are short creeks, shallow, and worked by ground-sluicing and shoveling in. But Moose creek, all of which· is British, but a claim or two at the mouth, is no longer a "sniping" creek. It is staked and held owing to the work of one man who has opened a new discovery on which many men have panned 25 cents. Several more men have moved in. The gold I saw is coarse and flat, and of a dirty high-grade col or. The tracing of the pay from discovery is proceeding with some success and much promise. Bear creek parallels the Yukon at some distance inland. It has long been known to carry gold both on the main stream and its tributaries. It has been the scene of many stampedes, being convenient to Fortymile for that purpose. But persistent search there has been none until lately, when continuous work upon Hubbard, a tributary near the mouth, has uncovered "bonanza" pay, amounting, it is said, to as high as half an ounce to the pan. This strike was since I passed through, and I was therefore unable to personally investigate. Six to ten men worked on Log Cabin creek part of the winter, this being brought about by a recent discovery of two-cent dirt in quantity. The work done has improved the value of the find somewhat, and has shown four feet of it. A word must be said of the enormous plentiful­ ness of game throughout this entire region of Forty­ mile and Sixtymile. Though used for every pur­ pose for which meat can be used, including feeding the dogs, no impression whatever has been made upon the vast herds of caribou which roam the hills. Herds which it would be impossible to count pass Yukon River, Near Dawson. facilities. Several men are permanently located there, and many of the claims are owned and re­ presented. The N. A. T. & T. Co. hold the claims on Sixty­ mile below Miller, both creek and bench, down to nine below the mouth. Only two or three other claims are owned. Sixtymile creek or river shows gold in the bars as far as the Yukon. Ten dollars a day has been made 011 some of the bars near the Yukon by men with grizzlies and rockers. There has been practically no prospecting of the main ex­ tent of this river, with every indication pointing to much gold thereon. At the head of the middle fork. of Sixtymile is an outcropping of interesting quartz. The point is sixteen miles from the Glacier settlement. In four years' work to the extent of $5,000 has been done. A seventy-foot shaft penetrated 14 feet of a cap yielding assays to $20 and $30, while the bottom of the shaft yielded more, chiefly in gold, but carrying tin, galena and iron. . Towards the head of the main Sixtymile is an­ other outcropping of quartz, differing somewhat, but regarded as very valuable by the men exploiting it. Also thirty claims in that neighborhood are recorded on the American side, including a coal mine fur­ nishing excellent samples of coal. On a tributary of Boucher creek is another out­ cropping of lode mineral. Four claims are recorded. BEAR AND OTHER CREEKS. There are many more creeks in the Sixtymile showing goltl, but which creeks cannot be regarded as established. California is only one of these many promising creeks. But across the ridge dividing the Sixtymile watershed from that of the Fortymile are many Fortymile creeks, all and nearly all in British yearly. Miners readily stock their caches, until the meat becomes a surfeit. They were in sight on the hills for months. One man I met got eleven in half a day. It is interesting to note that the Peel river Indians this winter abandoned their own hunt­ ing grounds east of the Yukon, and have spent th~ winter in this territory west of the Yukon. Good trails have been established up Swede creek and over to Sixtymile river by these Indians bringing in their moosemeat and caribou to Dawson. The range of the herds was over the tops of the divides, where the snow is blown from the moss and shrub­ bery, and extends almost from Dawson to the divide between the waters of the Fortymileand the Tan­ ana. Travelers up the Ketchumstock and Mosquito Fork report fabulous herds, the herds being miles wide and requiring many days to pass a given point. It is suggested by experienced hunters that the slay­ ing of the preying wolves by trappers and hunters is what has enabled the herds to attain this enor­ mous size. The plentifulness of game, fish and berries aids the miners materially in overcoming the handicap of excessive cost of food supplies. Glacier is 7 miles long, was very active in years past, but this year will produce more gold than for nine years. Fortymile and Sixtymile show the same high channel's found in Klondike, but owing to the scanty population, extent of the creeks, and lack of crowd­ ing, it is only now attention is coming to be be­ stowed thereon. Big results may safely be pre­ dicted, for whenever cut by the creeks, these chan­ nels have fattened the paystreak just as here. Mr. George's report on the Stewart River coun­ try will be found under the article herein entitled the "Stewart River District" by A. W. H. Smith. DAWSON bAtLY NEWS. Agricunihunfe and Horticuntuufe nn the Y ulkon I N 1898, when the great rush took place to Dawson from the older portions of creation, one man had the nerve to plant a few seeds in the sandy bank of the slough where St. Paul's cathedral of Dawson now stands. He was ridiculed for think­ ing he might raise anything in ground which only a foot beneath the sur­ face was charged with eternal frosts. To the surprise of those who l!1ughed at him and to his own surprise the man succeeded in his little enterprise. The seeds germinated, grew an.d pro­ duced fine vegetables, for which he got a fabulous price from the eager­ to-buy Klondikers. The next year he planted a garden on an is~and ~lear the mouth of the Klondlke river, where he grew several varieties of vegetables. To the surprise of everyone it was found that the vegetables here grew and matured much more rapidly than outside. He sold his crop faster than he could harvest it, and got the then extraordinary prices of $6 a dozen for celery; and 35 to 50 cents a pound for turnips, carrots, beets, cabbages and the like. . . The success of the pioneer expen­ menter in Dawson encouraged others, and the industry rapidly spread near Dawsol1 and each year is taking on more e~tensive phases, until today about 200 acres of land are under cultivation in the suburbs of Daw­ son. and the crops produced are as large in weight per acr.e a.s those ;If any outside farming dl~t~IC~. This is the result when the SOil IS )n proper condition, that is, when it has bee.n cultivated two or three years and IS well fertilized. I have seen oats harvested here that cut 50 bushels clear to the acre; and I have dug po­ tatoes in the vicinity of Dawson yield­ ing 350 bushels to the acre. The islands in the Yukon or other large streams are the best for gar~­ ening because they have no frost JI1 the g;ound, and are more or less of a decayed vegetable matter, and ;tre n?t so sour as the mainland, which IS covered with moss. It is the moss which makes some ground in Yukon very sOur. and as a rul~ v~ry poor. But by plowing and c\11t1va~mg ab?ut three years it becomes qUIte f rhle, and will produce good crops. "Ve are visited about every month by a light frost, so the sensitive plants ~re grown in the greenhouse. These In­ clude melons, tomatoes, peppers, egg plant and cucumbers. Some have been grown however, out of doors with great ~l1ccess after having been start-. ed under glass. By starting the greenhouses .early in February, we have lettuce, rat!lshes, onions and such small stllff JI1 the market by March 20. In the mean­ time we start in the greenhouses celery, tomatoes, peppers, egg plant, cucumbers and the like, and, in fact, plants and flowers of all kinds. By May these plants are of. good size and can be transplanted 111 the open ground. By starting the greenhouse work February 1 to 10, the gardeners get six crops of lettuce or radishes off the same bench, but two or three general­ ly are raised, and the plants then are transferred to hot beds, and the green­ houses filled with tomatoes, cucum­ bers, egg plants, and peppers. The experimenters have not been able to raise any of these last named plants by outside gardening, that is, so as to ripen the fruit, but can do ?o by hav­ ing the plants transplanted tn pots un­ til the first bloom. 10matoes aver­ age eight to twelve pounds to the plant. Because of the frosts coming too early, corn and beans are not a suc­ cess in this country, but garden beans are raised to some extent with great care. Celery g-rows stllendidly by starting the plants in the green­ house twice, to lYet a good root, and then transplanting in the garden in very rich material. This will produce large, crisp and exceedingly tender and luscious celery. I believe nO By WM. S. PADDOCK, Dawson Farmer. celery in the world can excel that of Yukon for tenderness and quality in general. It is a matter of common comment bv all visitors to Yukon. Cabbage -and cauliflower do very well if the plants are started in hot beds, and replanted in the gardens. We use for our winter cabbage what W. S. Paddock. is known outside as the early cab­ bage. Late cabbage will not mature here. Bp,ets, carrots, turnips, -arsnips and the like sown about May 1st in the open garden will mature and yield well. Oats and barley grow well and will ripen when desired, but the farmers find it more profitable to cut it in the milk, and to make it into oat hay, as hay here brings about the same price as oats or other j!-ain -a result of hil!"h freight rates from the coast. Not much timothy hay has been raised in Yukon, but from small experiments it seems that it will grow and thrive here when properly seeded. The two hundred acres of land un­ der cultivaton near Dawson last year, 1908, produced 450 tons of pota­ toes and 150 tons of other vegetables. Green onions are. p-rown to a '!"reat extent, and are an inch to an inch and a half in diameter. Strawberries have not gained any commercial proportions, but some have been grown outdoors with much success. Berries from native plants are grow­ ing quite well. They came originally from the PeUy river, in the Yukon. They stand the Yukon winters splen­ didly. Potatoes yield from 200 to 300 bushels to the acre, and by planting the very earliest seed maturity is se­ cured. Potatoes here have to be dug from September 1st to 15th, whether ripe or not, as a killing frost may be here by September 15th. Sometimes the frosts do not leave the ground af­ ter the last of September. The farms producing hay and grain are becoming quite numerous . . At the head of Flat Creek, 16 miles from Dominion and 50 miles or more from Dawson is a ranch of 160 acres on which are raised much hay and many vegetables. The owner has a herd of stock. Four miles up the PelJy is a farm of 100 acres which su"­ plies oats and native hay to road­ houses on the winter trail and to other. Oats are ripened and thresh­ ed in this vicinity. In the Mayo dis­ trict sufficient wild hay is cut to supply the demand. Prof. John Macoun, Dominion florist, in his extensive reports to the government, embraces this in his pamphlet on Yukon: "I took notes during the seven weeks I was at Dawson of the growth of all cultivated grains and vegetables. Everything, be it native or exotic, grew surprisingly, and I never found any cultivated thing a failure. Growth of vegetables is so rapid and vigorous that to a person coming from the east it is simply astounding. Wh, en I reached Dawson on July 10th early cabbage were being cut, and on August 5th their weight ranged from 3 to 5 pounds. On the 22nd, when I made my last visit, hundreds of matured cabbages and cauliflowers had been cut and sold. I measured the two lower leaves of a cabbage cut the day before, and these placed oppos­ ite each other had an expansion of 3 feet 9 inches with a breadth of 16 inches. I cannot call this even an average one as there were hundreds Klondike Vegetables. lar'l"er but later in maturing. Cauli­ flowers were trom 6 to 10 inches in diameter, but I was told larger ones had been cut. "No doubt the constant daylight gives the force necessary to expand the growing organs of the vegetables in cultivation, but behind the long day are climatic conditions that as yet are little understood which in my opinion are the prevailing factor in 'this wonderful growth." Writing of the agricultural possi­ bilities of the Yukon, Dr. Dawson, Dominion scientist, after whom Daw- son City is named, says, that to-day the Yukon Territory may well be characterized by the term which has been employed in connection with the Mackenzie basin, a portion of "Canada's great reserve." In the future there is every reason to look forward to the time when this coun­ try (Yukon) will support a large and llardy population, attached to the soil and making the utmost of its re­ sources. It was computed by Dr. D:lwson in 1887 that within the drainage area of the Yukon, as far nortJ1 as Fort Selkirk, there was an area of 60,000 square miles, of which a lar~e pro­ portion mivht be utilized for the cul­ tivation of crops, and in which cattle and hor es could be maintained for local purnoses. Since that time there have been discovered other important agricultural districts, which would af­ ford ample scope for farming opera­ tions, and the extent of territory available for agricultural purposes is greatly in excess of the area com­ puted by Dc Dawson. It might be interesting to quote here an extract from Dr. Dawson's report of 1887, showing how much he was impressed at that time by the agricultural pos­ sibilities of the Yukon. He wrote: "To instance a region which pro­ duces the general conditions of the Yukon district and adjacent IJ orth­ ern portions of British Columbia, we must turn to the inland provinces of Russia, to which allusion has already been made in connection with clim­ atic features. The province of Vol­ ogda. in European Russia, appears to offer the nearest parallel. It is cir­ cumstanced relativel-- to the west­ ern shores of Europe as is this dis­ trict to the western shores of the North American continent. Its area is 155,498 square miles, situated be­ tween the 58th and 65th degrees of latitude. The climate in both cases is a continental one, in which severe winters alternate with warm sum­ mers, and the actual degrees of cold and heat, so far as our information goes, are not dissimilar. '1 nere is no very heavy rainfall in either reg­ ion, such as we find near the west­ ern coasts bordering on the Atlantic and on the Pacific respectively. The agricultural products from the pro­ vince of Vologda are oats, rye, bar­ ley, hemp, flax and pulse. The min­ eral products comprise salt, copper, iron and marble, but the precious metals do not a~~ear to be impor­ tant, as in the Yukon district. Horses and cattle are reared, and the skins of various wild ;.nimals, as well as pitch and turpentine, are amon- the .. e~port~. The population of the pro­ Vl!lce IS 1,161,000." It is computed that the quantity of potatoes r"wn near Dawson last season an( laced on the market aR'­ gregated ~ tons. It has been es­ timated that the population in the Yu­ kon consumes annually over $200,000 worth of potatoes. During the pre­ sent the principal industry is mining, and agricultural develop men t must necessarily proceed accordinR' to the requirements of the population en­ gaged in the mining industry. Farm­ ing operations can only be successful so long as those who are engaged in l~ricultural pursuits produce no more than is required for consumption within the Territory. Up to the pre­ sent time, however, the number of agriculturists is not sufficient to sup­ ply the local demand for farm pro- DAWSON DAILY NEWS. duce, and the quality of some of the products is not quite equal to the imported article; but as Professor Macoun has pointed out in his re­ port on the Yukon, "these matters will right themselves in time, but the climate must not be blamed for the ignorance of the cultivator." Care­ ful and systematic farming opera­ tions, with due regard to the pecul­ iarities of the climate, would abolish the importation into the Yukon of many of the agricultural products re­ quired by the people of Dawson and surrounding district. If hay, oats, po­ tatoes, etc., were grown in such quan­ tities as would supply the local mar­ ket, the price would be much less than is paid at the present time for imported products, the transporta­ tion rates would be avoided and the consumer would derive the benefit. Instead of the people of the Yukon paying large sums outside of the Ter­ ritory for these products, the agricul­ turists in the Yukon would transact the business, and the money would be retained in the Territory, and prob­ ably invested in such a waY as would aid in its future development. In the latter part of April, 1907. one farmer near Daw on, who had held his stock of home-grown pota­ toes during the winter, sold 13~ tons at 13 cents per pound. which brought him a round sum of $3,500. Potatoes grown in the Yukon are ql1ite equal in size to the imported product, and when the proper kind of seed in planted in suitable soil and attention is given to the cultivation, potatoes can be grown fully equal in quality to the best outside product. The best quality of potatoes so far 61 have been grown on the islands in th e Yukon river. On the land uHound­ ing Dawson, either in the valleys or on the benches, potatoes of good quality can only be grown after the land has been cultivated for few years. On an island in the Yukon river at Ogilvie 175 pounds of po­ tatoes were planted on the 12th of May, 1906. and by the first or second week in September the crop was ready for lifting, and yielded 8,000 pounds. Many instances of success in rais­ ing garden supplies or oat. hay and the like on various farms in Yukon could be cited. and for further refer­ ences the inquirer is referred to the government reports, which may be had on inquiry of the aR'ricultur.·1 de­ partment at Ottawa. How to Outfit for Prospecting By ROBERT HENDERSON, discoverer of the first gold in the Klondikt Basin. now assistant to the territorial mining engineer. , T HE cheechaco, or newcomer. en­ tering the Yukon to prospect ~hould receive a little preliminary in­ struction before launching into the wilderness. He cannot start into the Yukon to spend the winter without enough money to defray the co t ~f a winter's outfit. If one leaves Whlte­ horse in the ummer. the trip down the Yukon river may be made by teamer or in sman boat. It always is ~asy to arrange accommodation. By buying in a Canadian town, goods entering the Yl~k0!l will not be subject to duty, but It IS best, a~l things considered, to buy an ou~flt right in Dawson, or one not cotlung to Dawson, to buy at Whitehorse . .tly buying in this territory, one has the benefit of experienced and scrupulous traders who know just what is adapted to thi~ region, and who will in giving the hest for the peculiar work to be undertaken. The prospector should leave Da\~­ son in August or September. At tl:lIs time the summer floods are over, flies arc less troublesome, and game and fish plentiful. 'Whenever possible, the pro ;pector should go by boat. For shallow, swift and narrow rivers, a boat 30 feet Ion 1/:. 26 inches bottom, 22 inches in depth is the best. Hav­ ing procured his boat, 150.feet of ~ inch hemp rope and a pair of long rubb boots, the prospector next takes on his provisions. always Ijear­ ing in mind that articles less likely to be damaQ'ed hy water should h.e placed in the bottom. The outfIt for 12 months should comprise the following: Flour. 500 Ibs.: roIled oats, 150 Ibs.; cornmeal. 50 Ibs.: rice, 25 Ibs.; beans, 75 Ibs.; sugar, 125 Ibs.: Lubeck P ?­ tatoes. 60 Ib5.: butter. SO Ibs.: a"fI­ cots. 25 Ibs.; prunes, 25 Ibs.; apples, 25 Ibs.: milk, two cases; cream, two cases: ham. 25 lbs.; bacon, 50 Ibs.: salt. 15 Ills.: pepper, 1 lb.: syrup. 5 gallons; baking powder, two Ibs.; haking soda, two lbs.: yeast ca~es, six boxes: soap, 12 Ibs.; best "llot hrean, 30 Ibs.: candles. two boxes: to­ bacco: best woolen underwear. three suits: thick overshirts. 3; thick wool~n sox, 12 pair: German sox. 2 pa~r: woolen pants 1 pair: overalls. 3 pair: felt shoes. 1 pair: rubber shoes, 2 pair: moccasins, 3 pair; ins~les for moccasins. 6; snowshoes, 1 paIr: pack straps. 1 set: eye glasses. col.ored •. 1 pair ; good field glas cs. 1 pair; reli­ able pocket compass: fur robe; fur cap: canvas jacket; sweater: l!-xes, 2; small camp axe, I; augur, 0 111 ch , 1; crosscut saw, :4 feet; whiosaw; jack ~lane; nails. 15 lb. 10 oenny; claw hammer; flat files, 2: three .cor­ nered fi les, 2: sharpening stone; picks, 2: shovels, 3: gold pans. 2; sheath knives 2; Yukon stove with oven or drum" 30-30 \Vinchester rifle, good shot gun: 200 rounds for :if1e; 200 rounds for shot gun; frYl11g pan: knife fork and plate: small "ots, 4; large' enamelled mugs, 2. The outfit should include a small menicine chest. among the contents of which should be one box of car­ bolic qlve ann half pint bottle of pero)(ine of hydrogen or other equal­ ly good antiseptic. One gallon of concentrated lime juice should be taken along to make a pleasant and invigorating drink, and it will be a most effect!,lal preventative of scurvy. The tent should be lOx12 feet. It serves, when not in use, to cover up the outfit, a precaution that should never be neglected either in the boat or in the camp. The nrospector will have no diffi­ culty in providing himself with fresh meat. The country abounds with moose, bear, caribou, mountain sheep, geese, ducks, ptarmigan, partridges and grouse and cranes and swans alight on the bars of the upper rivers by the thousands. Beaver, land ot­ ter, marten, lynx, wolf, fox, wolverine and other fur-bearing animals are plentiful around the upper reaches of Yukon side streams. On the trail in severe weather, al­ ways make camp while there is plenty of daylight. Never travel in fOf'~'r or stormy weather: always have matches and dry birch bark ready to make a fire quickly. Eat regularly even if you are not hun~rv SAMPLES O F YUKON GRAI NS (Photo by Duc1os.) The accompanying illustration gives an idea of the wheat. oats and native grass that can be grown in Yukon. Samples shown in the picture stand six feet, two inches high. The grass Keep your hands and feet dry, and­ don't forget your tobacco. It is weIl on a trip of this kind to take two or three good dogs and a Yukon sleigh. The dogs cost little to feed in a game country. The sleigh can be packed in the boat, and will be useful for moving camp from creek to creek. Make a good warm shelter for the dogs and feed them at night. To keep the outfit while in camp, cut four trees a few feet apart. and 12 feet from the ground. Pick off the bark. and build a platform on top and let it extend about three feet on each side beyond the supports. Place sup­ plies on top and cover with canvas and spruce boughs. They are in this way protected from bears and other animals. In building a cahin. make it big enough. It takes little longer to build a cabin 16xl2 than one of less dimensions, and this is large enough for all requirements. Level off the is known as spare- top,- brown top and fuzz top. The oats mature and thresh 46 pounds to the bushel. These samples grew on Clear creek, a fe\v mil,s below Dawson. Similar grain and grass is grown in many places in Yukon. ground, and let the first logs be im .. bedded in it. Cover well with moss and lay the next log on top, and so with ach lo!! until the walls are ix feet high. 'l'he logs forming the gable must be pinned together with 10 inch wooden pegs, and the ridge pole laid in place. A smaller log on each side of the r idge pole further supports the roof, which i made of poles 3 or 4 inches in diameter, laid side by side and covered with moss and earth. \Vhipsaw a few boards to make a door. Pieces of moose skin make good hinges, and a clean flour sack steeped in melted taHow or oil make a good substitute for glass. Your partner on a prospecting trip should be a man with whom you an: well acquainted, and of jovial and op­ timistic disposition. Avoid argu­ ments, especially of a religious or political nature, and the golden adag-e la kind word turneth away wrath,"-:s nowhere so forcibly realized as in the wilderness. Fraternities in Dawson I D A\VSo,T is a most a rdent fratern ity center. Five orders are represented here, namely. the Yukon Order of Pioneers, the Arctic Brotherhood, both of which are of northern origin and limitation; the Masons, the Oddfellows and the Eagles. The city also has a Canadian Club, an American Club and other such organizations. The Yukon Order of Pioneers is several years old, and was fo rmed among the leading pioneers of the Yukon valley vears ago. It has been maintained in Dawson bv a number of old timers intently devout to the old traditions and fond of meeting occasionaIly to talk over old times and look after their fellow trail-blazers. The Pioneers have their own hall. Camp Dawson of the Arctic Broth­ erhood is one of the strongest of the many camps of this peculiarly and exclu ively northern order. I t num­ bers among its members nearly every prominent citizen ann official of the Yukon, and many noted men of the continent who have visited the country but temporarily. No man is eligible to join the order unless he does so while in Alaska or Yukon. The Masons have been organized in Dawson since early days, and have a fine temple. They have organized here branches of the blue lodge. the Roval . rch, and the Knight Tem­ pIal'. all of which are flourishing. The Fraternal Order of Eagles is represented in Dawson oy Aerie No. 50. onc of the staunchest of all Eagledom. The membership is very large, and the aerie has its own home in the heart of the city. The hall is one of the most popular for public as­ semblies in Dawson. The Oddfellows of Dawson were organized in the early days of the camp. and have one of the heavies t enrollments of any order in the Yukon. They purchased' their own home two years ago, and have con­ yerteel it into a most enjoyable place for lodge and social gatherings. 62 Oldest O F all the creeks of the Klondike placer camp, that which has seen most activity and extensive op­ erations on the largest number of claims is Bonanza. After it comes several other important streams on the Klondike river side of the camp, and chief among them are Hunker and El­ dorado and their tributaries. The creek claims and some of the more choice bench properties of these creeks are absorbed by one mammoth concern. in which New York capital is chiefly interested. The company has a fleet of electrically dri~en dredges several hydraulic lifts or ele­ vators 'and a number of hydraulic plants; all in operation, with elab­ orate accessories in the way of 30 miles of water ditch, hydro-electrical power plants and the like, represe~t!ng an investment of ten to twenty mtlhon dollars. This concern plans, in short, to tear the bottom from all these old streams with dredges and hydraulic elevators and then to cut off the hills with hyd~aulic process. The work in fact is under way. Hundreds of claims on these various streams are held by individuals, but it seems they eventually will go into the hands of the present big co!,!cern or ot~er similar concerns seek111g placer 111- vestment on a large scale. For this reason the prospector in virgin ground is devoting his attention chiefly to other localities in the Yukon. Since the portion covered by the one big concern here is within a radius of 25 miles of Dawson, very little of the total area of Yukon Territory is cov­ ered by big mining concerns' hold- ings. . Over the divide from the Klondike side is the Indian river division, whe~e Dominion creek. Gold Run, Sul­ phur and Quartz are the main. produc­ ing streams. Hundreds of m111ers are operating on those streams in the im­ proved individual methods, and are getting out large dumps each year. A number of the large dredge and hydraulic companies of California have been looking into the field, but as yet none have entered the field to operate. It would not be surprising if within a short time some of the big concerns will be tempted to gobble these pro­ positions. But there are thousands of gold bearing streams left open to prospectors. A short review of t~ese older creeks of the camp, espeCIally as to their discovery and opening, and a word about the work on each will here be of interest. BONANZA CREEK. T HE first in the order of its discov­ ery and its access from Dawson is Bonanza Creek. In 1896 Skookum Jim and Tagish Charley, Indians, and their white brother-in-law, George Carmack, made the joint discovery of gold that brought to them fame and fortune and to the world its greatest placer gold field. To Carmack the world has granted the honor of this discovery because the legal records so declare, but Skookum Jim. ~he In­ dian claims the honor for hIS very own: alleging that Carm~ck's ! now­ ledge was derived from hIm. Jlm re­ lates that during a hunting trip on Bonanza with his brother, ... agish Charley he stopped to drink from Rabbit Creek opposite the now fam­ ous discovery point, and as he drank saw in the creek bed the glitter of a golden nugget. With this as a. talis­ man he visited the present sIte of Dawson where Carmack was camped with his Indian wife and revealed to him the locality of the find. To­ gether the trio returned to the spot and staked off four claims, discovery, No. 1 below, and I and 2 above, and Carmack thence proceeded to Forty­ mile bearing the news of the discov­ ery 'and recording the claims located by 'them. The rush of prospectors from Forty-mile followed soon after and from discovery point pushed their investiO'ations over intervening hills to oth~r valleys and creeks, widening the circle and extending the field of DAWSON DAiLY NEWS. Klondike Placer Creeks By DR. G. M. FAULKNER, of Dawson, Experienced Heavy Klondike Operator. their activities until the region em­ braced in the Klondike Gold Fields covers the largest continuous area of known placer ground in the world. The operations on Bonanza were not extensive in 1897, but in 1898 they began to assume proportions. and a year later were yielding millions. The benches and gulches, including Chee­ chaco Hill, Gold Hill, Adams Hill and others quickly came into FJrominence, and also w ere great producers. At Dr. Geo. M. Faulkner. -Phot. o by Duclos. present but a few operators are on these streams or hills, but the one big company has 5000 inches of water from Twelvemile river, which is be­ ing brought in at a cost of many millions, as has been intimated. ELDORADO CREEK. S URPRISINGLY rich Eldorado Creek, a tributary of Bonanza, enters at No. 7 above Discovery. The phantom Eldorado in Central South America could not have been imagined to be richer than this verit­ able "channel of gold." Along its length for nearly four miles there is not a single blank, and most of the claims are fabulously rich. This creek. the most productive of all the Klondike region, was discover­ ed in 1896, shortly after the discovery of gold on Bonanza. by popular story those who got claims on El­ dorado were ignorant Cheechacos, who knew nothing of mining, and the discovery of gold was the result of ac­ cident. This is not according to the strict letter of history as told by Frank Phiscator. In company with Antone Stander, Frank Keller, J ames Clements and one Whipple, Mr. Phiscator was looking for a location on Bonanza creek, having come up from Fortymile on that account. The party had passed Eldorado and had located the claims Nos. 32, 33, 34, 35 and 36 above on Bonanza. On the way up the creek Phiscator had gone a little way up Eldorado and panned along the creek bed. He had obtain­ ed encouraging results, but the party, lured by the tales of richness on Bonanza, had passed by. However, as they came down from their Bon­ anza claims, Phiscator prevailed on them to stop and have a try on EI­ dorado. Phiscator put a hole down on what is now the line between Nos. 2 and 3. The result here encouraged him to believe that Eldorado was a rich creek, and he believed himself entitled to a discovery claim. He had been on the ground about six days when another party arrived, headed by a man named Cobb-. Cobb learn­ ing that Phiscator had staked ~ claim on Bonanza as well as Eldorado, put his stakes on the same ground Phis­ cator had staked, and hence there ensued a contest over possession of the ground. Phiscator claimed a dis­ coverer's rights on Eldorado, calling the creek Whipple creek, but Cobb contended that Phiscator, having pre­ viously staked on Bonanza, was not entitled to a claim on the new creek, which · Cobb in his application called Eldorado. The name Cobb chose was finally given to the creek, but Cobb was deprived of a claim and Phiscator was awarded No. 2 Eldor­ ado instead of a discovery on Whip­ pIe creek, which at that time perhaps seemed a fair division of the honors, if not of the spoils. Strange as it may seem, Eldorado creek, though now known to have been by far the richest creek in the country, was at first frowned upon as "only fit for Cheechacos." When all the available ground on Upper and Lower Bonanza had been located miners reluctantly drove their stake~ on Eldorado ground, cursing their luck in not being in time to get pro­ perty on Bonanza. It was on No. 8 that bedrock was first struck on EI­ dorado and pans of unprecedented richness' were taken out. From that time on all along the creek miners seemed to be vying with one another as to who should locate pay first. HUNKER CREEK. H UNKER creek is the second in importance and discovery in Dawson division, and until the ad­ vent of Gold Commissioner Fawcett in the spring of 1897 was known officially as the Hunker district. It is not usually heralded with the pomp and consequence of Bonanza and its tributaries, yet it deserves a first place in the catalogue of gold producers. It may not have the rich­ ness of Eldorado in its creek, and Gold Hill may out-rival the benches and hillsides in its immensely rich pay, still for extent of pay ground in its watershed, Hunker is without an equal. From 43 above to 2 below the concession, a claim which is fully one mile beyond the Hunker valley on the Klondike flat, a total distance of six­ teen miles, this creek carries pay ground, some of it being exceedingly rich. Gold Bottom, Last Chance and numerous other tributaries are rich contributors. Benches and hillsides on both limits of Hunker creek, and the left limit of its tributaries, are very extensive. Hunker creek from its head, at the Dome, to its confluence with the Klondike is about eighteen miles in length, and is very narrow, wit.. the exception of a few places, until 44 be­ low is reached, where it widens con­ siderably, there being places between 44 and 76 where it is 500 yards across the valley. At 76 it becomes very narrow and from there to the mouth of the creek it gradually spreads out, and at times is fully half a mile from base to base. Andrew Hunker, the discoverer of Hunker creek, located discovery and 1 above on September 6, 1896. Hunker arrived from Fortymile on his way to the Bonanza stampede on August 21, and spent about ten days on the creek looking for "something good," which he was unable to find, and concluded to go to Gold Bottom to see Henderson, but passed that creek, thinking it nothing but a pup. He reached what is now Hunker creek by the way of Carmack's Forks and Last Chance, and spent four days prospecting the creek. He arrived at what is now discovery on September 5, and finding a place where bedrock was exposed began panning and in two hours had panned $22.75. This was a little better than the "something good" Andy had been looking for, and the next day he staked. He worked the property on a small scale until May 1897 when he sold to Tom Kirkpatrick for $165,000. Hunker now enjoys "something good" outside. In the summer of 1897 but little work was done on account of the al­ most. ~tter impossibility of getting provIsIons and tools to the creek. In the winter of 1897 Hunker was alive with men and enjoyed a huge boom in November, and property sold for boom prices. GOLD RUN CREEK. T HE Eldorado of the Indian river division, or Gold Run, has al­ ways been a favorite with the mining public. The doubts and uncertainties DAWSON DAILY NEWS. 63 that have always been so freely ex­ pressed concerning other creeks be­ yond the Dome have never been ap­ plied to this stream which has ever enjoyed a large share of the general confidence. It is often, and justly, called the Eldorado of the Indian river division; and in many of its physical features, as well as in its remarkable yield of gold in a limited length, it re­ sembles the Pactolus of the Klondike. In length, Gold Run traverses about twelve miles from its source to its confluence with Dominion at 227 be­ low lower discovery. It does not rise in the Dome as nearly all the paying creeks do, but has its source in a high spur that juts out from the Dome a considerable distance and forms one of the flanking ridges that break away toward Indian river. Both Sulphur and Dominion rise close together in the Dome, but as they radiate from it like spokes from the hub of an im­ mense wheel they leave an increasing margin of space between. It is in this space that Gold Run takes its rise. Gold was first struck on this stream in the summer of 1897, but no dis­ covery was allowed upon it, as the authorities held that it was simply a tributary of Dominion. In consequence of this decision the numbers com­ mence at its mouth and advance by numerical progression toward ils head. The first trail up the creek was made by D. Ennis, Billy ]vr C)ss and K H. Ennis, who first Ditched camo at the mouth of Gold Run. febJ·uary· 9, 1898. They prospected and aftcrw~.rd staked 108, 109 and 110, whNe g'lld was foun-! ]-,ur not "pay." Cla;ms were staked up to 1:)0. SULPHUR CREEK. S ULPHUR creek, in the rather forcible language of a miner who was discussing the subject, "has been damned with the faint­ est praise of any st:eam i.n the district." At tImes It has well nigh been forsaken by the dejected owners. The above, was a good one, but it took about all the gold the ground yielded to pay for the plant and maintain current operating expenses. No. 18 below was another illustration of the same truth, being handicapped from the start with a costly plant that was frequently in need of repair and that caused numerous delays at a time when gravel should have been rapidly taken out. Sulphur is only very rich in spots. Its paystreak is wide and the general average fairly remunerative. but on streams like this economy of manage­ ment is the first essential to success. Owners are realizing the force of this fact, and as a result the creek yielded a better profit last summer than ever before. A better understanding of the peculiar conditions prevailing there and the application of more improved methods, has restored con fidence in its value, and in the years to come Sulphur can be depended on for a regular and profitable yield of gold. Rising in the Dome, Sulphur creek flows south a distance of eighteen miles to its confluence with Indian river, its bedrock formation being a mica-schist, intersected with porphy­ ritic dykes. In its course it receives several important tributaries, the best known being Green, Meadow and Brimstone. These tributaries are all staked, but with the exception of Green prospecting has been barren of results. There is some pay at the mouth of Meadow creek. QUARTZ CREEK. Q UARTZ creek was the first mined creek in what is now known as the Klondike camp. A year before Carmack made his famous dis­ covery on Bonanza creek "Billy" Rad­ ford, who had been prospecting along Looking Up the Klondike from Dawson. truth lies between these two extremes of feeling. Parts of Sulphur are good and pay a fair return for effort ex­ pended, while other parts are of so low a grade that every attempt to work them has resulted in financial loss. There are difficulties in the way of mining on Sulphur. It is wide and the paystreak irregular, while the depth to bedrock makes operations there rather costly. The shallowest part of the creek is twenty-five feet, while many of the claims are worked to a depth of sixty feet. The general aver­ age is about forty feet along that part of tIle stream where work is be­ ing done. Several of the claims on Sulphur seem to confirm the truth of the old saying that it costs a dollar to take a dollar out, though under a more eco­ nomical system of operating the cost need not have been so great. In the excitement over th'e creek that existed two years ago owners went to vast expense to procure machinery, and in one instance a $75,000 plant was in­ stalled, equipped for sluicing in the winter time. That claim, No. 36 Indian river, ascended one of its tributaries and discovered gold in pay­ ing quantities about eight miles from its mouth. He named the creek Quartz creek and the discovery has ever since been designated as Rad­ ford's discovery. The pay was of low grade and so, when Carmack made his fabulously rich find and the riches of Eldorado were being revealed, Quartz creek was deserted. Radford was ac­ companied by Bob Henderson. In 1897, however, A. Macks dis­ covered gold on Quartz at the mouth of the pup which now bears his name. This discovery is five miles above the mouth of Quartz and three miles be­ low Radford's. GOLD HILL. T REASURE laden Gold Hill is the "Hub of the Klondike." This mountain of gold, this desider­ atum of precious metal-situated in the geographical center of these great placer gold fields-lay for years, un­ disturbed, unnoticed. Gold Hill is at the junction of Upper Bonanza, EI­ dorado and Lower Bonanza, and from its golden crest one looks down upon the mining town, Grand Forks. For nearly two years after the discovery of gold by Carmack, during which time active mining operations were carried on all along Bonanza and El­ dorado, the treasures of Gold Hill were unknown. Although discovery was made near the base of Gold Hill, no one dreamed that gold would be found three or four hundred feet above on the apparently barren hill that Ifowned down upon them. However, there is always some one more venturesome than others, who is willing to suffer the scoff and ridicule of the masses in order to test some pet theory of his own. In this case a Cheechaco (tenderfoot), either through sublime ignorance or by in­ spiration, commenced to prospect for gold on this hill. Even his own part­ ner and cabin mates "joshed" and ridiculed him for his supposed folly to such an extent that he could get no one to assist him, and was obliged to prospect alone. He commenced sink­ ing a "prospect hole" near the rim of the hill, on the Big Skookum side. To do this work alone it was neces­ sary for him to build fires to thaw the frozen ground. When a fire had burned out he would go down into the hole, fill a bucket with the thawed out dirt, climb a ladder to the top and then windlass the bucket of dirt to the surface. By this slow process he finally attained a depth of sixty­ three feet, and struck the rich pay which has since given Gold Hill its name. Probably no one ever realized more keenly than he did at that time that "He laughs best who laughs last." Naturally, a wild stampede follow­ ed. Claims were located far and wide, and soon the whole hill was peopled with burrowing hundreds. Some were successful, others not; but the result of it all was the uncover­ ing 'of one of nature's richest store­ houses. It was on Nels Peterson's property that discovery was made. After taking out $10,000, the claim was sold for $40,000 to the Alliance company, of Philadelphia. FRENCH HILL. FIRST among the discoveries on bench and hillside ground was that made on French Hill by an in­ trepid miner familiarly known as "Caribou Bill." The discovery was mad. in March, 1898, and it demon­ strated the fact that all the gold in the Klondike was not in the creek claims, hut that thousands upon thou­ sands of pent-up treasure lay within the rock-dbbed hills. French Hill, opposite No. 16 Eldorado, on the left limit, has proven to be a fabulously rich find. The eight claims around discovery have probably not been ex­ celled in output of gold. While this gold is of a low assay value, it is noted for its coarseness. More beau­ tiful nuggets have been taken out of this hill than from half the Klondike beside. BEAR CREEK. A T a distance of about seven miles from the Yukon Bear creek en­ ters the Klondike from the left limit. Bear creek was discovered on Sep­ tember 17, 1896, by Solomon Mau­ berg. In 1896, when Mr. Mauberg, in company with William Corley and Frank .T ohnson poled up from Forty­ mile, they found Bonanza staked from end to end and concluded to try for a new creek. known distance of thirty-tive miles and th~ prospecting now going on may show. It to possess a greater length. Its WIdth has never been determined with sufficient accuracy to form a just estimate, but in the opinion of those best acquainted with the creek it ap­ proximates 500 feet, sometimes fol­ lowing one limit of the creek and sometimes the other. In .v~ry few places can the pay of Dom1l11On be called exceptionally rich when compared with such streams a~ Eldorado, but it is uniform enough and great enough to yield a handsome pro­ fit on the work done and the vast ex­ tent of p~y possessed assures a steady and cont1l1UOUS supply of the precious metal. In the three years that it has been worked, Dominion has annually produced from $2,500,000 to $4,000,000. The new discoveries along the lower reaches of the creek near the mouth of Gold Run, will likely augment the output considerably in another sea­ son, as they are attracting the atten­ tion of miners from all parts of the district. There are two discoveries on Do­ minion creek due to the fact that the two stakers both claimed priority in the discovery of gold and priority in staking. These discoveries are the size of ordinary creek claims, are five miles apart and are designated as "Upper Discovery" and "Lower Dis­ covery." Albert Fortier (Hootch Albert) was the first man to find gold on Domin­ ion. During the fall of 1896 after Carmack had discovered gold on Bon­ anza Hootch Albert prospected 011 lower discovery and found prospects on rimrock. No recording was done for the reason that Albert and his party intended to sink to bedrock the next spring. The other members of his party were Camille Corbeil, Frank Pijon and Max Landreville. At approximately the same time an­ other party composed of Tim Con­ olly, Mr. Dnieper, Louis Corkey and a few others caused a stampede to the ground around upper discovery, but Hootch Albert's party rushed to lower discovery to stake. No double claims were allowed. but discovery was re­ corded for both parties. The first winter work was done on No. 2 below lower, where the owners had out by far the largest dump on the creek. E. Alexander, of No. 31 below upper, was also among the first to do extensive winter work. Pans were found which showed $5 and $10 causing great excitement on the entir~ creek. GOLD BOTTOM CREEK. G OLD BOTTOM is a tributary of H unker creek, coming in on the right limit at 29 below Discovery. Originally Gold Bottom extended to the Klondike, Lut Hunker's name ap­ plying to his discovery immediately changed the name of the lower creek. How little we hear of this creek! Yet it must be indelibly impressed upon us that it was here the first work in the Troandike was done. Had it not been for Henderson working on Gold Bottom and findins- pay enough (and being kind enough) to send word to his friend, George Carmack, the chances are none of us would have been here now to enjoy the blessings which the district has poured upon us. And yet, in spite .of the result of the labors of Henderson and Carmack, not even a street is named in their honor. "Bob" Henderson was working this ground in 1896, having previously been on Quartz creek. He found pay and sent word to Carmack, who was at a point near the present site of Klon­ rlike Citv familiarly known as "Louse Town." When Carmack made his dis­ covery on Bonanza he sent no word to Henderson, and as the latter had no Jpowledge of the new strike, he contl11ued work on Gold Bottom until too late to stake anything good in the new diggings. Although Henderson had worked this ground, yet he did not record it. It was none other than Alexander Mc­ B ROAD and bounteous Dominion Donald who staked and recorded the creek. No stream in the coun- claim. They arrived on September 16 on what they called creek on ac­ count of the constant appearance of bruin. After prospecting on several places they finally found, on what was staked for discovery, a fifteen-cent pan on rimrock. Other nans went as high as $1.25. Mr. Mauberg staked discovery, William Cooley 1 below, and Mr. Johnson 2 below. Bear creek is about eight miles in length and as it runs in a northerly direction, erosion has not been extensive, and the creek in consequence is a veritable canyon. DOMINION CREEK. try has the demonstrated length of Gold Bottom is about eight miles in paystreak that is possessed by Domin- length, and the erosion is much more ion creek. Commencing almost at the marked than on the part of Hunker extreme head. in the flanking spurs of above the mouth of Gold Bottom. the Dome, the pay follows the tor- Black Hills. Hubbard and many new tuous windings of the creek for a creeks since have come to the front. DAWSON DAILY N E WS. Beneficent Government Some Good W orks D one for Yukon's Benefit By O TTO F. KASTNER Vice-Presiden t of D awson News P ublishing Co. N O'rHING can more retard a country in its struggle to reach its maximum deyelopment than bad government, and nothing more hasten destiny of wealth or greatness of a naturally richly endowed country than good government. Yukon fortunately is favored with good government. T h ere was a time when, in the hurry and organization of order out of chaos in a camp 2,000 miles from Otto F. Kartner. -Photo by Duclos. the seat of government, the most re­ mote outpost of the empire, that there may have been some ground for temporary complaint, but without doubt the heads of government in the responsible positions at the national capitol were for the good of the country, and as rapidly as system could be evolved and the avenues of communication with the nation's nerve center opened, everything quickly got into good running order. Not only has Yukon been provided with protection to life and property, but a splendid system of roads, cost­ ing between onc and two millions of dollars, have been built in various parts of t he territory, an accomplish­ ment which stands without parallel in any sub-Arctic country Britain well can be proud of this, and to know that Alaska with all its promise even has been distanced in this res­ pect by the Canadians. The police service maintained in Yukon by the Royal Northwest l\Iounted Police alone has been . a feature, making life and property safer than in any frontier or mining region ever before in the history of the world. Murder and robbery scarcely have been known, a marked contrast to western camps of this continent with their hundreds of mur­ ders and endless lawlessness. In respect to public works, the gov­ ernment has been most generous, ex­ pending millions, and making most elaborate provision for careful hand­ ling of the people's businelOs. A few facts will assist to appreciate this work. The public buildings of Dawson are the finest buildings, taken as a class, in the north. They include the Ad­ ministration Building', virtually the capitol building of Yukon, where the commissioner, or governor, and others of his department, and var­ inus branches of the government are situatf'd, erected at a cost of $100.- 000. It covers 9000 square feet. and was erected in 1901. Eighty officials can find accommodation there. The postoffice buildinQ,". a fine two­ story structure, cost $50,000, and is heated with hot water. The court house is about the same size as the postoffice. and of about the same cost, and is eQl1ally well furnisherl and heated. The school­ house. of two stories and eight rooms, accommodates 200 or more children. and cost $40,000. It is heated with hot air. 'rhe Government House, or executive mansion. cost $45,000 orig­ inally. Improvements and furnishings have run the cost near to $100,000, and it is one of the finest buildings in the north. It is palatial in appearance, and handsomely furnished. Dawson is served with telegraphic communication connecting it with all parts of the world. The Dominion rrovernment constructed a line from Bennett to Dawson in the summer and fall of 1899, and the next year extended it northward to the Alaskan boundary. Work also was com­ menced that yeal' at Quesnelle and Hazelton on a through line from the Canadian Pacific Railway to connect with the Dawson line. This meant operation through 11 wilderness of 1,000 miles ill extent but in Sentem­ ber of 1901 the work was completed. 'fhe Canadian line now extends from the boundary north of Dawson south to Vancouver. serving Whitehorse, AtIin, Port Sil11pson and all way points. a total of 2.000 miles. The ocean cables, thus affording more than one outlet to the outer world. One more big public enterprise is that of blazing an all-Calladian trail from the Northwest to Yukon, via the preserJt telegraph route. '1 his is nearly done. and may mean much to the Yukon's future safety. This is an instance of government foresight. The latest financial statements from Ottawa show that Yukon has not been required to pay for Yukon. but that Ottawa has contributed con- iderable more than collected from Yukon in taxes. Other parts of Can- Winter View of Government House, Dawson. line was constructed at great risk and ada can have no complaint on this expense, and is one of the boasts of score when it is recalled that an­ Yukon. It is owned and operated by nually Yukon buys supplies from all the Dominion of Canada. Splendid parts of Canada to the value of mil­ service is given, and as for the Daw- lions of dollars. All parts of Canada son end, Manager William Brown- can help, and with good reason. to low and his efficient staff always are develop the Yukon, and the market most cOtlTteous, painstaking and ef- that goes with it, and all parts well ficient. Dawson also has connection can appreciate the government which with wire with Nome, Valdez, Skag- has done so much already to develop way and the U. ;:,. army land and this region. Yukon's Bri ht Future AN APPRECIATION OF THE NORTHLAND. By GREER I . C. BART ON, P resident of Dawson News Publishing Co. I T is WIder auspicious circumstances that Yukon faces the future to­ day. Behind her is the exnerience of ten years ot active mining operations at the hands of the most experienced old-method placer operators of the world. To-day she stands at the threshold of a new era, a country enchanting to all classes the world over, and one which has added a charm by attracting the investment as well as the prospecting and individ­ ual oneratinfl forces. It has been learned that the extra­ ordinary area of placer fields of low grade already known. to say nothing of the extensive expanses not yet opened on many an untrodden stream in this widely unexplored realm, can be operated Nofitably with modern equipment. and capital, after taking most precautious and conservative steps for investigation, is embracing the opportunity. Not only this, but quartz also is lifting a glow of prom­ ise over the horizon, and in many parts of the territory the promise is exceptionally flattering. Quartz is bein · ~·· ... Ioited this year more than ever. A careful perusal of the data in these pages will reveal the facts as we ll worth serious consideration of the business and developing world. The most significant fact of all, perhaps 1 and one most emphatically convincmg of the stability of the K londike is that the country has tbe gre:tt natural resources and is ac­ qu iring all the advantages enjoyed by those who reside in the outside ' world. Railways, steamship and steamboat Jine-s have been established giving access to the interior and more of these will come in time. A metrop­ olis has sprung up in the very heart of the country which throbs and beats with all the activity of a cosmopoli­ tan city of many times its size in old­ er quarters of the globe. 'rhe thou­ sands who have been attracted to Dawson, the center of life, have pro­ vided for themselves all the comforts of home as they may be found in any other ~art of the world, and have en­ gaged in business pursuits with all the equinment and stock that the most progressive minds and most aggres­ sive men of this ultra-progressive age have been able to contrive and sup­ ply to thosp who may demand the product of their genius and skill. The great wealth which lay hidden in the pockets of nature in the Klon­ dike has supplied the wherewithal for the Klondike to advance to this ex­ traordinary and most enviable posi­ tion in so short a time. The camp is the richest the world has ever known, and no marvel is it to thoughtful minds that this community, so re­ mote, aud in the shadow of the Arc­ tic circle, almost in the polar reg­ ion, has been able to push to the front. Riches in the hands of the men who have grasped the situl!.tion and forced the issue, despite arbitrary con­ ditions of isolation and rigorous win­ ters have brought about this consum- mation now so gratifying to record. On the horizon the glow of hope is bright as ever; the present revels in the glory of the endless harvesting of the ' 'olden wealth, and all those who ha ve cast their fortunes here pnrtic­ ipate and send a share to less favored lands, that they also may live and en­ joy some of the resultant blessings. 'rhe population has changed much as to social lines. The rough and vicious tendency of the earlier days has been overcome by the seething infusion of more permanent and more lasting men of enterprise; men in substitution for the reckless ones who drifted elsewhere with the flower of those who seek the new sensations. Homes have been established. and in place of the stuffy cabin and its attendant evils miners have their families. and in many instan'ces hand­ some modern homes have been built. They live on the best the world can produce from its four quarters and they have the money to pay for all they consume; they are living, not existing. Schools are here in plenty, new institutions of learning, and ap­ pliances of civilization for mental, spiritual and physical development, and superior methods of government have been evolved from the experi­ ences of the past and are growing in perfection as time proceeds. Mechanical genius has been in­ voked and millions of dollars worth of devices for extracting gold frolll the frozen grasp of nature have been brought into the country. and the frosted lands are honeycombed as never before wherever auriferous gravels remain that the wealth from them may be secured. All this and more, which is leg ion, has been brought about and the Klondike raised to a position which commands respect as a stable centre with the. n:arv~lous credit of no ap~ parent dlmlllubon ll1 production and the promise of its continuation for decades, if not generations. The prosoects for find ing per manent bodies of quartz and the un­ covering" of other natural resources of wealth that will support here in Britain's most northerly possession a p~rpetual and popltlous pole star pro­ Vlllce, the permanency of which shall ever be monumental evidence to t he perseverance of the hardy pioneers who first braved the prowess of t he prevailing superstition against this land, and who placed the realm OIL the firm footing on which it stands to-day, a credit to the empire and the marvel of the world. 'rhe Yukon extcnds its arms to t he world. The opportunities are open to all who are energetic. A few years will count this among the r ichest pro­ ducing lands of the continent. Those who refuse this opportunity to come will regret it as have many already regretted seeing others open in the west t:le immense riches less than a decade ago considered worthless. D A W SON D A I L Y NEW S. 6S CHURCHES OF THE YUKON Y UKON is well supplied with churches. and it can be said that the church has indeed preceded thc greater rush of empire builders into the country. The churches in Daw­ son include the Presbyterian, the Catholic, the Methodist and the Eng­ lish. A ll have splendid buildings, some with seating capacity of 500 to 800, and with all modern improve­ l1I.ents, including pipe organs, elec- Bishop Bompas. tric lights and fine heating apparatus. \Vhitehorse, Fortymile, Selkirk, Conrad, Carcross and the several lead­ ing creeks near Dawson are supplied with church buildings of moderate ize, at which the people of the lo­ calities centre weekly in worship. Fre­ quently the creek churches afford a meeting place for celebrations, socials and the like, and the places are indeed appreciated bv the populace. 'l'he first church mission of which there is any record in Yukon is that Archdeacon R. McDonald. established in 1862 at Fort Yukon by Rev. Rober! McDonald, now Arch­ bishop McDonald, who was sent out under the Church Missionary Societv of the Church of England. The year before that Rev. William \Vest Kirby had visited Fort Yukon, coming "ia the Mackenzie river and over the Rockies in connection with Hudson Bay trappers. In 1865 Rev. W. C. Bompas. later Bishop Bompas. now deceased, left London, England. travelling across the then great waste of prairie land in a wagon drawn by portions of the Yukon valley. The SOil was founded in the early days of an ox team from St. Paul, Minn., Rev. vVilliam H Judge, S. J., was the the city by Rev. A. S. Grant, who re­ thence down the I\Iackenzie, and over first Catholic priest at Dawson, aud mained here until two years ago, the Rocky Mountains. He was two followed the early stampeders here when he was succeeded for one year seasons making the trip. For 40 from down the Yukon. He worked by Rev. John Pringle, D. D. Last years Rev. l\IcDonald and Rev. Bom- nobly the fir t season when the fevl'r year Rev. Pringle wa succeeded by pas worked together in the Yukon. had stricken the camp. and died hero- Rev. Dr. A. G. Sinclair. The church During that time Rev. McDonald per- ically laboring for suffering humanity i~ one of the largest and most mod­ formed the remarkable work of trans- in Dawson. His successor, Father ern church buildings in the north, lating the entire Bible, the prayer Gendreau, opened the first school in and has the most elegaut organ this book, hymn book and several other Dawson, now known as ::it. Mary', side of Vancouver. A large an, volumcs into the Takudh language, Catholic chool. Soon after a hos- flouuri hing congregation has been that of the Indians living within 20 pital was opened in Dawson by the built up hClre, and the church has as- St. Paul's Church, Dawson. miles of Dawson. Rev. l\fcDonald, as early as 1863, discovered gold on Birch creek, in the Circle district, and sent it to I ;ngland. In 1892 Arch­ deacon Canham established a mission at Fort Selkirk. A number of Church of England missionaries were engaged on the Alaskan side before the gold strike at Dawson. When the strike was made, Bishop Bompas was liv­ ing at Fortymile. R. J. Bowen and F. F. Flewelling represented the church at Fortymile for a short time, Catholics, and known as St. Mary·s. It is one of the finest in the north, anJ is in charge of Sister Mary Zeno, wh,) has a large corps of assistants. The Catholic church has a magnificent home in Dawson, with a chapel in connection with St. Mary's hospital, ~nd one in connection with st. :\Iary's school. A number of Catholic chu:-ches also are maintained on rhl' creeks. Fathers BUIlO/., (~oirey ami Ri\'ct are .in the Dawsni! di.strict. '1 Le Dawson MethodJs ~ Chuf('h was First St. Paul's Church, Dawson. and Mr. FleweIling opened the first church at Da WSOll the winter of 1896- 97. Since then several incumbents have presided in Dawson, and to-day Rev. 1. O. Stringer is Bishop of the Yukon diocese, and Rev. ]. M. Comyn­ Ching is the rector in charge at Daw­ son. St. Paul's Cathedral in Dawson, occupied by Rev. ComYll-Ching, and the headquarters of the dioccse of Yukon, is one of the handsomest churches of the north. The Catholics long have occupied esta! lished in 1898 hy. Re\,. .lames Tnrner, under the British Columbia ('Conference. He was succeed,'d hv Rc-v. A. E. Hetherington; nc;,t came Re". W. H. Barrac1ou~h: then Rev. William Hughes; followed by Rev. J. A Seymour; and the present incum­ bent, Rev. W. H. Dunham. The church is in a flourishing condition, and has a fine home of its own and large parsonage. entirely paid for by the congregation. The Presbyterian Church of Daw- Father Judge. sociated with it and under direction of Presbyterians as a separate body, the Good Samaritan Hospital, one of the most valuable institutions of the city. F . W Arnold is superin­ tendent, and Miss Isabel Moody is matron . The Presbyterian churches on the creeks are supplied by Rev. George Pringie. The Salvation Army in Dawson has done a valuable work here since it was established in 1898 by Ensign l\IcGill and Lieutcnant Bloss and associates, Bishop Stringer. comprising six men and two women. For a long lime a free labor bureau, shelter, and it wood yard were con­ ducted aside from serviccs and other work. The army has done splendid work here for years. and now has a fine home in the heart of the city, with a thriving corps in charge of Ensign and 1\1rs. George J ohnson, as­ sisted by Adjutant DenJle and Lieu­ tenant \Valler and Wright, and "Wec" Georgic J Olll1S0ll, lhe midge~ drummer boy. 66 DAWSON DAILY NEWS POWER IN YUKON By W. ]. RENDELL, Civil and :\1ining Engineer 1 "" HE question is asked repea·tedly, "Can inexpensive electric power be generated in the Yukon for mining and other purposes, and if so, what effect will it have on mining?" To one acquainted with the field there can be 110 question but what the many larg-e rivers and their nu­ merous voluminous tributaries throughout tbis territory afford an immense source of low cost power for mining or other industrial pur­ poses. As an instance, let the larger streams tributary to the Yukon near Dawson or for 100 miles each way up and down the main artery be cited as to volume. and it will be seen that the flow of each is as follows: Klondike river. 300.000 miners' inches at high water; 75,000 inches at low water. Fortymile river. 250,000 inches at high water; 50,000 at low water. Fifteenmile river, mean flow. 12.000 inches. Twelvemile river, mean flow, 10,000 inches. Indian river. mean flow. 4,000 inches. tewart river, mean flow, 1,000,000 inches. The grades of the larger streams, such as the Stewart, the Klondike and the Fortymile, are very low, and the Rower could be generated only under low heads, which would be very costly. The e larger rivers are fed by many tributaries throwing from 100 to 20,000 miners' incbes of water. vlrrying in grade from 50 to 100 feet to the mile. The ground formation in most cases is suita.ble for ditching. From the larger Klondike river tributaries there can be generated under heads from 200 to 500 feet. vertical, 30,000 horse-power. and the power can be transmitted to the principal mining centers, such as Hunker, Bonanza and Dominion creeks, distances of from 10 to 40 mile, over a country where erection of 'poles is a simple and easy matter. On the Stewart and Fortynllle river and their tributaries are many feasible points for gcneration of power for all enterprises in this dis­ trict at very reasonable cost. The coal deposits being located and worked in the Yukon should not be overlooked in the matter of supply­ ing inexpen. ive power. If adequate power plants are in taIled at any of the coal mines I believe that electric power could be generat('d and trans­ mitted to the various mining centers at a very low cost, and, considering climatic conditions, would have many advantages over water power. If electric power could be gen­ erated. transmitted and sold at a rea­ sonable figure, it would give a great impetus to mining generally. Dredges could be in tailed and op­ erated at greatly reduced expen e: electric elevators would be working on grounel now lying idle. and water could be pumped to the higher levels for hydraulicking the rich bench ground that cannot be reached or supplied with water in any other economical way. My opinion i that electricity is to be the savior of the country, as it is to be in so many other mining camps. For the generation of electric powcr Y ukon pos~esses l111equalled ad­ vantag~s in regard to her extensive coalmeasurEls, where the power can be generated at the pit's mouth. or 1 1 water )..lower from her numerous trc.ams cf sufficient grade. 11 ROADS IN THE YUKON H UNDREDS of miles of wagon Toads as fine as to be found in any country have been built along the gold creeks near Dawson, and many others in other parts of the ter­ ritory. '.1 ne construction of a system of roads in the Yukon Territory was a colossal undertaking. When it is re­ membered that in 1899 and 1900 min­ ers were receivign as high as $1 an ho\!r, it is possible to form some idea of the expenditure to be encoun­ tered. In 1899 workmen on the road were ~aid at the rate of 85 cents per hour; in 1900 they received 80 cents, and since 1901 they have been paid at the rate of 75 cents an hour. In 1899 a team could not be hired for less than $25 a day. In the following year this was reduced to $20, which is the rate paid at the present day. The first road in the territory was built in 1899, along the top of the ridge between Bonanza and Hunker Creek, this road being subsequently extended to Gold Run. The same year branches were constructed from this road to Bonanza, Gold Bottom and Caribou. In 1900 the present road from Dawson to Grand Forks was constructed, and in the following year this road was continued up Bon­ anza. connecting with the summit road which had been built the pre­ vious year. In 1901 the pres~t wagon road was also built from the Ogilvie ridge along the Klondike valley and H unker creek to Caribou, a distance of thirty-three miles. In 1901 a pack trail was built from Dawson to Glacier creek. and in the following year this trail was im­ proved and made a passable wagon road. The mining industry in the Mil­ ler and Glacier district continued with increased activity. and in 1904 war­ ranted the expenditure of a sufficient amount to construct a good wallon road. This road commences on the onnosite side of the Y.ukon from Dawson, but a cable ferr" and scow, which were purchased by the local government, convey horses, machin­ ery and supplies, etc., acro s the river. In summer all the freight and pas­ senll'er traffic from Dawson to Miller creek is carried over this road, a distance of 73 miles. The winter trail from Dawson to Miller is by way of the Yukon river to Forty-mile, up Forty-mile to Brown creek, up Brown creek to its head, then over the summit to Bil(" Gold and Glacier, a distance of 110 miles. In winter the trail from Duncan to DawsoD is by way of Hunker, Domin­ ion, lensen, Gravel lake, Barlow, and across country in a straight line to Mayo, a distance of 150 miles. In tll1lmer there is steamboat commun­ ;ratinn between Dawson and Mayo the Stewart river being navigable !ll Fraser Falls. Tu\! foHowing statement shows th«: number of miles of sleil:"h and Vlaq'on roads constructed since '899, namely: 1899 45 .00 1903 26.00 WAGON ROADS. 1900 1901 32.00 63.36 1904 1905 141.00 37.00 SLEIGH ROADS. 1902 85.81 Total 430.17 160.00 10.00 80.25 372.00 4.00 29.00 13.00 668.25 The cost of the construction of Destination. wagon roads runs from $1,500 to $3,300 per mile, and sleigh or winter trails from $250 to $350 per mile. The following comparative state­ ment of freight rates between Da w­ son and the principal mining districts during the summer mOllths will show the enormous advantage derived by the miners from the construction ()f the system of roads throughout thc Territory:- Distance from Rate per 100 Pounds Dawson. 1899 I 1903 Miles $ ets. Grand Forks................................ 12 7 00 $ ct~. 1 00 1 50 2 00 200 300 6 00 Gold Bottom............................... 20 8 00 Caribou.. .... .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. .... .... .. .. . 33 12 50 Sulphur (Discovery)........................ 35 12 SO Gold Run...... . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . SS 18 00 Glacier ........................... ,........ 73 20 00 DUDcan-Present rate from Dawson to :\fayo by steamer, $2 per 100 pounds; from 1Iayo to DUllcan by trail, $6 per lOO pounds. In order to illustrate the saving to the mining operator by the system of roads which have been constructed in the Klondike district alone, the fol· lowing is a statement of the total Shooting Whitehorse Rapids by Moonlight. tonnage of freight, including sup plies and mining machinery, delivered by freighters on the principal creeks in the district during the year 1903, a compared with what the cost would have been in 1899, namely:- 1899. 1903 Net gain . to Rate. Amount. Rate. Amount 0 t pcra OT District. Tons bonanza ............. . 4,500 3.750 3,000 2.250 1,500 140 630,000 20 90,000 540,OOC Hunker .............. . 160 600,000 30 112,500 487,500 Dominion ............ . 250 750.000 40 120,000 630.000 Gold Run .. ...... .... . . 360 810,000 60 135,000 675,000 Sulphur .............. . 250 375,000 40 60,000 315,000 15,OO~ The foregoing table shows the freight delivered only to the principal producing creeks. It is estimated that the freight delivered on the. mal ler producing creeks would amoul1t to 5 1 000 tons, ;which would thus in- 3,165,000 517,500 2,647,500 crease the aggregate to at least 20, 000 tons. The above statistics respecting thc construction of roads, etc., were com piled by the Inspector of \Vnrk and Buildings for the Yukon 'l'erritory. In the early days the only route to and from Dawson during the winter season was the frozen surface of the Yukon river. For about one month while the ice was forming 011 the river, and for a similar period in the spring while the ice was breaking up, there was no communication between Da wson and the outside. It was dall­ gerO\lS and almost impossible to travel any distance on the shore ice. No mail could be carried either way for about two months each year. III the summer of 1902 the govern­ ment built a winter trail between Dawson and Whitehorsr, a distance of 333 miles at a cost of $129,000, ancl since that timc about $50,000 have been expended in maintaining and re­ pairing this road. During the winter season and since the construction of the new trail, a tri-weekly stage ser­ vice is given between \Vhitehorse and Dawson. From the close of naviga- tion until sufficent snow has fallen to make good sleighing the company 11 'cs Concord coaches, which can carry twelve passengers each. Untit the ero sings are frozen over, pas­ scngers and baggage are taken acros!' the ri\'(~rs in canoes, which arc hand1t-d by expert boatmen. As S0011 a~ there is sufficient snow for sleighing sleigh are substituted for coaches: Each sleigh is drawn by four horses, and has accommodation for from nine to fourteen -} a sengers, 1,000 pounds of passenger baggage and 1,000 pounds of mail and express ... 0 team [ra \ els more than an ay era c of 20 miles, ,l1ld fre h horses are in readiness at each station along the routc. From about the first of March the passenger traffic to the interior bccomes vcry h('avy, and from that c1ate until ahollt the se\·enth of .\nri l there is au alnwst dailr s.crvice of stages. nAWSON DAILY NEWS. 5'1 . I CI(Q)rll(Q)\UlS Climatt® «»f the Y Ullk(Q)IDl By HORACE McKA V, Dominion Weather Observer at Dawson. Land Blessed With Verdant Springs, Evergreen Summers and Crisp, Dry, Invigorating Winters--Much Misunderstood Phase of Yukon Explained I 1-1AGI. rg a regiun blessed with spring, with the happy conditions of a cherry-blossom season from April until the last days of summer blend into the beautiful Indinn summer, and YOll have Klondike. Here is the ver­ nal land of the American continent. The fact that the sun hines 24 hours or close to it much of the season, and that the t",\,'ilights are long and ex­ quisite. affords an infinite quantity of daylight, and the Northern location of the region on the earth means that the sun's rays fall aslant and arc so modified that no scorching extreme of summer heat is known . The re­ sult is the prolonged seaso l~ for growth and the consequcnt dom1l1ance of a green pcriod much of the ye~r. In the winter, instead of the mOIst and humid tcmperature, instead of W HEN the world " was startled by the output of gold from the North eleven years ago, and that out­ put gave signs of dwindling, the ques­ tion was asked: \Vhat is the out­ look for mining in the interior regi~\n of the Yukon and Alaska? Mining engineers and geologists knew that the wonderful gold bearing gravels o~ the Klondike, of Fairbanks and ,j t N ome were the result of a process of natural concentration that had been at work for thousands of years. They a kcd: Are the miners simply skim­ ming the golden cream that can never be remade, and will the mining opera· tiol1!: soon end, leaving nothing but the skimmed milk of low grade allu \·;,,1 deposits? The answer is: \Vhile the geological dairy operatcs so sI0',\· Iy that its products cannot be made \Vi thin the life time of the sons or men, it has been at work so mag­ nificently in the past that even though the richest of the cream has becn collected, there remains a vast amount of wholesome milk. The alluvial de­ posits of the north are not worked out, nor will they be during the lih of those now living. This is all important fact, if true. blizzards or storms that rack the earth, the Yukon temperature holds steady below the freezing point, and the east mountains act as barriers against the Pacific and insure dry­ ness. A temperature of from 15 to 25 be­ low zerO, with a few hours of sun­ light, may be characterized as a type of the ideal Yukon willt'r weather. The snow is fine and powdery, the Fraser Falls, Stewart River. air IS dry and crisp, and the sky is clear. What Illay be termed the most wintry period of the year is between the middle of December and end of the first week in January. During this period the sun occasionally shines on the surrounding hills. unless there is severe cold, in which case the sun may not be seen for several weeks. By the middle of February, however, there are usually a few hours of sunlight. 1 he trails leading from Dawson to the different creeks arc comparative­ ly level, and by the middle of Janu­ ary arc in splendid condition for sleighing. Vfrapped in furs and seated behind spanking teams. many of the citizens of Daw on avail them­ selves of this exhilarating form of en­ joyment. With the exception of Siberia there is perhaps no other country in the world in which the temperature fluc­ tuates more than in the Yukon. Ow­ ing to the dry atmosphere it is pos­ sible to endure the extreme tem­ peratures with less effect than in a climate of more moderate tem­ peratures sllch as is found in other parts of Canada, where there is a great quantity of humidity in the atmosphere. The summers are beau­ tiful, the air is invigorating and the weather, in -eneral, cannot be su{"­ passed. The average temperature for the last seven years is 52 above zero, being a maximum of 88 above zero and a minimum of 8 above zero. Between May 15th and July 15th there is practically no darkness, and a newspaper can be read at midnight without the use of artificial light. The winters arc cold but the cli­ mate cannot be compared with that of Eastern Canada in that the COR­ ditions at any time during the year can be depended upon to be the same as the previous year. The winter commences about the beginning of October, and lasts until April 15th each year, and during this period practically no changes take place. The cold est day on record was in January. 1906, when the police ther­ mometer re)listered 690 degrees be­ low zero, although the government registered 65.5 below zero. There are two periods durin';'" the year when transportation between D:lwson and vVhitehorse is difficult. These periods are: First, when the o\'crland trail is breaking up and the ice ili the rivers is unsafe to travel; second, after the close of navigation and a short time after the ice has formed in the rivers. The following shows when thc ice in the Yukon in front of Dawson stopped to flow and when the ice broke at the same place during sever­ al seasons: Freeze-up. Year. Break-up 1896 .. May 19, 2.35 p.m. 1897 .. May 17, 4.30 p.m. Nov. 4 ...... 1898 .. May 8, 8.15 a.m. Oct. 23 .... 1899 .. May 17, 4.10 p.m. ov. 2 ...... 1900 .. May 8, 6.00 a.m. ov. 12 .... 1901 .. May 14, 4.13.p.m . • TOV. 5 ...... 1902 .. May 11, 8.45 p.m. Nov. 10 .... 1903 .. May 13,11.38a.m. Nov. 8 ...... 1904 .. May 7,9.44a.m. Nov. 10 .... 1905 .. May 10, 5.21 O.m. No. 7 1906 .. May 11, 1.45 a.m. 1907 .. May 5, 6.52 p.m. 1908 .. May 7, 5.27 p.m. 1909 .. May 1 I, 9.47 p.m. As a rule, the first steamer reaches Dawson between the first and fifth of June; and the last steamer leaves Dawson between the fifteenth and twenty-third of October in each year. An Editorial by T. A. Rickard in the January Number of the "Mining and Scientific Press" Di cussing the future v: Alaska with natural obstacles, to live for a time an official who had good reason to with humankind on the farthel'JIlost take a friendly interest in the subject, frontier of civilization, where man in the present writer was informed, last the unit dwarfs man in the ap'~re­ SUlllmer, that the placer camps were gate, there is no more interesting necessarily ephemeral, and that the journey than the tour from San future of the country depended upon Francisco to Skagway, over the coast th'e deyelopment of its copper and range. down the 2000 miles of the coal resources. Our informant had Yukon, up to N ome, and thence never been "inside," that is, across homeward through the Aleutian the coast range into the spacious archipelago. region drained by the Yukon, the To the men of our profession, these Tanana, the Innoko and the Kus- northern mining regions must be in­ kokwim; he was onc of those to tensely interesting, both from a scien­ whom Alaska meant the southeastern tific and commercial stanupoint. The province, from Ketchikan to Seward; frozen condition of the ground and to him the vague and vast tracts be- the factors modifying the arctic yond the barricr of glacier and peak geology present problems new to were the scene of an exciting kind of most of us. The intelligent applica­ nugget hunting such as could not tion of technology in overcoming re­ last; it had no industrial future; it gional difficulties, the wide distribu­ was but the arena wherein adven- tion of gold ill deoosits of peculiar turOllS spirits risked life and money in character, the labor problems arising search for rich patches of gold bear- in isolated communities, and the ing gravel that were soon garnered bending of every energy to overcome and ncver sown. He was hopelessly the delays and expense of transport­ wrong. these are all tasks for the most ad- To a traveler wi hing to see a part aotable of men, the modern engineer. of the world wholly unlike the beaten And he can go there knowing that not tracks, to be with men waging a only will he not risk his health, but fierce and cheerful fight with great he may even upbuild a physical sys- tern injured by the miasma of the tropics er the unwholesome life of a crowded city. The climate of the interior of Alaska and Yukon is superb. Again we find that the average man gets his notions of the country as a whole from seeing a small and easily acces­ sible nortion of it. Southeastern Alaska, as typified by Juncau or Sitka, is a wet, misty and rainy tract along the coast that catches all of the humidity of the west wind from over the sea. This excessive moisture brings verdure and a scenic beauty that have a peculiar charm; but it is not bracing to the physical part of man, and it feeds those glaciers with which even the well informed associate the name Alaska. The southeastern coast is cinctured with rivers of ice; they are splendid spectacles; but once across the range the traveler sees no more glaciers.; he is in an arid region, where the ;tir is as it is in Tucson at 4 a. m. in March-that is, it is the air that crea­ tion breathed at the dawn of time, as free from microbes as interplanetary space; as stimulating as hope, as in­ vigorating as youth, when "the world was young and life an epic." bAWSON t AtLV N~W The Liisit of Dredges Wii~hin 15 MiRes of Dawso1n\ T IIE li~t of dredge within 75 miles of Dawson includes, five on Bonanza, three on fI t1nker. three on Fortymile, two on \Valker's Fork of the Fortymile, one on Indian river, two on tewart river, two on Klon­ dike river. Several ,of the companies are con­ templating an increase in the nl.m­ ber of dredges on their present rrop­ erties, and many new companies are in the process of promotion with views of taking up dredging proper­ ties. Hundreds of miles of 'Yold­ bearing streams are untouched by the big concerns. and arc still in the hands of individuals in the Fortymile, • tllwart. Klondike, Indian river, Sixty­ mile, Circle and other di trict . Among" the good streams in the Fortymile arc Canyon. Squaw. Hub­ bard, Jack Wade, Torth Fork, Mos­ quito _ ork and scores of others . • Tear r Dawson arc such streams as Dominion. Sulphur. Quartz, Indian River, Eureka. Black Hills. Hender­ son. Flat. Klondike river and others. J n the ~tewart country are a nllmDer of ~treams. including Clear. Barker, Scroggie and others. In the Sixty­ mile arc Glacier. Pure Gold, the Six­ tymile proper and others. Many of the foregoing streams al 0 have . cores of square miles of hy­ draulic propositions not yet in the hancls of large concerns. Streams on which splendid hydraulic property i . hcing held or gotten into shape out­ side of the holding of the onc or two giant COrlCCTllS. and which offer in­ ducements to ncw investors. include }1onanza. Eldorado. lIunker. La t Chance, Gold Bottom. All Gold, Gor­ in!!. Quartz, Eureka. and many of their tributari(,s and hills. The hydraulic plant operated near Dawson include: Plant on Whisky Hill. Giant on Paradise Hill. Giant on Delhi Hill Plant No. I on Temperance Hill. Giant o. 2 on Temperance Hill, Hunker. Plant No. 3 on Temperance Hill, Hunker. Plant on hill onposite Bee gulch. Plant on Nugget Hill, opposite 55 below. Four monitors with 800 inches, working on Treasure Hill, Hunker. Two giants on left limit of 3 and 4 Last Chance. Two giants opposite 2 and 3 below Thistle creek also has some hy­ draulic plants in course of in talla­ tiol1. On Barker creek, a tributary of the Stewart, Graham and partner are in­ ~talling a plant. The ditch is com­ pleted. Hydraulic work also has been car­ ried on fJuite extensively on ground on the Sixtymile. One comnany has an extensive hy­ draulic plant, long ditch and hydraulic lift on Miller creek. 'rhe company also in clearing the ground there for dredge ourposes. Many large hills in the Klondike draulie work, with many lar'!'e flumes and ditches, has been under way for years. Dredges and steam shovels also arc used there. The Klondike's new hydraulic plants will include the several to be fed by the mammoth ditch now being completed at a cost of about ten mil­ lion dollars, sixty miles over the hills from 'l'welvemile river to the high levels of Bonanza and Hunker. Much of this water will be used to feed electrical conveyor plants. The first of the electrical conveyors have been installed on Bonanza at a heavy cost, probably about $50,000, Two giants ('n Ac.Jen group. right limit of the Klol1d ike, 700 inches. Tailing f~om the Hydraulic Operation on the Potato Patch. Two giant on Paradise Hill, left limit of Hunker. using 300 inches. Two giants on Solomon Hill, left limit of Bonanza, using 400 inches. Two giant on American gulch, left limit of Bonanza, using 500 inches. Two giants 011 Bunker Hill, right limit of Bonanza, using 500 inches. Three Tiants on No. 3 above Bon­ anza, hydraulkking creek bottom into electrical lift No. 1. Four giants on Adams Hill. Seven giant on French Hill, left limit of Bonanza. Plant on Whisky Hill, right limit of H unker. '[ HE financial success of the poul- try business in this region de­ pends on the success of the country in a general way, but as to the pos­ sibilities in growing and handlif!g fowls here, they are as great as III on Hunker. Two giants opposite 6 above the mouth, left limit of Last Chance. Plant on Goring creek, opnosite up­ per Hunker. Several giants on Dublin gulch. In addition to the foregoing are sev­ eral plants operating on Lovett gulch and other points along Bonanza and Hunker by individuals whose names are not known. In the Fortymile country hydraulic work also is being undertaken by quite a number. On Ballarat creek are several giants. o Rn buildings, with plenty of light. A lari"e part of the general success is in bringing the poultry through the winter in good health. That is the most trying time of the year. Poultry kept in good condition will pay better in Yukon than elsewhere. A Vista 01 Water, Snow-capped Mountains ana Cloud. any other land. The climate. as res­ pects the keeping of poultry, does not vary very much from that of the north central states or the adjoining Canadian provinces. For success in keeping poultry here, one must have good winter quarters. luch as large, warm, wel ventilated Fresh laid eg-gs bring three and even four dollars a dozen, depending on the locality and the winter supply. At the four dollar rate or anything near that the eggs, as a rule are not readily marketed, but in Dawson the winter price usually is a dollar and a half a dozen, or about a third to a ca Illp a re being prepared for opera­ tion by hydraulic method. In the Circle di trict, at Rampart, Hot Springs, which are on the lower Yukon, hydraulic plants have been undertaken on extensive scale. These three district are among the inost im­ portant in the Yukon basin. On the e ·treme upper Yukon waters are the tributaries of the Big Salmon, where plants are working on several creeks, including Livingstone, Cotton­ eva and other streams. In the Atlin di trict, the waters of which are tributary to the Yukon, hy- half more than eggs from the out­ side. Hens sell in Dawson for one and a half to two and a half dollars each in summer. In winter three to four dollars would be the price of a fresh l·dUed chicken. The storage fowls bring less. So the poultry ralslllg in Yukon is carried on more for the eggs than for the flesh of the fowls. The prices of feed are high, thus making the cost of keeping poultry high, and the price of e- s and the birds also high. Wheat, corn and the like sell at 4Ya to 6 cents a pound, ac- and containing lOO tons of machinery and stecl frame material. Two more of the plants are to be installed on BOna!lZa this season. Part of the maclllnery for the two plants is on the ~ro\1nd. The ditch will carry 5,000 IIlches of water. The hydraulic and dredge mining has been under way in Klondike not more. than three years, that is, on anythll1g more than a limited scale and while ruiJlions have been ex~ pended in ventures of this kind al­ rea~y, the working here by this meth­ od IS barely begun. By WILLIAM ]. ANSTETT, of Da~':lOn. cording to the season. Fires also must be kept burning in winter to heat the houses, and this is no little expense. In the spring and the sum­ !I1 er the .lon\!" days, stretching even mto contlllUOUS daylight in midsum­ mer, make the industry then one most pleasant to follow. But. at all times one about to em­ bark m the poultry business must be prepar~d .to face disappointment, be­ cause It IS only through diligence study and perseverance that th~ wo,rk can be made a success. All con­ dItIons must be understood to make even a good living from the indus­ try. The breeding and handling of ducks geese and pigeons as well as tur~ keys also may be carried on with more or les;s success, as the foraging fowls and bIrds do well. But the demand is not large. W~th the growth of the country and 1I1crease of population in YUkon' ~ore people will be found in the bus~ 1I1ess 111 the c~)\:lntry. Already a good many are ralsll1g poultry here and some ,;"ho carry on the industry· most ex~enslvely have hundreds of fine chIckens and extensive poult ranches. ry Burton Holmes on the Yukon A MERICANS probably more than any other people have gained the reputation of being a nation of travellers. Yet it is an actual fact that there are thousands of Am­ ericans who are far more familiar with the highways and byways of Europe than with the Tugged scenery and amazing natural resources of their own America. With improved facilities for travel this condition is likely soon to wit­ ness a decided change. In fact the time is already at hand when it will be regarded as both more practicable and more profitable to visit the "show places" of the American continent before running off to Europe for a hasty inspection of the Parisian boulevards and the Italian ruins. The summer trip to the great American and British Northwest­ including Alaska, British Columbia and the Yukon and Klondike regions -is neither exceedingly expensive nor yet so costly in time and e:c er - tion as a jaunt through the capItals of Europe. E. Burton Holmes, the popular lecturer, and probably one of America's most famous travellers, after his visit to Alaska and the Klondike, expressed himself in the following enthusiastic manner: "Alaska and the Klondike, as they are today, are amongst the most amazing facts of our new century; yesterday a wilderness with heroes fighting battles with the elements; today a land with towns ~I~d citie~; with happy homes and thnv1l1g bUSI­ ness enterprises. "Where the pioneers dragged their bleeding feet up the icy stairways of thc vVhite Pass or the Chilcoot, we rolled in all the luxury of rail­ way cars ; and within sight of the death-dealing rapids through which their boats were steered with the fear of death for pilot. we glided smoothly over rails of steel, coming from Skagway on the coast to White b A W s b N D A t L 'l N It W S. Horse City on the Upper Yukon, as comfortably and expeditiously as in traveling from New York to Boston. "From White Horse to Dawson we have for highway the great, rapid­ flowing river, and for conveyance the comfortable Yukon steamers that ply all summer up and down the stream." The World's Gold Yield I T HE world's total gold output in 1908 was $427,000,000. against $410,555,000 in 1907, according to the estimate of Director of the Mint Leach. Gold production in the United States aggregated $96,313,256, an in­ crease of almost $6,000,000. Silver aggregated 51.798.053 fine ounces, a net decrease of 4,700,000 ounces from the previous year. Africa yielded $165,000,000 in gold, an increase of vited to stake on Gold Bottom. A few days afterwards Carmack and two Indians arrived at Gold Bottom, and staked claims near to where Hender­ son and party were working. Return­ ing across the divide by way of Bon­ anza, Carmack and the two Indians did some prospecting, and found rich prospects on what is now Discovery claim on Bonanza creek. Carmack staked Discovery and No. 1 below; "Chariey," an Indian, No. 2 below, and "Tagish Jim," the other Indian, No. 1 above. Before leaving Gold Bottom, Carmack told Henderson that he would send an Indian to inform him if rich prospects were discovered. Car­ mack, however, did not fulfil his prom­ ise, and he and the Indians at once proceeded to Fortymile, which was the recording office at the time, and filed their applications with Insnector Constantine. Up to this time the ma­ joritv of the miners in the territory had been working- on Fortymile, but as soon as the discovery on Bonanza became known all the miners in the A Fair Day on Lake Lebaree. more than $13,000,000. Alaska, Cali­ fornia, Colorado and South Dakota showed increases in gold reaching altogether more than $10,000,000. Decreases in Utah of 3,500,000 ounces. Colorado of 1,250.000, and Idaho of 1.500,000 were notable in the silver output.-\Vashington, D.C., Discovery of Klondike I N 1894 Robert Henderson and two other miners prospected the gravels at the mouth of the Pellv. where they rocked out $54.00 in fine gold. They came down to the mouth of Indian river, which Henderson as­ cended alone, and prospected on Qtlartz and Gold Bottom. Having found good prospects on Gold Hot­ tom, H enderson and a party of five returned to this creek in the spring of 1895, staked claims and commenced to work. During the summer of 1896 Hcnderson prospected on Gold Bot­ tom creek, eventually made a trip to Ladue's trading post at Ogilvie to ob­ tain supplies, and returning to Gold Bottom by way of the Klondike river, he came upon a number of Indians fishing in the Yukon river at its con­ fluence with the Klondike. Living with the Indians was one George W. Carmack, whom Henderson in- Fortymile district stampeded to the new strike, and in a short time Bon­ anza ereek was staked from end to end. Meantime Henderson and his party were working on Gold Bottom, and did not hear of the new discovery until the whole creek had been staked. Extensive prospecting at once com­ menced on Bonanza and its tributar­ ies, and in a short time many of the stakers began to realize the marvel­ lous wealth which their claims con­ tained. As soon as the news of the rich strike reached the outside world, thou­ sands of gold seekers immediately started for the Klondike. Probably never before in the history of gold mining camps has there been such a rush of people from almost every vo­ cation in life, as was seen in that ir­ resistible stream of fortune-seekers who climbed the Chilkoot pass and pressed on to Lake Lindeman, where the most rude boats and other flimsy craft were constructed for the journey of 500 miles down the Yukon river to Dawson. One of the saddest events in the history of this great stampede oc­ curred one morning on the trail be­ tween the summit of the Chilkoot pass and Sheep camp. For some distance between these two points the trail leads along the bottom of a steep mountain, and a long line of gold hun­ ters were laboriously toiling along this stretch of the journey, some bearing their heavy burden of supplies in packs and some on sleds, when suddenly a huge mass of snow came sliding down the mountain side, striking the line of travellers and burying betwen 50 and 60 men. Those who had escaped the catastrophe at once commenced to dig for their comrades, very few of whom were rescued, and some of the bodies were not found until the snow melted in the spring. Such is an instance of the dangers which confronted in· the early days the thousands who had con­ tracted the gold fever, and who were unaware of the innumerable hard­ ships to be encountered on the jour­ ney to the new diggings. In the spring of 1899 nearly all the creeks in the Klondike district had been staked; and in a few years this remarkably rich district produced mil­ lions of dollars. Though rich gravels were discovered on Gold Run, Hun­ ker, Dominion and Sulphur, and much gold has been and is being taken from those creeks, yet no creek has been discovered that can be compared in richness with Bonanza and its tribu­ taries. Creek claim No. 16 Eldorado a tributary of Bonanza, containing a~ area of four acres, alone produced $1,500,000. Creek claim No. 17 EI­ dorado, containing an area of 6.4 acres, produced $1,300,000. THOMAS A. FIRTH. Successful young men in Klondike Illay be counted by the hundreds but none have gained the smiles of fortune, with very few exceptions unless by arduous effort and talent: Thomas A. Firth is one of the suc­ cessful young Yukoners who has for~ed his way to the front by mer­ It. He has spent several years in Yukon, and has been and is con­ nected with some of the chief en­ terprises of the territorv. Mr. Firth has ori'anized a number of large min­ ing and other concerns, and has con­ ducted a successful brokerage busi­ ness in Dawson for years. He has f~i~h in Yukon, and although he has VISited the .outer world several time! the last few years, he invariably re­ turns, unable to shake the northern spell. Mr. Firth is .the Dawson agent of the Yukon Basl11 Gold Dredging C?mp. any, Limited, and the Stewart R~vc:r Gold. ~redging Company, LimIted, and It IS through him that hundreds of Dawsonites and other Yukoners ha,,:e become interesteq in these enterpnses, Scientists on Yukon Summer R. F. STUPART, in his report says, "Spring may be said to open toward the end of April. May, with an average of 44 above zero, is by no means unpleasant, and the twenty-third is the average date of the last spring frost. Daily observ­ ances during five summers indicate that on the average the temperature rises to 70 degrees or higher on 46 days, and to 80 degrees or higher on 14 days; 90 degrees was recorded in Dawson in June, 1899, and 95 degrees in July of the same year. These temperatures with much bright sunshine and an ab ence of frost dur­ ing three months, togcther with the long days of a latitude within a few degrees of the Arctic circle, amply account for the success so far achieved by market gardeners near Dawson in growing a large variety of garden produce. Augu t 23rd would appear to be the average date of the first autumnal frost, the tem­ perature rapidly declining during the close of this month. Although night frosts are not infrequent in Sep­ tember. the month as a whole is mild. with a' mean temperature of 42 de­ grees. October may be fairly termed a winter month, the mean tempera­ ture being but 22 degrees, and the first zero of winter reco,rded on the average about the 18th." Professor John Macoull, Domin­ ion Scientist, in a report on the climate and flora of the Yukon Terri­ tory, described the effect of the Coast range of mountains on the climate as follows: "Instead of the Coa t range being an injury to the interior, it makes the climate pIca ant both in summer and winter. The Yukon district has two climates. a wet and cold onc on the coast, which may be callcd the Alaskan climate, as nearly all the coast region belongs to the United States. The climate of the Yukon district ill Canada is just the reverse, being dry and warm in snmmer and cold in winter, with a light snowfall. Owing to the moisture rising from the warm Japanese currcnt being carried inland by the upper south­ west air current and striking the Coast range, this moisture is at once pJ'Ccipitated on the sea face of these mountains in the form of rain or snow, and the air freed from its DAWSON DAILY NEWS. moisture descends on the Yukon plain a dry air and having an in­ crea ed temperature. It follows that the rainfall must be light in summer and also the snowfall in winter." I Volume of Yukon River I W M. OGILVIE, former Governor of the Yukon Territory, in his report published in 1898, computes the cross sectional area and volume of water in the Yukon River as follows: The cross sectional area at the boundary, measured in December, 1895, is 21.818 feet. There is a channel 600 fect wide, not less than 22 feet deep, and one 400 feet wide, not less than 26 feet deep. During Tomatoes Grown in Yukon. summer level those depths would not be less than four feet deeper, and the cross sectional area 27.000 feet. The discharge at this first level is approximately 96,000 cubic feet per second, at ummer level it approxi­ mates 135,000 cubic feet; at flood level it approaches 180.000 cubic feet or more, possibly reaching for short times 225,000. Congressman on Yukon T HE Hon. Wm. Sulzer, Conliress­ man from New York, in the Seattle Daily Times, said: "I go to Alaska every summer, combining business with pleasure. I believe Alaska to be the grandest country on earth-God's country. Nobody can describe Alaska. Com­ bine all the pictures in nature's art gallery, think of all the wonders in the world. tumble all the mountains, all the snow-capped peaks, all the glaciers, all the gorges, all the val­ leys, all the cascades. all the tor­ rential streams rushing tumultuously seaward. all together and you have a faint glimmer of the wonders, the greatness. the glory, and the inex­ pre sible grandeur of Alaska. "If Americans knew more about Alaska, more about the land of sun­ shine and glory and promise west of the Rockies, fewer of them would sojourn every summer in Europe." The Story of CharIey Anderson 1 " HE story of Charles Anderson has been frequently told among the Yukon miners. This prospector came into Dawson one eveninl' with $800 earned by day labor in the Fortymile country. As is not unusual in such cases, Ander­ son was at once shown the hospitality of the town; and after he had been plied with the necessary number of convivial glasses he was easily per­ suaded to purchase mining claim number 29 Eldorado at the price of $800. his entire cash capital. The next morning poor Andcl'sol1 wokc up penniless but with a bill of sale to the suppo edly worthless claim. Going back to his compan­ ion of the previous evening, he begged and entreated with tears in his eyes to be allowed to cancel the deal and receive back his money. This was refused, and although winter was coming on, Anderson had no choice but to go to work on his newly acquired claim. In a short time, however, at a depth of twenty feet. he began to strike rich ground and was soon taking out as high as $200 to the pan. The claim yielded in all. it is stated, abollt one and one-half million. but Andersol1 could not stand pro. perity. Within seven years he had either spent or been beaten out of all his earnings and was back ill a saw mill at $20 per month. Dick Lowe's Luck A story often told in the Yukon is that of Dick Lowe, who was advised by the Territorial Governor to take lip a fractional claim of about 160 feet. This ground had been tramped over by hundred of men. hut none (·f them would consider a fra(;tion­ they all wanted a whole claim. This same fraction, however. produced something like $750,000 under the skillful management of Lowe. Then there is a story of Swiftwater Bill. who made a reputation for him­ self a a wild and original spender. He probably took out several good­ sized fortunes from number 13 Eldo­ rado. and spent them all with the same ea e with which he acquired them. I Dawson's Public Library I T HE Dawson Carnegie Library Building is the gift of M r. Andrew Carnegie. who donated $25,000. provided the municipal cOtln- . cil would provide a site and guarantee the maintenance of the institution. The offer was made through A. F. Nicol, at one time a resident of Dawson, and now of London, Eng­ land. The library is maintained by the city of Dawson am! the territorial government, and a liberal appropri­ a tion has been voted ann ually since 1903. by the commissioner in council for the purcha e of new books. 1 here is now available for circulation a large selection of the best modern and standard works of fiction, his­ tory, biography, science, etc. There are also on the shelves some of the latest and best works on all methods of mining. DAWSON DAILY NEWS. 71 Developing the North A STUDY I N THE VIT AL ECONOMIC P ROBL E MS OF E XPLOITATION. (From th .\Ia ka Yukon Magazine) By CH AS. R. SETTLEMIE R, of Dawson News, "Alaska-Yukon is an empire with­ out a people."-Daniel Guggenheim. I s it not reasonably safe to take the cue for thi' epic theme of empire building from one of the world's foremo t diplomates of e'(­ ploitation? )'Tr. Gl1ggenheim, whose enterprises are in ~very corner of the earth, and who daily cans the world's proffered possibilities for profitable exploitation, visited Ala ka-Yukon two years ago and made the fore­ going declaration to the writer. The 'incerity of his tatement is attested in the Guggenheim ~Iorgan inve' t­ ments in this field to the extent of upwards of fifty millions of dollars; embracing twenty millions in Coppe r River copper, coal, timber and rail­ way properties; a like sum in Klon­ dike and At lin gold fields; and the remainder in steamship lines running to the North. The motto of the virile brother­ hood having for its field Alaska and Yukon is" 0 Boundary Line Here." .'0 more aptly does it apply in any rcspect than in the welfare and ex­ ploitation of the e two territories. Their interlacing interests make their destiny id ntical. Hence, this may be dealt with as the domain of ,\ laska-Yukon. The tactical advantage of central location was nature's first favor to thi: region. The 'hores of the Orient and the Occident bend above the Pacific Oce-an in an arch. spanning the worlu's most momentous future thrntre. \Yc !ged at the top is the key~ton{', c\la,ka Yukon. To the Wt'st, hlock 011 block from Cape lIom northward. are the new world pOWl'rs. prcgnant with popula­ tion and portentOtL this is a land of prodigious resOurces. Here are minerals equal in extent and value to tho e of'several Color­ adoes and Montanas; coal field as excellent, more numerous and over a far greater area than those of Pennsylvania; timber limits, in­ cluding pulp-wood areas, covering nine-tenths of the domain; deep sea fisheries of 125.000 square miles, ex­ ceeding those of New England and • 'ova Scotia; greatest almon streams of the world. with a product in the very partially developed condition to­ day bringing returns equalling an­ nually the output of many of the world's be t gold camps; sealeries. wha leries and fur domains of princely revenues; a root crop, berry crop and cereal belt athwart the landi rivers of water power on a thousand high divides; calm winters of elec­ trical vigor, cold but exhilarating and free from humidity or blizzard features of great lake or praIrie regions; and, suffusing all, the mid­ night sun, forcing vegetation at tre­ mendous pace without rest, making of the whole a vernal and flower­ strewn empire, free from scorch, as earth. But here is a region which. while broadly peaking as regards the time when it hall be broad Iy devel­ oped. occupies the centre of thing. i' for the present in the anomalous position of being far from the base of much of its supply, the federal eats of govcrnment, the centre of capital and the ma of humanity. These facts call for pecial line of action for this country as compared with many other new regions. Accepting the present nucleu population and those profiting or to profit as individuals or as nations or cities as having at heart the develop­ ment of Ala ka-Yukon, and assum­ ing there is no one :\fapoleonic imli­ vidual to force destiny, there is need­ ed united action and policy-piloting. The people of today and accumulat­ ing recruits should bend every effort above all things to keep alive the progressive spirit, for all action and course of empire not left to mere chance or rcckles ness mu t be out­ lined first in the mind. "All is waste and worthless till Arrives the wise selecting will." ual or corporation; to correct de­ fective law speedily; to oppose corruption in all forms. The pioneers have struggled in­ domitably and not in vain fo r im­ proved condition -. No passive state will succeed. The rich, red blood must always prevail if there is to be success. By process of drift or the gradual advance of humanity to the frontier from sheer exigency, Alaska­ Yukon likely would become populous after ages, but design and energy should hasten de tiny decades. perhaps cen turies. To deal first with the corrective hLe of action will admit a clearer co,nse for the gradual introduction afterward of the fostering needs. 1 he mo t regrettable matter today te the dovotcd Northerner is the fact that there exi-sts in the public mind outside this realm a colossal wall of i: I1.Han(.e and unwarranted prej udice again t this region. In the main it \:·IIl";f.lS of the idea that this is a land of perennial ice and snow. never free from glaciers in every part, whereas, spring, summer and fall in the country as a whole are as free To the' east, sweeping from • 'ew Zeabnd upward, are the ambitious \ntipodes and awakening Asiatic nations. with 800,000,000 human crea­ tures, seized with a hunger-Iu·t flam­ ing into a passion for \Vestern products. Bennett, Lunch Station, on the W hite Pass Railway. Lifting higher, to widen the hori­ zon beyond the saucer of the Pacific, Alaska- Yukon is een as the only link of land joining the two halves of the world. Alaska-Yukon thus is the only p~ssible all-land medium of inter hemisphere migration and com­ mercial and military traffic. Ala ka-Yukon with its 800,000 square mile" i equal in area to si,,­ teen Englands. \Vcre it to sustain the' de. tiny of population of central A 'i;ltic nation. Alaska-Yukon would have 1,000 people to the square mile. But. reduce it to only three person to the square mile, and e.' elusive of the thousands of miles of sea banks. this .' orthland will s\1~tain million ... Thi. Alaska-Yukon. with its spare handful of pioneer', not cxceeding 60,000 souls, has had nine-tenths of the active force of today here not more than a decade, yet has produced the splendid returns in wealth touch­ ing a. billion dollars. This mode,t advance corps has gain cd far more than the immediate pecuniary returns which line their pockets. and the greater gain is the knowledgo of the J·ichelS in store. This is invaluable especially to those who believe in being early' in :t. virgin country in order to get advantage of it growth. The discovery period, al­ though no more than begun, has pro­ gr 'ssed far el1(lugh to reveal to the • 'llrtherner, and to official 5cientific agents of the two gover/1ment , that equable in summer as California in winter, a ha lcyon land-the American continent's future summer touri·t mecca. With uch a dowry is the empire without a people. ,\dmitting Alaska-Yukon on mode. t estimate for it area is capable of upporting a population of millions, what are the step be·t designed to realize that destiny? The first requi ite for permanent e.'ten ive population is inexpensive occupation. This demands a means by which all grades of resource can he made to contribute toward the support of the people and yield some profit. What cannot be sup[)lied at home must be purchased by the profits· of home products and indu - tries. and what facilities and sup­ plies cannot be produced locall y hould have some way of coming into the country at low transportation cost, and t he home products sent abroad should be taken out inex­ pensively. A living margin for the masses must be provided above the cost of conquering the disadvantages of development and marketing. To summarize, the prime factors needed ill making Alaska-Yukon are: 1. People. 2. Transportation. Normal Anglo-Saxon government and human i.dividual diligence would . uffice to reclaim uch a richly en­ dowed domain in most parts of the To rear the empire from its swad­ dling clothes. corrective and nourish­ inR' processes will have to be employ­ ed simultaneously. The nourish ing may be said to be a positive and the corrective a negative. The positive or 110uri~hing need include: People, transportation, preservation and con­ :er\,ation of public resources, help­ ful federal government, reasonable home government. adequate repre en­ tation, skilled and scientific study as to adaptation of herds and of fruit. cereal anrl root crop ; thorough geo- logical and geodetic surveying; e tab­ li hment of trade; development vf neigh boring regions which can afford a near-by auxiliary supply; ad­ vertisemcnt of the advantages, op­ portUl11tle~. and scenic charms; as­ similating loyal people; good schools; vigorous Anglo-Saxon spirit. Corrective action applie. to present eyil and those to come, including the breaking dowlI of unwarranted prejudice against this region; stop­ ping of financial drains, by institut­ ing reinve tment; to top los of local capitali ts by prevailing on the fi nancially s\lcce~sf\ll from moving out of the country; to obviate high cost of operation and living; to take and keep investment out of the hand of men not competent and not con­ versant with peculiarities of the coun­ try; to comhat chokillg' of territory or re"ollrce:; to battle in­ security of title as affecting individ- from ice and snow as the zone be­ tween the great lakes and the Pacific or the Atlantic; and the strip in the N orth land carrying glaciers and per­ petual snow is confined to the Alas­ kan Alps, which are no greater pro­ portionately in area to Alaska-Yukon than are the original A lps to the whole of Europe. Fai lures among the initial inve tors in this region have not been many, but they have been sufficient to be touched on here as one of the evils needing correction in a fundamental way; and the fault lies not with the climate or want of riches of resource, but with the investors the mselves. in ending inexperienced and unpractical men to handle their propertie. Too often have the repre entatives been fondled striplings or men untra ined ill any work, ent merely to give them a inecure. a\ld men unacquaint­ cd with northern conditions. T his region above all requires a peculiar knowledge of local conditions. P rop­ erties once unprofitable are proving handsome payers under ne w man­ agement and competent lieutenants having an intimate acquaintance with the fie ld and the work. Another injurious condition of glar­ ing proportions is want of reinvest­ ment. draining the land of hundreds of millions, and delaying incalculably full fruition. Prompt checking wou ld give new impetus to the " orth, and do no harm, but rath~r gGod to the 72 DAWSON DAILY NEWS. ~otlthcrn CltlCS and cOllntrie \ ·hich h. \'e b cn tl e chief b lIeficiarie from • orth rn c ploit . Vi h reinvest- "Cllt lere would b opened:l greater market for older center,. The ingly profit from ealeries, fi heric , fur trailing :lnd mine which ha'e been s('nt cl. ewher('. if reinve ted, would h, vc III IIIip1leo the retlltll to tI e ( wneL and the :outhern supply hou-e • and the land '0 Id ha\ e heen Icagu ~ ahead of it pr S~lJt · tage. Commerci:tl cluhs, 'gi lators lInd oth~r in citie wed cd t Ihe • 'orth cannot from even selfi h inter­ e~t work Tore prolitably ha 1 for north ro im'c tn ent. Akin 0 he defect of non-reil vc t­ ment i: the migration of people from thi' land after makin ' {orllln s her. 1he su c s'ul home take (·ker nearlv alwav I'ay the lan The \\ hite pupuiatioll ha doubl d or trebled since the fir t great rush to Klondik, hich mark d th new era a dC ':Hlc ago. ~to t of tho 'e who get the lar 'e stake leave chiclly be­ cau e of de. ire to be amid out ide pleasures and to hay home and the higher ('ducati nal ac1vantages for their families. alld to make tlleir wealth ill the· meantime go the farth­ batt c and cla1ll0r with the ame fee - ing which actuated tIe 'igorous ilritishers of the till of G('or Wa.1 ington. wh) the 1 wer exploit­ ing a new empire. helieving that the la.- d sh \lld also ha'C a 'oice, • • • • • • T th rm;c tuu)' of any ~l:J.nda! d atla how A sk !YI kon in the ,.;tme z n w Itich in E Imp i h ';)vi y populat('ci. St. Pet r burg, ay:t a winter • r ecca and a lIUllner capll I. is 011 lite a e parallel a- ,-ka~wa}"' an \\'hitehor'c 'ith lIorthern . ot­ lanl! bUI a little farlher to tn ol'th. The provin.:e of Vologda, J{ll la. norlh of St. Peter 'burR', -IlQain" diver 'ilil'd ind"trr a 111111ion and a half PCOt le. Mot of • orway and .~ 'eden, all of rinl ud :Ul 1 ) I n and much more of Ih(' Ellr peall ancl A iatic Arctic at d ub-, r.:tic It: i n are in th r :lin cd belt-a land of e-t pos:ible in a land of il expen ive all exi-tence. The reme y largely mu. t h to pro 'i( c hen' what they leave o get. 'I'hi meal Ilerging the J 'Ollh \ ith the South, and crcating rapid intercommutli'a iOll, common interc ts and ac1v. ntage .. ami 10 v co·t oi nor hl'w living. and adding all out~idc advant.lg t the charm uf the greater nortl r, profit ~nd lhe lure which m:lk(': :.11 who ha e been .' orth d(':ire to remain here ('spite the expedient call \ hich to their reg et 1I0W takes them away. The ba'ic detriment to those willill'; to r I ain and i. ve tithe high c t of (cupation, To \\I ork placer~. t dneral and 0 her re ource~ of low gl ade a. "ell as high i the condition neccs ar' to g t a ma 'im m e 'eiOI)- • }cnt. and 10 'do it at alIi li l1um ex- en e call for the 10 • plane of co t~. The low a ·i. need not mean. I '('1 of mLerable Orcntal e i t nee, hut som thing 11 ar thr ("0. to elsewl cle ,11 this contin'lIt. III hvpe to 0' c-r\'ome the hi",h I.lte' of Ih-ing the COl uowr fir t turn~ to the lll('Tchan for lower I.rb'!'. The 1 er('han • e. pccially he o{ t he in trior Ala ;t-Y 11 kon, turn to hI! rail av and team hip lin(' . ~a in~ they 'et the pac , ab led by the i:olated con(litior; () the merch­ ant mail tail s that he cannot under pre ent onditioll reduce charge and 11 eet hi high irei~ht rate. Ire, further has to bny twelve month.' st ck at o. c tim('. mnke hut one turn O\'cr a 'car. ano tltu n 'e~t . evera 1 tim the ~\lJI1 ncce"sar to tlo the ':lIll' olume of bu. in " annually as done in cOlllltri('s \Vh re the ba I! .)f ~ttpply i ac(' ~ ible at all time and turn-ov r. made ,,,veral times yearly. '1 h larger ill ·c (ment bear mor 11 tere t on ,ored toe al d 111 re 'n­ _urance; and the I ng r .ea on means more time to . utTc. dC'lcrior­ ati n on the 1011 '-held lock. and ill­ ablht, to keep ;t.brea t the Rene al t1uctuations in the w rlo' mark !!II. Thus, if the c n~umer cannot Sl1~taill the m rch:lnl.' charges he blame natur for bc'ng too poor or others for v anling too m tch. and Quits he country. _ nd th r' th ruh. • • * * * * From their earli t day. ,\ a ka and Yuk I ha\'c pI n 'cred ag.'; 1 t great od I , nlld at the time have beel! ubject to burden of el·tonL, e,cise dutie :md oher ta, e.:. ne '('r complaining :lg:lin. t a fai r t;lX. But they do uelll 11 1, liS howlI ilt 1 cj)eat('d in 1;lJlce~ und('T hnth /la" _, repre ('ntattv go {'f1l1l1 nt. For it they have b ttlcrl all w:lI tolerable climatic conditio 1 and happ home . yet Dot ncarl' so richly cn­ clowed :IS thi r giol of dawni IS' p­ POI tUllitie . "ash creek. T e clump now being wash d how that Burwa h is likely to he a big producer. The prospect r, 11 ner, hydraulic JIl:lI , dredge man :In' capitali~t could hard y fil d a bet! r iic1u and one that promise better return Olea I IlCI labOI. al d the further ,,·ten. ion by tll .' ernmen of a gOO l roa,l to thi!! s'clion, and the rovidin~ of a mail • -0 allY one tac or or rei Im S 19- ge led can _ uffice in the ffort for oon • ha 11 roll 'I he Are The r live dev lop Icnd'ng of . j ervice anc\ a jud'cious e.·! enditure of l', pi t, I \0\ ill ill the near f II ure dt"mon­ t rate that t11 Klualle di~trict i!l tn- rich in pr dous met, I . rd· : Conrad, Y. T. Conra,l or \\,indy , rill lI1illing dis­ Ir; t a.;; it i called i about 12 mile from Carcross on the mail hne of th \\ h re \VI! te Pas (" Yukon route. This eli I ri t was little hard of until the y.·~I' ]905, vhen Col. T. H. COil ad in­ itiatt"d work on the \ indy Arn pro­ vcrtie. • inc tha time con identble work ha : been accomplished. t"rial tramwa s ,en ;n, talkd to all the 1110_t 1'roll i ill!r min s. a con en rator r(' Icd on the beach, and there is no 111 tier con truction another aerial tramway from the Big '1 hing mine to arcross a di tal ce of four mile, P~rhap~ more wor - has been (lone in this district than allY other vart or SOlltl eTn ·uk. 11, a .u it j onlv f. ir to , ay tha th(' advan(' men t and develo - m nt of the district is due 10 tl.e \l - tiring efforts of Col. J. H. 'Oil n I. Watson and Wheaton. In the \Vat on and Vheaton di~­ tricts o\er 130 claim. hone been re. pr . Ited. al d ther ar many of the claims t lat ;Ire showing up particul. arlv good. among them beiJw the w,' Tally Ho Gro 10, • "e"ada, {,old Hill and '0.' tir w·nd. Buffalo and ilv r King: the c are all showin~ up in gold. ilver and lead, All t rough this s 'clioll th('rc i 'ood uarll. and con iderinll the little pro peeting' done the re, lilt, wen~ '1lcOtlraging ('nOll h to war­ rant both pro l'cctors and ca itali Is to i. \'e t ig;\l. this licit more clo c. y. Yukon B in Gold Dredging Co. on ~·ewart P.:ve-r. The COl, tr ction of th • "0. 1 hl' an at Whitehor e in fay. l!)(l . and 'tarted for. "cl 1 Po'nt I July Rth al d arri '( 1 Juh' 1-, an(1 tarted worK a month Iat r an(1 wor 'ec\ till Octoh"r th ith the gratify'ng re:ult of onc cleal! tit) of 0\ er J, . Thb co ltp: ray own and operat Cl\' r 10: 11'1 lea~e of Ihe river and ha"e wha i concede to he th(' b('~t n inilll:t investment in the y Ikoll. Duril1R' th(' tlllllll r of lOOS th }(eyston~ drill vas k pt busy lth I'ati factory re ult at "Ion R. r. · tri in y ,W f(' t of pay dirt an i ,"I\' ragil1J{ :.011 It 3.50 fle,- c\1bic 'ard, 01 gr;lt a lvanlage lies in the het that the gravel r('mai I unfr02en throu~hou th(' ~tewart River ou,,­ try. '\ he r!r dgc winter d 'ell and " \ 00,1 ca 111) v a maintained and a supply of 1(Xl() cord i in r adin(' ior t h'·. 1I1ll1l1(,1' ll~(' n I c -0 2 i 110" being huil in Whi hor~ 3nd the J. '.-emblin of the machiner' is b'lnK ru-hl'd for­ \\af,] • lid i: ('.·pcdtc\ to leave for th St 'wart ri,'('f :lhnnt the hr't of Tul­ and will OOJl be at work. Tt i 311011 50 ocr ccnt. gr 'all'r cill.adty th;\11 dr('c\ ' '. l' and t h ncl nf th · ca On ",:11 how to the i11\'e, tor that they ha,· mad., n Ili ta e i 1 the instal;lti I f tIll dr.fog, and a. ~. Cl' lti. lI:JlIy nor! cleanup i' 10 k d fn~ at th(' uti of the vor.'·ng n. l\f. _ lorle' O~ih ie, ,n ex­ pert minin' engin er, h.. he n ap­ poi led fide! sut erin ~nden and ha he"tI on I c fi Id for {,"eral vel" ~ Kluane District. get, iug ev r'thing r, ady for the The KIllane dl lriel j., •• UOII! I prmg ork. Hc ha :pent eve' al mile , t of \ It tehor~ and i a H:al· i I I le ." rth af d hink" thi" edion about 100 mil squar(', i ... ne of the fine t dredgin~ propo- ahollnC\illg \ ith strcam. and as Yct S •• on, \' r placed 'on he market for c!lrcely cratd l'cI hy the pkk of -he the small ill\ ('stor a, well:l th(' large 111111(1 or prt) pect r. OJle. all ~har' 'Qually in th profit Stan ))e(l - I in 1903, the co't of Ih'- • r th~ sea~ol1' wOlk Thi company in ' :llld diEiicult ' of prosp' in" with have a v r ' lie t booklet on the wor a -limited \' pit. I li c urag tI :111 I l\t bein~ done on he ~tewart river that • few of the 11 t ardll u~ f'irit" and "m.b· .gladl)' s nt Ipon reque t by even thl'ir ('fforl had little fnCOllra 'e pp Il'a I '0 llkOll Ra in Gold III nt until last summer (190.. q wh I a Dr (Iging Co .. h('ad office at Kan a~ number of ~I '. lIota!)I\,. nl1rwa~h City. fo, Sheep. IIllion, Four h or' J,t1y, RUhy 'Vhi ehor:e Boarc1 of '1 rad(', a1l l CI:lclstoll p'av sufficient r. tllrn W. C. PEDLAR. to il1 til ncw life int{) th' C lI1I1, all,l Attest· Pre' 'del.t. prO-l)(, ling I. t \\ 11 er III t wi h 11! J. E. BARR \G \R. gratifying re, 11 s parti Ill, r1 ' on Bur- ecretary. The Alaska-Yukon Magazine is the Public·ty Organ of the Northlar From month to month it publishes interesting and oaluable material concerning Alaska and the Yu~on Te"itory, covering such subjects as resources, industrial progress, history, geography, climate, ethnology, subject maller of inlerest 10 sportsmen, elc. The fiction in the "Alaska-Yukon" Magazine is western and northern in char­ acter and comprises wholesome storie which have an uplift. The aim of fhe magazine is fo be educalioe and helpful. The files of the HAlaska--Yukon" Magazine contain more educational material about Alaska than can be found in any current publication. The It Alaska. Yakon" Magazine circulates through every post office in Alaska. 11 is the best advertising medium 10 reach A lask,ans, and the rapidly increasing circulalion in the Pacific Northwesf helps to make this magazine one of the most desirable adVertising mediums for the territory that it covers. Subscription rales $1.50 the year; $2 to Canadian Postoffices. AdVertising rales reasonable and furnished on application. THE HARRISON P{JBLIS ING COMPANY 624 A LASKA B ILDI. G, EA'" TL • • El - I 13 • • 151 • • TmRD AVE E LIVERY STABLES E. HUTCHI SON, Proprietor inest Livery orth of Vancou\'er. FiISt- :lass brivins:; and Saddle Hor e , Freighting and Packin~ to All Creek. H orse Bought and Sold. Draying and £xpres.silll!. Tltll~o A:-IO P'UN S1'REET, DA WSON. Pbone ]95. FOR YOUR SUMMER VACATION ;SIT THE WONDER,FUl GOLD·PRODUCING COUNTRIES HLHSKH AND " THE CANADIAN YU~ON IT WILL BE THE MOST ENJOYABLE TRIP YOU CAN ARRANGE. at l ;; BY OCEAN FROM SEATTlE STEAMER THROUGH THE VICTORIA .' INLAND SEA OR TO VANCOUVER SKAGUAY ~ Thence by Rail over the mountains of. th~ Coast Range, where peaks and shining cascades rival one another in grandeur. ' To Atlin by steamer, on peaceful azure. lakes; amo?gst rocky snow capped mountains. . To Dawson I . Nome by steamer, down the Yukon River, where along its tOl'tuOUS ck ~~ you view on either side, .a ,wonderful panorama of mountain, stream an'd plain. '. Write for booklets, folders and full inforIlllition. 1. w. DuhLEY, " General Agent W. P, & Y . R . 513 Colma, Building Seattle, Wash, Or TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT, W. P. & Y. K. WilIiams Building, Vancouver, B. C. HERMAN W BIG, General Agent, W. I & Y. R. 1016 Cbamber of Commerce, Chica'go, Ill.